Visual arts education
Visual arts education is the area of learning, based upon only the kind of art that one can see, visual arts—drawing, sculpture and design in jewelry, weaving, etc. and design applied to more practical fields such as commercial graphics and home furnishings. Contemporary topics include photography, film and computer art. Art education may focus on students creating art, on learning to criticize or appreciate art, or some combination of the two. Art is taught through drawing, an empirical activity which involves seeing and discovering appropriate marks to reproduce an observed phenomenon. Drawing instruction has been a component of formal education in the West since the Hellenistic period. In East Asia, arts education for nonprofessional artists focused on brushwork. An alternative approach to art education involves an emphasis on imagination, both in interpreting and creating art. Alternative approaches, such as visual culture and issue-based approaches in which students explore societal and personal issues through art inform art education today.
Prominent curricular models for art education include: A sixfold model divided into "Creative-Productive, Cultural-Historical and Critical-Responsive” components in some provinces of Canada Discipline Based Art Education came to favor in the United States during the 1980s and 1990s, it focused on specific skills including techniques, art criticism and art history. Backed by the Getty Education Institute for the Arts, DBAE faded after the Institute ceased funding in 1998. Teaching for Artistic Behavior is a choice-based model that began in the 1970s in Massachusetts in the United States. TAB suggests that students should be the artists and be guided on their own individual artistic interests. In addition in higher education in the liberal arts tradition, art is taught as "art appreciation", a subject for aesthetic criticism rather than direct engagement; some studies show that strong art education programs have demonstrated increased student performance in other academic areas, due to art activities' exercising their brains' right hemispheres and delateralizing their thinking.
See Betty Edwards' Drawing on the Right Side of the Brain. Art education is not limited to formal educational institutions; some professional artists provide semi-private instruction in their own studios. This may take the form of an apprenticeship in which the student learns from a professional artist while assisting the artist with their work. One form of this teaching style is the Atelier Method as exemplified by Gustave Moreau who taught Picasso and many other artists. Art was taught in Europe via the atelier method system where artists took on apprentices who learned their trade in much the same way as that of guilds such as the stonemasons or goldsmiths. During their free time formal training took place in art workshops or, more in homes or alone outside, it was in these ateliers that artists learned the craft through apprenticeship to masters, a relationship, controlled by guild statutes. Florentine contracts dating from the late 13th century state that the master was expected to clothe and feed the apprentice, called upon to be a faithful servant in return.
An apprentice paid the master during the early years of his education. Northern European workshops featured similar terms. Learning to draw was a priority in this system. Michelangelo recommended that a young painter spend a year on drawing alone six years grinding colors, preparing panels and using gold leaf, during which time the study of drawing would continue. Another six years would be required to master tempera painting. Design has had some precedence over the fine arts with schools of design being established all over Europe in the 18th century; these examples of skill and values from the early European art inspired generations, including the Colonists of early America. Individuals who employ cultural appropriation have the ability to produce works of considerable aesthetic merit. Using properties of art from different cultures such as decoration or emulation of creative process can foster a greater understanding and appreciation of crafts from different cultures; this technique can be appreciated in the production of African or Native-American mask making projects, where students emulate technique and explore new material use and construction methods which esteem those practices of different cultures.
Leading country in the development of the arts in Latin America, in 1875 created the National Society of the Stimulus of the Arts, founded by painters Eduardo Schiaffino, Eduardo Sívori, other artists. Their guild was rechartered as the National Academy of Fine Arts in 1905 and, in 1923, on the initiative of painter and academic Ernesto de la Cárcova, as a department in the University of Buenos Aires, the Superior Art School of the Nation; the leading educational organization for the arts in the country is the UNA Universidad Nacional de las Artes. Australian Universities which have Visual / Fine Art departments or courses within their institutions have moved from Studio Based teaching models, associated with Art Schools, to more integrated theoretical / practical emphasis. University of Western Australia has moved from a master's degree with theoretical emphasis to a theoretical BA Art degree. Studio based teaching initiatives integrating contextual
Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role filled by Paris. Although the term "abstract expressionism" was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates, it had been first used in Germany in 1919 in the magazine Der Sturm, regarding German Expressionism. In the United States, Alfred Barr was the first to use this term in 1929 in relation to works by Wassily Kandinsky. Technically, an important predecessor is surrealism, with its emphasis on spontaneous, automatic, or subconscious creation. Jackson Pollock's dripping paint onto a canvas laid on the floor is a technique that has its roots in the work of André Masson, Max Ernst, David Alfaro Siqueiros; the newer research tends to put the exile-surrealist Wolfgang Paalen in the position of the artist and theoretician who fostered the theory of the viewer-dependent possibility space through his paintings and his magazine DYN.
