Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts. Durable sculptural processes used carving and modelling, in stone, ceramics and other materials but, since Modernism, there has been an complete freedom of materials and process. A wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded or cast. Sculpture in stone survives far better than works of art in perishable materials, represents the majority of the surviving works from ancient cultures, though conversely traditions of sculpture in wood may have vanished entirely. However, most ancient sculpture was brightly painted, this has been lost. Sculpture has been central in religious devotion in many cultures, until recent centuries large sculptures, too expensive for private individuals to create, were an expression of religion or politics; those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, as well as many in Central and South America and Africa.
The Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, Greece is seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith; the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelo's David. Modernist sculpture moved away from traditional processes and the emphasis on the depiction of the human body, with the making of constructed sculpture, the presentation of found objects as finished art works. A basic distinction is between sculpture in the round, free-standing sculpture, such as statues, not attached to any other surface, the various types of relief, which are at least attached to a background surface. Relief is classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sometimes an intermediate mid-relief. Sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief is the usual sculptural medium for large figure groups and narrative subjects, which are difficult to accomplish in the round, is the typical technique used both for architectural sculpture, attached to buildings, for small-scale sculpture decorating other objects, as in much pottery and jewellery.
Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs of stone also containing inscriptions. Another basic distinction is between subtractive carving techniques, which remove material from an existing block or lump, for example of stone or wood, modelling techniques which shape or build up the work from the material. Techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work; the term "sculpture" is used to describe large works, which are sometimes called monumental sculpture, meaning either or both of sculpture, large, or, attached to a building. But the term properly covers many types of small works in three dimensions using the same techniques, including coins and medals, hardstone carvings, a term for small carvings in stone that can take detailed work; the large or "colossal" statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity. Another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades.
The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the "head", showing just that, or the bust, a representation of a person from the chest up. Small forms of sculpture include the figurine a statue, no more than 18 inches tall, for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Modern and contemporary art have added a number of non-traditional forms of sculpture, including sound sculpture, light sculpture, environmental art, environmental sculpture, street art sculpture, kinetic sculpture, land art, site-specific art. Sculpture is an important form of public art. A collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in some form of association with religion. Cult images are common in many cultures, though they are not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art, like the Statue of Zeus at Olympia; the actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were evidently rather small in the largest temples.
The same is true in Hinduism, where the simple and ancient form of the lingam is the most common. Buddhism brought the sculpture of religious figures to East Asia, where there seems to have been no earlier equivalent tradition, though again simple shapes like the bi and cong had religious significance. Small sculptures as personal possessions go back to the earliest prehistoric art, the use of large sculpture as public art to impress the viewer with the power of a ruler, goes back at least to the Great Sphinx of some 4,500 years ago. In archaeology and art history the appearance, sometimes disappearance, of large or monumental sculpture in a culture is regarded as of great significance, though tracing the emergence is complicated by the presumed existence of sculpture in wood and other perishable materials of which no record remains; the ability to s
Brittany is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation. It became an independent kingdom and a duchy before being united with the Kingdom of France in 1532 as a province governed as if it were a separate nation under the crown. Brittany has been referred to as Less, Lesser or Little Britain, it is bordered by the English Channel to the north, the Celtic Sea and the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Bay of Biscay to the south. Its land area is 34,023 km². Brittany is the site of some of the world's oldest standing architecture, home to the Barnenez, the Tumulus Saint-Michel and others, which date to the early 5th millennium BC. Today, the historical province of Brittany is split among five French departments: Finistère in the west, Côtes-d'Armor in the north, Ille-et-Vilaine in the north east, Loire-Atlantique in the south east and Morbihan in the south on the Bay of Biscay. Since reorganisation in 1956, the modern administrative region of Brittany comprises only four of the five Breton departments, or 80% of historical Brittany.
The remaining area of old Brittany, the Loire-Atlantique department around Nantes, now forms part of the Pays de la Loire region. At the 2010 census, the population of historic Brittany was estimated to be 4,475,295. Of these, 71 % lived in the region of Brittany. In 2012, the largest metropolitan areas were Nantes and Brest. Brittany is the traditional homeland of the Breton people and is recognised by the Celtic League as one of the six Celtic nations, retaining a distinct cultural identity that reflects its history. A nationalist movement seeks greater autonomy within the French Republic; the word Brittany, along with its French and Gallo equivalents Bretagne and Bertaèyn, derive from the Latin Britannia, which means "Britons' land". This word had been used by the Romans since the 1st century to refer to Great Britain, more the Roman province of Britain; this word derives from a Greek word, Πρεττανικη or Βρεττανίαι, used by Pytheas, an explorer from Massalia who visited the British Islands around 320 BC.
