The Enns is a southern tributary of the Danube River, joining northward at Enns, Austria. The Enns River spans 253 kilometres, in a flat-J-shape, it flows from its source near the towns of Gasthofalm and Flachau eastward through Radstadt and Liezen turns north near Hieflau, to flow past Weyer and Ternberg through Steyr, further north to the Danube at Enns. The Enns has its source in the Radstädter Tauern mountains in the Austrian state of Salzburg. In a valley which developed during the ice age, it flows at the border between the Northern Limestone Alps and the Central Eastern Alps on an eastern trajectory through Styria, where it passes the Dachstein group at its southern side. Between Admont and Hieflau, it takes a turn to the North and passes through the Gesäuse, a gorge of a length of 15 km, where it penetrates the limestone of the Ennstaler Alpen. Flowing to the north from there on, it reaches the state of Upper Austria at the mouth of the Laußabach. North of Steyr, it forms the border between Lower Austria.
It meets the Danube at Mauthausen and the city of Enns. The Enns is a typical wild water river and draws its water from an area of more than 6,000 square kilometres, the fifth-largest in Austria; the average outflow at its mouth is 201 cubic metres per second. The Anisian Age in the Triassic Period of geological time is named from Anisus, the Latin name of the river Enns. In the middle of the 19th century, canals began to be built along the 70 km between Weißenbach and the Gesäuse, in order to make use of the water for agriculture and forestry. In total, ten power plants, with a total generative power of 345 megawatts, have been built by the Ennskraftwerke AG. Radstadt Schladming Gröbming Liezen Selzthal Admont Großraming Ternberg Garsten Steyr Enns Currently, there are 15 hydroelectric power stations on the Enns; the power stations are listed beginning at the headwaters: The most important inflows are the Palten, the Salza and the Steyr. A major transit route connecting Germany and Slovenia through Austria runs through the Enns valley.
The so-called Eisenstraße runs along the river between Hieflau and Enns, along which iron ore has been transported from the Styrian Erzberg to the steel mill in Linz
Ski touring is skiing in the backcountry on unmarked or unpatrolled areas. Touring is done off-piste and outside of ski resorts, may extend over a period of more than one day, it is similar to backcountry skiing. Ski touring combines elements of Nordic and alpine skiing and embraces such sub-disciplines as Telemark and randonnée. A defining characteristic is that the skier's heels are "free" – i.e. not bound to the skis – in order to allow a natural gliding motion while traversing and ascending terrain which may range from flat to steep. Ski touring has been adopted by skiers seeking new snow, by alpinists, by those wishing to avoid the high costs of traditional alpine skiing at resorts. Touring requires independent navigation skills and may involve route-finding through potential avalanche terrain, it has parallels with wilderness backpacking. Ski mountaineering is a form of ski touring which variously combines the sports of Telemark and backcountry skiing with that of mountaineering. Among the pioneers of ski touring is John "Snowshoe" Thompson the earliest modern ski mountaineer and a prolific traveler who used skis to deliver the mail at least twice a month over the steep eastern scarp of the Sierra Nevada to remote California mining camps and settlements.
His deliveries continued for at least 20 years. Thompson's route of 90 miles took three days in and 48 hours back out with a pack that exceeded 100 pounds of mail. Cecil Slingsby, one of the earliest European practitioners, crossed the 1,550-metre-high Keiser Pass in Norway on skis in 1880. Other pioneers include Adolfo Kind, Arnold Lunn, Ottorino Mezzalama, Patrick Vallençant, Kilian Jornet Burgada. Ski touring involves both downhill travel without needing to remove skis. Various terms have emerged to refer to how close it is to services. Frontcountry refers to terrain, off-trail but within ski area boundaries where ski lifts and emergency services are close at hand. Slackcountry refers to terrain, outside of marked ski area boundaries and accessed from a lift without having to use skins or bootpack; this includes terrain with access back to the lift as well. For purists, slackcountry touring may include touring where people use a car as a shuttle. Sidecountry refers to terrain, outside of ski area boundaries yet still accessible via a ski lift.