Paalen considered ideas of quantum mechanics, as well as idiosyncratic interpretations of the totemic vision and the spatial structure of native-Indian painting from British Columbia and prepared the ground for the new spatial vision of the young American abstracts. His long essay Totem Art had considerable influence on such artists as Martha Graham, Isamu Noguchi, Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko and Barnett Newman. Around 1944 Barnett Newman tried to explain America's newest art movement and included a list of "the men in the new movement." Paalen is mentioned twice. Motherwell is mentioned with a question mark. Another important early manifestation of what came to be abstract expressionism is the work of American Northwest artist Mark Tobey his "white writing" canvases, though not large in scale, anticipate the "all-over" look of Pollock's drip paintings; the movement's name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus, Synthetic Cubism.
Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working in New York who had quite different styles, to work, neither abstract nor expressionist. California abstract expressionist Jay Meuser, who painted in the non-objective style, wrote about his painting Mare Nostrum, "It is far better to capture the glorious spirit of the sea than to paint all of its tiny ripples." Pollock's energetic "action paintings", with their "busy" feel, are different, both technically and aesthetically, from the violent and grotesque Women series of Willem de Kooning's figurative paintings and the rectangles of color in Mark Rothko's Color Field paintings. Yet all four artists are classified as abstract expressionists. Abstract expressionism has many stylistic similarities to the Russian artists of the early 20th century such as Wassily Kandinsky. Although it is true that spontaneity or the impression of spontaneity characterized many of the abstract expressionists' works, most of these paintings involved careful planning since their large size demanded it.
With artists such as Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Emma Kunz, on Rothko, Barnett Newman, Agnes Martin, abstract art implied expression of ideas concerning the spiritual, the unconscious, the mind. Why this style gained mainstream acceptance in the 1950s is a matter of debate. American social realism had been the mainstream in the 1930s, it had been influenced not only by the Great Depression, but by the muralists of Mexico such as David Alfaro Siqueiros and Diego Rivera. The political climate after World War II did not long tolerate the social protests of these painters. Abstract expressionism arose during World War II and began to be showcased during the early forties at galleries in New York such as The Art of This Century Gallery; the McCarthy era after World War II was a time of artistic censorship in the United States, but if the subject matter were abstract it would be seen as apolitical, therefore safe. Or if the art was political, the message was for the insiders. While the movement is associated with painting, painters such as Arshile Gorky, Franz Kline, Clyfford Still, Hans Hofmann, Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, others, collagist Anne Ryan and certain sculptors in particular were integral to abstract expressionism.
David Smith, his wife Dorothy Dehner, Herbert Ferber, Isamu Noguchi, Ibram Lassaw, Theodore Roszak, Phillip Pavia, Mary Callery, Richard Stankiewicz, Louise Bourgeois, Louise Nevelson in particular were some of the sculptors considered as being important members of the movement. In addition, the artists David Hare, John Chamberlain, James Rosati, Mark di Suvero, sculptors Richard Lippold, Raoul Hague, George Rickey, Reuben Nakian, Tony Smith, Seymour Lipton, Joseph Cornell, several others were integral parts of the abstract expressionist movement. Many of the sculptors listed participated in the Ninth Street Show, a famous exhibition curated by Leo Castelli on East Ninth Street in New York City in 1951. Besides the painters and sculptors of the period the New York School of abstract expressionism generated a number of supportive poets, including Frank O'Hara and photographers such as Aaron Siskind and Fred McDarrah, (
Haaretz is an Israeli newspaper. It was founded in 1918, making it the longest running newspaper in print in Israel, is now published in both Hebrew and English in the Berliner format; the English edition is sold together with the International New York Times. Both Hebrew and English editions can be read on the Internet. In North America, it is published as a weekly newspaper, combining articles from the Friday edition with a roundup from the rest of the week, it is known for its liberal stances on domestic and foreign issues. As of 2016, the newspaper had a weekday exposure rate of 3.9% in Israel. According to the Center for Research Libraries, among Israel's daily newspapers, "Haaretz is considered the most influential and respected for both its news coverage and its commentary." Haaretz was first published in 1918 as a newspaper sponsored by the British military government in Palestine. In 1919, it was taken over by a group of socialist-oriented Zionists from Russia; the newspaper was established on 18 June 1919 by a group of businessmen including the philanthropist Isaac Leib Goldberg, it was called Hadashot Ha'aretz.