The Greek word itself comes from the common Brythonic ethnonym reconstructed as *Pritanī, itself from Proto-Celtic *kʷritanoi. The Romans called Brittany Armorica, together with a quite indefinite region that extended along the English Channel coast from the Seine estuary to the Loire estuary, according to several sources, maybe along the Atlantic coast to the Garonne estuary; this term comes from a Gallic word, which means "close to the sea". Another name, was used until the 12th century, it means "wide and flat" or "to expand" and it gave the Welsh name for Brittany: Llydaw. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many Britons settled in western Armorica, the region started to be called Britannia, although this name only replaced Armorica in the sixth century or by the end of the fifth. Authors like Geoffrey of Monmouth used the terms Britannia minor and Britannia major to distinguish Brittany from Britain. Breton-speaking people may pronounce the word Breizh in two different ways, according to their region of origin.
Breton can be divided into the dialect of Vannes. KLT speakers pronounce it and would write it Breiz, while the Vannetais speakers pronounce it and would write it Breih; the official spelling is a compromise with a z and an h together. In 1941, efforts to unify the dialects led to the creation of the so-called Breton zh, a standard which has never been accepted. On its side, Gallo language has never had a accepted writing system and several ones coexist. For instance, the name of the region in that language can be written Bertaèyn in ELG script, or Bertègn in MOGA, a couple of other scripts exist. Brittany has been inhabited by humans since the Lower Paleolithic; the first settlers were Neanderthals. This population was scarce and similar to the other Neanderthals found in the whole of Western Europe, their only original feature was a distinct culture, called "Colombanian". One of the oldest hearths in the world has been found in Finistère, it is 450,000 years old. Homo sapiens settled in Brittany around 35,000 years ago.
They replaced or absorbed the Neanderthals and developed local industries, similar to the Châtelperronian or to the Magdalenian. After the last glacial period, the warmer climate allowed the area to become wooded. At that time, Brittany was populated by large communities who started to change their lifestyles from a life of hunting and gathering, to become settled farmers. Agriculture was introduced during the 5th millennium BC by migrants from the east. However, the Neolithic Revolution in Brittany did not happen due to a radical change of population, but by slow immigration and exchange of skills. Neolithic Brittany is characterised by important megalithic production, it is sometimes designated as the "core area" of megalithic culture; the oldest monuments, were followed by princely tombs and stone rows. The Morbihan département, on the southern coast, comprises a large share of these structures, including the Carnac stones and the Broken Menhir of Er Grah in the Locmariaquer megaliths, the largest single stone erected by Neoli
Seiz Breur was an artistic movement founded in 1923 in Brittany. Although it adopted the symbolic name seiz breur, meaning seven brothers in the Breton language, this did not refer to the number of members, but to the title of a folk-story. At its height it had fifty members united as the "Unvaniezh Seiz Breur". Though predominantly dedicated to the visual arts, the group included writers and architects, it is recognised today as an initiator of modern Celto-Breton art, but its memory has been marred by its association with Nazi ideology and collaborationism. A young designer and illustrator, Jeanne Malivel, played an important role in paving the way for the movement's foundation, her early work revived the tradition of wood engraving to illustrate the book L'Histoire de notre Bretagne by Jeanne Coroller-Danio. Malivel's work was picked up by the painter and engraver René-Yves Creston, along with his wife Suzanne Creston and the architect James Bouillé; these three young Breton artists met in 1923 at a Pardon in Le Folgoët, decided to work together at creating a modern form of Breton art, combining the best of the traditional with avant-garde styles.
The name they chose refers to Ar Seiz Breur, a folk-tale collected and published by Malivel in its Gallo language form. It tells the story of beautiful and virtuous young woman who finds her lost seven brothers, but is victimised by an evil witch who turns the brothers into cows. One of the cows is a small Breton cow and "the young girl always loved best the Breton one", she is seen by the king who marries her. The witch tries to make the king kill the Breton cow. However, the cows lead the king to their lost sister, restored, the brothers regain human form; the story was interpreted as a metaphor for devotion of threats to its existence. The movement arose from ideas broadly similar to the Arts and Crafts Movement inflected by the earlier activities in Brittany of the Synthetists of the Pont-Aven School, it was based on the idea that traditional Breton art, so rich in the past, had become stagnant for some of the following reasons: The spread of non-Breton styles encouraged by the influence of the mass media, such as "Saint Sulpice" style statues replacing the old-style polychrome wooden statues in churches.