Sidecountry requires the skier to hike, skin, or climb within ski area boundaries to reach or return from the sidecountry area, or both. Backcountry refers to terrain in remote areas, outside of ski area boundaries and not accessible via a ski lift. Alpine skiing equipment can be used for ski touring with the addition of a removable binding insert that allows for free heel swing on ascents. Nordic ski touring is skiing with bindings all the time. Thus, Nordic skiers do not have to change back and forth between uphill and downhill modes, which can be advantageous in rolling terrain. At the lighter, simpler end of the scale, Nordic skis may be narrow and edgeless cross-country types for groomed trails or ideal snow conditions, used with boots that resemble soft shoes or low boots. Backcountry Nordic uses a heavier setup than a traditional Nordic setup, but not as big and heavy as a full Telemark setup. Telemark skiing is at the heavier end of the Nordic skiing equipment spectrum, designed for steep backcountry terrain or ski-area use.
Alpine Touring or randonnée equipment is designed for ski touring in steep terrain. Various devices can be used to make ascending easier. "Fish scale" pattern friction aids embossed in the center section of the bottoms of the skis or sticky ski wax in the center pocket are used in lower-angle or rolling terrain. Climbing skins are used when fish scales or ski wax fail to provide sufficient grip for skiing steeply uphill. Ski crampons may be attached when conditions are icy or the grade too steep for skins. Ski touring can take place anywhere that has suitable snow and terrain as well as reasonable means of access to the trailhead, i.e. plowed roads, snowcats, or aircraft. Activities center on the Troll Peninsula in northern Iceland. Touring in Norway has a long tradition. Skiing was a practical means of winter transportation, ski touring formed the basis of the polar expeditions of Norwegian explorers like Fridtjof Nansen and Roald Amundsen. There are thousands of kilometers of marked ski routes in Norway in forested areas and in mountain areas above treeline.
The trails are maintained by organizations like Skiforeningen in the Oslomarka area and the Norwegian Trekking Association nationally, including Hardangervidda and Jotunheimen. The Norwegian Trekking Association maintains mountain trails and cabins in Norway and has more than 200,000 members; the Haute Route and Tyrol are popular areas for ski touring. Ski areas are concentrated around the Rockies and include Jasper National Park, Rogers Pass, Wapta and Golden, in southeast British Columbia at the confluence of the Columbia and Kicking Horse Rivers. Surrounded by the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Purcell Mountains and Selkirk Mountains to the west, Kananaskis Country, the Skeena Mountains, Chic-Choc Mountains, Gros Morne National Park attract ski tourers. Touring takes place anywhere there is sufficient snow in the U. S. for example, in Jackson Hole,Loveland Pass
Enns Valley Railway
The Enns Valley Railway is an electrified, standard gauge main line railway in the Austrian states of Styria and Salzburg. It was built and operated by the Empress Elisabeth Railway Company; the line is an important link for West Austria and Germany. Enns Valley Railway photograph album at eisenbahn-in-oesterreich.at
The Mur or Mura is a river in Central Europe rising in the Hohe Tauern national park of the Central Eastern Alps in Austria with its source being 1,898 m above sea level. It is a tributary of the Drava and subsequently the Danube; the Mur's total length is around 464 kilometres. About 326 km are within the interior of Austria; the largest city on the river is Austria. Its basin covers an area of 13,800 km2. Tributaries of the Mur include the Sulm, the Ščavnica, the Ledava and the Trnava, its name comes from Proto-Indo-European word *morgj, meaning "mud". The river rises in a remote valley within the Lungau region of Austrian state of Salzburg; the river flows eastwards through Tamsweg before crossing the border into the state of Styria. Between Tamsweg and Unzmarkt-Frauenburg the river flows through a rural mountain valley and is paralleled by the 65 km long narrow gauge Murtalbahn railway. From Unzmarkt the river continues in an easterly direction through the industrial towns of Leoben and Bruck an der Mur.