The name was shortened to Haaretz. The literary section of the paper attracted leading Hebrew writers of the time; the newspaper was published in Jerusalem. From 1919 to 1922, the paper was headed among them Leib Yaffe, it was closed due to a budgetary shortfall and reopened in Tel Aviv at the beginning of 1923 under the editorship of Moshe Glickson, who held the post for 15 years. The Tel Aviv municipality granted the paper financial support by paying in advance for future advertisements. Salman Schocken, a Jewish businessman who left Germany in 1934 after the Nazis had come to power, bought the paper in December 1935. Schocken was active in Brit Shalom known as the Jewish–Palestinian Peace Alliance, a body supporting co-existence between Jews and Arabs, sympathetic to a homeland for both peoples, his son, Gershom Schocken, became the chief editor in 1939 and held that position until his death in 1990. The Schocken family were the sole owners of the Haaretz Group until August 2006, when they sold a 25% stake to German publisher M. DuMont Schauberg.
The deal was negotiated with the help of the former Israeli ambassador to Avi Primor. This deal was seen as controversial in Israel as DuMont Schauberg's father, Kurt Neven DuMont, was member of the Nazi party and his publishing house promoted Nazi ideology. On 12 June 2011, it was announced that Russian-Israeli businessman Leonid Nevzlin had purchased a 20% stake in the Haaretz Group, buying 15% from the family and 5% from M. DuMont Schauberg. In October 2012, a union strike mobilized to protest planned layoffs by the Haaretz management, causing a one-day interruption of Haaretz and its TheMarker business supplement. According to Israel Radio, it was the first time since 1965 that a newspaper did not go to press on account of a strike; the newspaper's editorial policy was defined by Gershom Schocken, editor-in-chief from 1939 to 1990. Schocken was succeeded as editor-in-chief by Hanoch Marmari. In 2004 David Landau replaced Marmari and was succeeded by Dov Alfon in 2008; the current editor-in-chief of the newspaper is Aluf Benn, who replaced Alfon in August 2011.
Charlotte Halle became editor of the English print edition in February 2008. Haaretz describes itself as having "a broadly liberal outlook both on domestic issues and on international affairs". Others describe it alternatively centre-left, or left-wing; the newspaper opposes retaining control of the territories and supports peace initiatives. The Haaretz editorial line is supportive of weaker elements in Israeli society, such as sex workers, foreign laborers, Israeli Arabs, Ethiopian immigrants, Russian immigrants. In 2006, the BBC said that Haaretz takes a moderate stance on foreign security. David Remnick in The New Yorker described Haaretz as "easily the most liberal newspaper in Israel", its ideology as left-wing and its temper as "insistently oppositional". According to Ira Sharkansky, Haaretz's op-ed pages are open to a variety of opinions. J. J. Goldberg, the editor of the American The Jewish Daily Forward, describes Haaretz as "Israel's most vehemently anti-settlement daily paper". Stephen Glain of The Nation described Haaretz as "Israel's liberal beacon", citing its editorials voicing opposition to the occupation, the discriminatory treatment of Arab citizens, the mindset that led to the Second Lebanon War.
A 2003 study in The International Journal of Press/Politics concluded that Haaretz's reporting of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict was more favorable to Israelis than to Palestinians, but less so than that of The New York Times. In 2016, Jeffrey Goldberg, the editor-in-chief of The Atlantic, wrote "I like a lot of the people at Haaretz, many of its positions, but the cartoonish anti-Israelism and anti-Semitism can be grating". In 2016, the newspaper's readership fell to an all-time low of 3.9% on weekdays, far behind other national newspapers in Israel: Israel Hayom had an exposure rate of 39.7%, Yedioth Ahronoth 34.9%, Israel Post 7.2%, Globes 4.6%. Haaretz uses smaller headlines and print than other mass circulation papers in Israel. Less space is devoted to pictures, more to political analysis. Opinion columns are written by regular commentators rather than guest writers, its editorial pages are considered influential among government leaders. Apart from the news, Haaretz publishes feature articles on social and environmental issues, as well as book reviews, investigat
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times. All of this is open to the public, much of it has been digitized and is available on their website; the main goal of the bureau is to collect and make art research available, most notably in the field of Dutch Masters. Via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries; the library owns 450,000 titles, of which ca. 150,000 are auction catalogs. There are ca. 3,000 magazines, of which 600 are running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the standard record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works, which include English as well as Dutch titles; the RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, a thesaurus of terms for management of information on art and architecture.
