Grigor Artsruni was an Armenian journalist, critic and public activist, Doctor of Political Economy and Philosophy. Since 1872 he had been publishing the Mshak magazine being its manager until his death, he studied at Moscow and Saint-Petersburg universities, studied Armenian at Mekhitarists centers in Europe. In 1872 he edited Mshak, the basis of Armenian liberalism, he had been its manager until his death. Artsruni marked the necessity of development of capitalism in Armenia, supported the idea of armed resistance as a solution for the Armenian question. Artsruni was a mentor to the Armenian writer Raffi; the economic situation of the Armenians in Turkey, Էվէլինա Հոգեբանական Էտիւդ, publishing house Տէրտէրեան Ղուկաս Վրդ. Tiflis 1891 The Eastern question, Tiflis, 1876. Concise Armenian Encyclopedia, Ed. by acad. K. Khudaverdyan, Yerevan, 1990, Vol. 1, p. 383. Armenia: The Survival of a Nation
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia from 1789 to 1925. The state ruled by the dynasty was known as the Sublime State of Persia; the Qajar family took full control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf'Ali Khan, the last Shah of the Zand dynasty, re-asserted Iranian sovereignty over large parts of the Caucasus. In 1796, Mohammad Khan Qajar seized Mashhad with ease, putting an end to the Afsharid dynasty, Mohammad Khan was formally crowned as Shah after his punitive campaign against Iran's Georgian subjects. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Iran's integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan and Armenia; the Qajar rulers were members of the Karagöz or "Black-Eye" sect of the Qajars, who themselves were members of the Qajars or "Black Hats" lineage of the Oghuz Turks. Qajars first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qizilbash tribes that supported the Safavids.
The Safavids "left Arran to local Turkic khans", and, "in 1554 Ganja was governed by Shahverdi Soltan Ziyadoglu Qajar, whose family came to govern Karabakh in southern Arran". Qajars filled a number of diplomatic missions and governorships in the 16–17th centuries for the Safavids; the Qajars were resettled by Shah Abbas I throughout Iran. The great number of them settled in Astarabad near the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea, it would be this branch of Qajars that would rise to power; the immediate ancestor of the Qajar dynasty, Shah Qoli Khan of the Quvanlu of Ganja, married into the Quvanlu Qajars of Astarabad. His son, Fath Ali Khan was a renowned military commander during the rule of the Safavid shahs Sultan Husayn and Tahmasp II, he was killed on the orders of Shah Nader Shah in 1726. Fath Ali Khan's son Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar was the father of Mohammad Khan Qajar and Hossein Qoli Khan, father of "Baba Khan," the future Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. Mohammad Hasan Khan was killed on the orders of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty.
Within 126 years between the demise of the Safavid state and the rise of Naser al-Din Shah Qajar, the Qajars had evolved from a shepherd-warrior tribe with strongholds in northern Persia into a Persian dynasty with all the trappings of a Perso-Islamic monarchy. "Like every dynasty that ruled Persia since the 11th century, the Qajars came to power with the backing of Turkic tribal forces, while using educated Persians in their bureaucracy". In 1779 following the death of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty, Mohammad Khan Qajar, the leader of the Qajars, set out to reunify Iran. Mohammad Khan was known as one of the cruelest kings by the standards of 18th-century Iran. In his quest for power, he razed cities, massacred entire populations, blinded some 20,000 men in the city of Kerman because the local populace had chosen to defend the city against his siege; the Qajar armies at that time were composed of Turkomans and Georgian slaves. By 1794, Mohammad Khan had eliminated all his rivals, including Lotf Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty.
He reestablished Persian control over the territories in the entire Caucasus. Agha Mohammad established his capital at Tehran, a village near the ruins of the ancient city of Rayy. In 1796, he was formally crowned as shah. In 1797, Mohammad Khan Qajar was assassinated in Shusha, the capital of Karabakh Khanate, was succeeded by his nephew, Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. In 1744, Nader Shah had granted the kingship of Kartli and Kakheti to Teimuraz II and his son Erekle II as a reward for their loyalty; when Nader Shah died in 1747, they capitalized on the chaos that had erupted in mainland Iran, declared de facto independence. After Teimuraz II died in 1762, Erekle II assumed control over Kartli, united the two kingdoms in a personal union as the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti, becoming the first Georgian ruler to preside over a politically unified eastern Georgia in three centuries. At about the same time, Karim Khan Zand had ascended the Iranian throne. In 1783, Erekle II placed his kingdom under the protection of the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Georgievsk.