At Bruck an der Mur the Mürz joins the Mur, which turns south to flow through the city of Graz. The river flows through the centre of Graz, passing underneath the Schloßberg and by the historic Inner City; as a result of being the European Capital of Culture for 2003, an artificial island known as the Murinsel was constructed in the middle of the river. Once polluted by several paper mills on the shore and by the ironworks around Leoben, the water quality has improved since the 1980s and the river is now seen as an asset to the city. From Graz the river continues to flow south, past the town of Leibnitz to its nearby confluence with the Sulm, where it adopts a more easterly course. Near Spielfeld, the river forms the border between Austria and Slovenia, a role it retains until just after the twin towns of Bad Radkersburg and Gornja Radgona, where it passes into Slovenia. In Slovenia it passes the towns of Radenci, Veržej; the river gives its name to the Croatian region of Međimurje. Cable ferries and ship mills are still found in this area.
In the upper Međimurje area, in the western part of the region, the Mur floods and changes its course rather moving toward the north on its left. Here, the biggest forest along the river, the Murščak, is located between Domašinec and Donji Hrašćan. After receiving its last significant tributary Trnava, the river ends near Legrad in Koprivnica-Križevci county, where it flows into the Drava River. Since the 4th century BC, there have been reports of floating mills powered by the streams of the river; the ancient technology was adopted by arriving Slavs and by Magyars. Several decades ago, in the 1920s and 1930s, many of these mills were still operating along the river. At least one of the old mills, the Babič Mill near Veržej, continues to operate to this day; the Mur is known to carry small quantities of gold, not enough to be suitable for exploitation today, but this was a focus of activity for many people since ancient times. Organized research and exploitation of gold and other local resources was encouraged for the first time in 1772.
In Austria, several hydroelectric dams have been constructed for the production of renewable energy. The word "renewable" may be misleading in the case of smaller hydroelectric plants whose output is small by comparison to the environmental cost of construction. In 2017, a hydroelectric dam is under construction in Puntigam, a few km south of the Graz city centre; the plan includes a massive sewage pipe between the city centre and the new dam, necessitating the felling of thousands of trees. The project is controversial and environmental groups are resisting it. Both environmental impact and economic studies have found the project to be neither ecologically nor economically viable. Additional hydroelectric plants are planned for Slovenia; the hydrological parameters of the Mur are monitored in Croatia at Mursko Središće. Media related to Mur at Wikimedia Commons Condition of Mur at Gornja Radgona and Petanjci - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days
The Seckau Tauern or Seckau Alps are a small subrange of the Low Tauern mountains in the Austrian Central Alps, part of the Eastern Alps. The range is located in the Austria state of Styria; the Seckau Tauern are the easternmost part of the Low Tauern. Their name comes from the village of Seckau, which lies 5 km north of Knittelfeld and is known for its Benedictine monastery; the northwestern part of the range is called the Trieben Tauern. The pass known as the Triebener Tauern runs over this section from Trieben to Judenburg; the Seckau Tauern are adjacent to the following other Alpine ranges: Ennstal Alps Lavanttal Alps Rottenmann and Wölz Tauern The highest mountains in the Seckau Alps are the Geierhaupt, the Hochreichhart, the prominent Seckauer Zinken and the Maierangerkogel. In the Seckau Tauern are the following huts belonging to the Austrian Alpine Club and the Austrian Tourist Club: Sonnleitner Hut: height 1,215 metres, not managed, for self-sufficient guests, 27 mattresses. Base is walking time from Gaal 1,5 hours.