The original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in California. The collection was started through bequests by Frits Lugt, art historian and owner of a massive collection of drawings and prints, Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, a collector, art historian and museum curator, their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek. Though not all of the library's holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online; the website itself is available in both an English user interface. In the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/artists/ followed by the artist's record number. For example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number.
To reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record of the form: https://rkd.nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artwork's record number. For example, the artwork record number for The Night Watch is 3063, so its RKD artwork page can be referenced; the Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, but these can not be referenced online by record number. Rather, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called "The Night Watch" is a militia painting, all records fitting this keyword can be seen by selecting this from the image screen; the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is filled with biblical references. This is the iconclass database. To see all images that depict Miriam's dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a special search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
The Israel Museum was established in 1965 is Israel's foremost cultural institution and one of the world’s leading encyclopaedic museums. It is situated on a hill in the Givat Ram neighbourhood of Jerusalem, adjacent to the Bible Lands Museum, the Knesset, the Israeli Supreme Court, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, its holdings include the world’s most comprehensive collections of the archaeology of the Holy Land, Jewish Art and Life, as well as significant and extensive holdings in the Fine Arts, the latter encompassing eleven separate departments: Israeli Art. Among the unique objects on display are the Venus of Berekhat Ram. An urn-shaped building on the grounds of the museum, the Shrine of the Book, houses the Dead Sea Scrolls and artifacts discovered at Masada, it is one of the largest museums in the region. Jerusalem mayor Teddy Kollek was the driving spirit behind the establishment of the Israel Museum, one of the leading art and archaeology museums in the world; the Museum houses works dating from prehistory to the present day in its Archaeology, Fine Arts, Jewish Art and Life Wings, features extensive holdings of biblical and Land of Israel archaeology.
Since its establishment in 1965, the Museum has built up a collection of nearly 500,000 objects, representing a broad sample of world material culture. On October 25, 2017, Prof. Ido Bruno was appointed Director of the Israel Museum in Jerusalem as the Anne and Jerome Fisher Director. Bruno served as a professor in the Industrial Design Department of the Bezalel Academy of Arts & Design, Jerusalem, he brings to the position decades of experience as a curator and designer of exhibitions presented in Israel and across the world with a focus on art, archeology and history. He was unanimously elected by the Museum's Board of Directors, chaired by Isaac Molho, following an extensive search and review process of candidates from Israel and abroad. Bruno assumed his position at the Museum in November 2017. James S. Snyder, former Deputy Director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, was appointed director of the museum in 1997. From 1965, the museum was housed in a series of masonry buildings designed by the Russian-born Israeli architect Alfred Mansfeld.
A $100-million campaign to renovate the museum and double its gallery space was completed by Israeli architects Efrat-Kowalsky Architects who renovated the existing buildings in July 2010. The wings for archaeology, the fine arts, Jewish art and life were rebuilt and the original buildings were linked through a new entrance pavilion; the passageways that connect between the buildings and five new pavilions were designed by James Carpenter. The museum covers nearly 50,000 sq. meters and attracts 800,000 visitors a year, including 100,000 children who visit and attend classes in its Youth Wing. The Samuel and Saidye Bronfman Archaeology Wing tells the story of the ancient Land of Israel, home to peoples of different cultures and faiths, using unique examples from the Museum's collection of Holy Land archaeology, the foremost holding in the world. Organized chronologically, from prehistory through the Ottoman Empire, the transformed wing presents seven “chapters” of this archaeological narrative, weaving together momentous historical events, cultural achievements, technological advances, while providing a glimpse into the everyday lives of the peoples of the region.