In the last few decades of the 18th century, Georgia had become a more important element in Russo-Iranian relations than some provinces in northern mainland Persia, such as Mazandaran or Gilan. Unlike Peter the Great, Catherine the Great, the then-ruling monarch of Russia, viewed Georgia as a pivot for her Caucasian policy, as Russia's new aspirations were to use it as a base of operations against both Iran and the Ottoman Empire, both immediate bordering geopolitical rivals of Russia. On top of that, having another port on the Georgian coast of the Black Sea would be ideal. A limited Russian contingent of two infantry battalions with four artillery pieces arrived in Tbilisi in 1784, but was withdrawn, despite the frantic protests of the Georgians, in 1787 as a new war against Ottoman Turkey had started on a different front; the consequences of these events came a few years when a strong new Iranian dynasty under the Qajars emerged victorious in the protracted power struggle in Persia. Their head, Agha Mohammad Khan, as his first objective, resolved to bring the Caucasus again under the Persian orbit.
For Agha Mohammah Khan, the resubjugat
Gabriel Sundukian was an Armenian writer and playwright, the founder of modern Armenian drama. Born in Tiflis, in a wealthy Armenian family, Sundukian learned both classical and modern Armenian, French and Russian, studied at the University of Saint-Petersburg, where he wrote a dissertation on the principles of Persian versification, he returned to Tiflis and entered the civil service. In 1854–58 he was banished to Derbend. In 1863, the Armenian theatre company of Tiflis staged his first play, Sneezing at Night's Good Luck, his well-known play "Pepo" was made into the first Armenian talkie in 1935. Another famous film based on his work is "Khatabala"; the G. Sundukyan State Academic Theatre in Yerevan is named in his honor. Quandary, 1866 Pepo, 1871 Ruined Family, 1873 Love and Liberty, 1910 The Heritage of Armenian Literature: From the Eighteenth Century to Modern Times, By Agop J. Hacikyan, Gabriel Basmajian, Edward S. Franchuk, Wayne State University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-8143-3221-8 Works by Gabriel Sundukyan at Project Gutenberg Sundukian at IMDB
Hovhannes Tumanyan was an Armenian poet, translator and public activist. He is considered the national poet of Armenia. Tumanyan wrote poems, ballads, fables and journalistic articles, his work was written in realistic form centering on everyday life of his time. Born in the historical village of Dsegh in the Lori region, at a young age Tumanyan moved to Tiflis, the center of Armenian culture under the Russian Empire during the 19th and early 20th centuries, he soon became known to the wide Armenian society for his simple but poetic works. Many films and animated films have been adapted from Tumanyan's works. Two operas: Anush by Armen Tigranian and Almast by Alexander Spendiaryan, were written based on his works. Hovhannes Tumanyan was born on February 19, 1869 in the village of Dsegh, Tiflis Governorate, Russian Empire, his father, was the village priest known by the name Ter-Tadevos. He was an offspring of an Armenian princely family of Tumanyan, branch of the famous royal house of Mamikonian that settled in Lori in 10th–11th centuries from their original feudal fief of Taron.
His mother, was an avid storyteller with a particular interest in fables. Young Tumanyan was the oldest of eight children. From 1877–1879, Tumanyan attended the parochial school of Dsegh. From 1879–1883 he went to a school in Jalaloghly. Tumanyan moved to Tiflis in 1883, where he attended the Nersisyan School from 1883–1887. Tumanyan's wrote his first poem while studying in Jalaloghly school, he fell in love with the teacher's daughter Vergine. Since 1893, Tumanyan worked for Aghbyur, Murtch and Horizon periodicals and was engaged in public activism. In 1899, Tumanyan came up with an idea of organizing meetings of Armenian intellectuals of the time at his house on 44 Bebutov Street in Tiflis. Soon it became an influential literary group, which gathered in the garret of Tumanyan's house. Vernatun means garret in Armenian, the name the group was referred to. Prominent members of the collective were Avetik Isahakyan, Derenik Demirchyan, Levon Shant, Ghazaros Aghayan, Perch Proshyan, Nikol Aghbalian, Alexander Shirvanzade, Nar-Dos, Vrtanes Papazyan, Vahan Terian, Stepan Lisitsyan, Mariam Tumanyan, Gevorg Bashinjagyan and many other significant Armenian figures of early 20th century.
With some pauses, it existed until 1908. In 1912 Tumanyan was elected the president of the Company of Caucasus Armenian Writers. In the fall of 1921, Tumanyan went to Constantinople to find support of Armenian refugees. After months spent there, he returned ill. After surgery in 1922, he started to get better, but in September, Tumanyan's disease started to progress again. He was transferred to a hospital in Moscow, where he died on March 23, 1923. In 1888, at the age of 19, Hovhannes Tumanyan married Olga Matchkalyan, 17, they had 10 children: Musegh, Nvard, Hamlik, Arpik, Seda, Tamar. During the government-provoked Armenian–Tatar massacres of 1905–1907, Tumanyan took the role of a peacemaker, for which he was arrested twice. Tumanyan deeply criticized the Georgian–Armenian War of 1918. Tumanyan was actively engaged in preaching the Gospel; as he put in one of his verses "There is only one way of salvation. In October 1914 Tumanyan joined the "Committee for Support of War Victims", which helped Armenian Genocide refugees settled in Etchmiadzin.