Road to the hut. Triebental Hut: height 1,104 metres, not managed, for self-sufficient guests, 18 mattresses, winter room with AV key. Base is Trieben. Hochreichhart Schutzhaus: height 1,483 metres; the Seckau Tauern are of regional significance for mountain sports throughout the year. Only a few summits, like the Hochreichart and Seckauer Zinken, attract visitors from outside the region as destinations for hiking and ski touring
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or mountain belt is a group of mountain ranges with similarity in form and alignment that have arisen from the same cause an orogeny. Mountain ranges are formed by a variety of geological processes, but most of the significant ones on Earth are the result of plate tectonics. Mountain ranges are found on many planetary mass objects in the Solar System and are a feature of most terrestrial planets. Mountain ranges are segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys. Individual mountains within the same mountain range do not have the same geologic structure or petrology, they may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, volcanic landforms resulting in a variety of rock types. Most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earth's land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt.
The Pacific Ring of Fire includes the Andes of South America, extends through the North American Cordillera along the Pacific Coast, the Aleutian Range, on through Kamchatka, Taiwan, the Philippines, Papua New Guinea, to New Zealand. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the world's longest mountain system; the Alpide belt includes Indonesia and Southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, Caucasus Mountains, Balkan Mountains fold mountain range, the Alps, ends in the Spanish mountains and the Atlas Mountains. The belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges; the Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, 8,848 metres high and traverses the border between China and Nepal. Mountain ranges outside these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Great Dividing Range, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains. If the definition of a mountain range is stretched to include underwater mountains the Ocean Ridges form the longest continuous mountain system on Earth, with a length of 65,000 kilometres.
The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, where mountain ranges can contain sub-ranges. The sub-range relationship is expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains. Equivalently, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians; the parent-child expression extends to the sub-ranges themselves: the Sandwich Range and the Presidential Range are children of the White Mountains, while the Presidential Range is parent to the Northern Presidential Range and Southern Presidential Range. The position of mountains influences climate, such as snow; when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the leeward side, it warms again and is drier, having been stripped of much of its moisture.
A rain shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are subjected to erosional forces which work to tear them down; the basins adjacent to an eroding mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted until the mountains are reduced to low hills and plains; the early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example. As the uplift was occurring some 10,000 feet of Mesozoic sedimentary strata were removed by erosion over the core of the mountain range and spread as sand and clays across the Great Plains to the east; this mass of rock was removed as the range was undergoing uplift. The removal of such a mass from the core of the range most caused further uplift as the region adjusted isostatically in response to the removed weight. Rivers are traditionally believed to be the principal cause of mountain range erosion, by cutting into bedrock and transporting sediment.
Computer simulation has shown that as mountain belts change from tectonically active to inactive, the rate of erosion drops because there are fewer abrasive particles in the water and fewer landslides. Mountains on other planets and natural satellites of the Solar System are isolated and formed by processes such as impacts, though there are examples of mountain ranges somewhat similar to those on Earth. Saturn's moon Titan and Pluto, in particular exhibit large mountain ranges in chains composed of ices rather than rock. Examples include the Mithrim Montes and Doom Mons on Titan, Tenzing Montes and Hillary Montes on Pluto; some terrestrial planets other than Earth exhibit rocky mountain ranges, such as Maxwell Montes on Venus taller than any on Earth and Tartarus Montes on Mars, Jupiter's moon Io has mountain ranges formed from tectonic processes including Boösaule Montes, Dorian Montes, Hi'iaka Montes and Euboea Montes. Peakbagger Ranges Home Page Bivouac.com
Altenmarkt im Pongau
Altenmarkt im Pongau is a small town in the Austrian state of Salzburg. Altenmarkt is situated 65 km southeast of Salzburg; the town is principally known for its winter tourism. It is the location of the factory manufacturing Atomic Skis. Altenmarkt-Zauchensee is part of the Ski Amade ski area, with Zauchensee located 10 km south from the town. Michael Walchhofer, alpine skier Herbert Meneweger, ultra-cyclist and writer Hermann Maier, former alpine skier Media related to Altenmarkt im Pongau at Wikimedia Commons Altenmarkt Gemeinde website Zauchensee Ferienwohnung Therme Amade