This narrative is supplemented by thematic groupings highlighting aspects of ancient Israeli archaeology that are unique to the region's history, among them Hebrew writing and coins. Treasures from neighboring cultures that have had a decisive impact on the Land of Israel – such as Egypt, the Near East and Italy, the Islamic world – are on view in adjacent and connecting galleries. A special gallery at the entrance to the wing showcases new findings and other temporary exhibition displays. Highlights on view include: Pilate Stone, "House of David” inscription, A comparative display of two shrines, The Heliodorus Stele, Royal Herodian bathhouse, Hadrian’s Triumph: Inscription from a triumphal arch, the Mosaic of Rehob and Gold-glass bases from the Roman Catacombs, the Ossuary of Jesus son of Joseph; the Shrine of the Book houses the Dead Sea Scrolls, the oldest biblical manuscripts in the world, as well as rare early medieval biblical manuscripts. The scrolls were discovered in 1947 -- 56 in 11 caves around the Wadi Qumran.
An elaborate planning process of seven years led to the building's eventual construction in 1965, funded by the family of David Samuel Gottesman, the Hungarian émigré, the philanthropist who had purchased the scrolls as a gift to the State of Israel. The building consists of a white dome over a building located two-thirds below the ground; the dome is reflected in a pool of water. Across from the white dome is a black basalt wall; the colors and shapes of the building are based on the imagery of the Scroll of the War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness, whereas the white dome symbolizes the Sons of Light and the black wall symbolizes the Sons of Darkness. The interior of the shrine was designed to depict the environment. There is a permanent display on life in the Qumran, where the scrolls were written; the entire st
HaMidrasha – Faculty of the Arts
HaMidrasha – Faculty of the Arts is an Israeli art and art-education school. Established in 1946 as an independent institution, it now is one of three faculties of the Beit Berl College. In 1946 "HaMidrasha" art school was established as crafts teacher education institution; the head of the school was Eliyahu Beiles and it was affiliated with the "Workers' Trend" in the educational system. The school operated in the evenings in a building that served as a primary school in Tel Aviv. On, crafts studies were separated from "HaMidrasha" and its name was changed to "HaMidrasha for Painting Teachers." In 1964 "HaMidrasha" was transferred to the ownership of the Ministry of Education. Two years it began operating during days instead of evenings. Between 1966 and 1980 Ran Shehori was head of the institution, in 1972 it moved to buildings in Herzliya, who were allotted to the Ministry of Education by the Herzliya Municipality, it was during these years. Lavie, who started to teach at "HaMidrasha" in 1965, developed a teaching method which focused on the understanding of artistic language, rather than on skills and techniques.
Under his influence, a group of artists formed, who would be known as the core of the Want of Matter movement in Israeli Art. These included Tamar Getter and Nurit David, among others. In 1977 the "HaMidrasha" moved again. In the same year, the Institute for Training of Art Instructors was established as part of the institution. In 1980, Shlomo Vitkin was appointed as head of the school, serving till 1997. During his tenure, in 1987, the Midrasha merged with Beit Berl College. In 1989 a study framework called, it still exists, now known as "The Personal Study program of the Arts". In 1995 HaMidrasha moved to a part of the Beit Berl campus and a former agricultural farm. In 1997 Yair Garbuz replaced Vitkin as head of the school. In 1999 "HaMidrasha" was accredited to award a BEd. F. A. Bachelor's degree in arts education by the Israeli Council for High Education. In 2008 the school was further accredited to award a graduate degree – MEd in art education. In 2009 Doron Rabina was appointed as head of the school, a bachelor's degree filmmaking program in was launched.
In 2011 a postgraduate studies program was established. In 2011 a preparatory program for undergraduate studies was opened, in the Arabic language. In 2014 Beit Berl College structurally transformed to a faculty based organization, "HaMidrasha" became the institution's Faculty of the Arts. Artist Gabi Klezmer was the dean between 2015 and 2018; the current Dean of the Faculty is the video artist Guy Ben-Ner. Over the years, "HaMidrasha" operated several galleries, both in the Kalmaniya campus and in Tel Aviv. Since 2014, HaMidrasha Gallery is located in Tel Aviv. Media related to Category:HaMidrasha – Faculty of the Arts at Wikimedia Commons Official Website The exhibition "Poland ↔ Israel", HaMidrasha postgraduate program of Fine Arts at Museum of Contemporary Art in Kraków, Poland, 30 June–24 September 2017. Curators: Maayan Sheleff and Agnieszka Sachar. Collaboration with Miri Segal. Catalog: ISBN 978-83-65851-01-7