In 1921 in Tiflis he founded the House of Armenian Art. Works of Hovhannes Tumanyan at the Armenian WikisourceTumanyan's work is simple and poetically inspired at the same time, it is not by mere chance that dozens of phrases and expressions from Tumanyan's works have become a natural part of people's everyday language, their sayings and maxims. Tumanyan is regarded in Armenian circles as "All-Armenian poet", he earned this title when the Catholicos of Armenia had ordered that Armenian refugees from the west not enter certain areas of his church and house, since he is considered to be "The Catholicos of all Armenians". Tumanyan in response decried that decision claiming that the refugees could seek relief in the Catholicos' quarters under order of "The Poet of all Armenians", he created lyrics, epic poems and translations into Armenian of Byron and Pushkin. Tumanyan's most famous works include: Tumanyan's works were translated by Valeri Bryusov, Konstantin Balmont, Joseph Brodsky, Samuil Marshak, Bella Akhmadulina and others.
The following places were named after Tumanyan: In ArmeniaTumanyan's native village of Dsegh was renamed Tumanyan in his honor from 1938–1969. In 1951, the village of Dzagidzor of Lori Province was renamed Tumanyan Pedagogical University of Vanadzor Armenian State Puppet Theater in Yerevan Tumanyan St. in central Yerevan Tumanyan Park in Yerevan's Ajapnyak districtOutside of ArmeniaTumanyan Square – in Northern Administrative Okrug of Moscow, Russia. Tumanyan Streets in Kiev, Sochi, khutor Shaumyanovsky in Rostov Oblast. There are 2 museums of one in his birthplace Dsegh and another one in Yerevan. Tumanyan's museum in Yerevan was opened in 1953. In Autumn of 2011 the government of Armenia purchased Tum
Sparks (Raffi novel)
Sparks is an 1884 Armenian language novel by the novelist Raffi. The novel was translated into Russian as «Искры». Twelve Selections from Sparks
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia as well as one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative and industrial center of the country, it has been the capital since 1918, the fourteenth in the history of Armenia and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain. The city serves as the seat of the Araratian Pontifical Diocese; the history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a royal capital." By the late ancient Armenian Kingdom, new capital cities were established and Yerevan declined in importance. Under Iranian and Russian rule, it was the center of the Erivan Khanate from 1736 to 1828 and the Erivan Governorate from 1850 to 1917, respectively. After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire arrived in the area.
The city expanded during the 20th century as Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire to Armenia's principal cultural and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government. With the growth of the Armenian economy, Yerevan has undergone major transformation. Much construction has been done throughout the city since the early 2000s, retail outlets such as restaurants and street cafés, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied; as of 2011, the population of Yerevan was 1,060,138, just over 35% of the Republic of Armenia's total population. According to the official estimate of 2016, the current population of the city is 1,073,700. Yerevan was named the 2012 World Book Capital by UNESCO. Yerevan is an associate member of Eurocities. Of the notable landmarks of Yerevan, Erebuni Fortress is considered to be the birthplace of the city, the Katoghike Tsiranavor church is the oldest surviving church of Yerevan and Saint Gregory Cathedral is the largest Armenian cathedral in the world, Tsitsernakaberd is the official memorial to the victims of the Armenian Genocide, several opera houses, museums and other cultural institutions.
Yerevan Opera Theatre is the main spectacle hall of the Armenian capital, the National Gallery of Armenia is the largest art museum in the Republic of Armenia and shares a building with the History Museum of Armenia, the Matenadaran repository contains one of the largest depositories of ancient books and manuscripts in the world. One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV, the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, founder of the city of Yervandashat. However, it is that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni, founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I; as elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name evolved into Yerevan. Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni: The transcription of the second cuneiform bu of the word was essential in our interpretation as it is the Urartaean b, shifted to the Armenian v.
The original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni». In other words b was placed between two vowels; the true pronunciation of the fortress-city was Erebuny. Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name Yerevan to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!". In the late medieval and early modern periods, when Yerevan was under Turkic and Persian rule, the city was known in Persian as Iravân; this name is still used by Azerbaijanis. The city was known as Erivan under Russian rule during the 19th and early 20th centuries; the city was renamed back to Yerevan in 1936. Up until the mid-1970s the city's name was spelled Erevan, more than Yerevan, in English sources; the principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscriptit in the upper part.
The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border. On 27 September 2004, Yerevan adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan, it was selected in new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia; the flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging; the territory of Yerevan has been inhabited since the 2nd half of the 4th millennium BC. The southern part of the city known as Sheng
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website