Monuments to the fallen of World War One were becoming standardised. The group's goal was not just to fossilize traditional art and design, but to open the way for artistic plurality in a variety of different disciplines: Architecture. Wood carving, stoneware, stained glass windows, ironwork, embroidery, fresco, typography, etc. using new material, such as concrete, or new techniques, such as photocollage or cinema using different methods of diffusion: from books to postcards, via stamps, jewellery, furniture, mugs or posters. Producing embroidered banners, delft statuettes, or clothes and objects with liturgic Breton character, pour faire barrage à l’art sulpicien; some of the most notable members: composers Paul Ladmirault, Jef Le Penven and Paul Le Flem painter and novelist Xavier de Langlais sculptors Jean Freour, Yann Goulet, Francis Renaud, Jules-Charles Le Bozec and Raffig Tullou embroider Georges Robin haute couture stylist Val Riou illustrators Xavier Haas, Robert Micheau-Vernez and Pierre Péron woodworker Joseph Savina architects James Bouillé and Olier Mordrel writers Jeanne Coroller-Danio, Gwilherm Berthou editors Herry Caouissin and Ronan Caouissin publicist and novelist Youenn Drezen professor of fine arts Morvan Marchal, creator of the modern day Flag of Brittany string player Dorig Le Voyer schoolmasters Yann Sohier, Marc'harid Gourlaouen, promoters of the teaching of the Breton languageand Georges Arnoux, Octave-Louis Aubert, André Batillat, Yves Berthou, Yvette Brelet, Suzanne Creston, Herri Kaouissin, René Kaouissin, Reun Kreston, Edmond Derrouch, Fañch Elies, Jean Guinard, Marguerite Houel, Germaine Jouan, Roger Kervran, Marcel Le Louet, Christian Le Part, Régis de l'Estourbillon, Dorig Le Voyer, Madeleine Lizer, Édouard Mahé, Jean Mazuet, Robert Micheau-Vernez, Jacques Motheau, Michael O'Farrel, Francis Pellerin, Charles Penther, Pierre Péron, François Planeix, Yann Robert, Georges Rual, René Salaün, René Salmon de la Godelinais, Gaston Sébilleau.
Celtic mythology, including Welsh and Irish druidism Breton legends, such as Brocéliande, the Matter of Britain, or popular themes such as Ankou Breton history religion: Pardons or pilgrimages and Celtic heroes. Daily rural or maritime life The Seiz Breur made a name for themselves at Parisian exhibitions in 1925 and 1937 and at Brittany's pavilions. 1923: Artistic collaboration started 1925: Participation at the l’Exposition des Arts décoratifs in Paris 1926: Death of Jeanne Malivel. 1928: Launch of the review Kornog in which the Seiz Breur members write their theories. The group renames itself Unvaniez Seiz Breur. 1929: Breton art exhibition in Douarnenez. 1931: Keltia replaces Kornog as the journal. 1937: Pavillon de la Bretagne, exposition in Paris. 1939: WWII causes mobilisation of various members. 1940: publication of Programme de Seiz Breur dans un manifeste en 13 points (Seiz Breur's manifesto in a 13-point program
Bains-sur-Oust is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine departement in Brittany in northwestern France. Inhabitants of Bains-sur-Oust are called Bainsois in France. Nominoe, first Duke of Brittany Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department INSEE commune page Mayors of Ille-et-Vilaine Association Official website French Ministry of Culture list for Bains-sur-Oust
Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts. Celtic art is a difficult term to define, covering a huge expanse of time and cultures. A case has been made for artistic continuity in Europe from the Bronze Age, indeed the preceding Neolithic age. Early Celtic art is another term used for this period, stretching in Britain to about 150 AD; the Early Medieval art of Britain and Ireland, which produced the Book of Kells and other masterpieces, is what "Celtic art" evokes for much of the general public in the English-speaking world, is called Insular art in art history. This is the best-known part, but not the whole of, the Celtic art of the Early Middle Ages, which includes the Pictish art of Scotland. Both styles absorbed considerable influences from non-Celtic sources, but retained a preference for geometrical decoration over figurative subjects, which are extremely stylised when they do appear. Energetic circular forms and spirals are characteristic. Much of the surviving material is in precious metal, which no doubt gives a unrepresentative picture, but apart from Pictish stones and the Insular high crosses, large monumental sculpture with decorative carving, is rare.
The few standing male figures found, like the Warrior of Hirschlanden and the so-called "Lord of Glauberg", were common in wood. Covered by the term is the visual art of the Celtic Revival from the 18th century to the modern era, which began as a conscious effort by Modern Celts in the British Isles, to express self-identification and nationalism, became popular well beyond the Celtic nations, whose style is still current in various popular forms, from Celtic cross funerary monuments to interlace tattoos. Coinciding with the beginnings of a coherent archaeological understanding of the earlier periods, the style self-consciously used motifs copied from works of the earlier periods, more the Insular than the Iron Age. Another influence was that of late La Tène "vegetal" art on the Art Nouveau movement. Celtic art is ornamental, avoiding straight lines and only using symmetry, without the imitation of nature central to the classical tradition involving complex symbolism. Celtic art has used a variety of styles and has shown influences from other cultures in their knotwork, key patterns, zoomorphics, plant forms and human figures.
As the archaeologist Catherine Johns put it: "Common to Celtic art over a wide chronological and geographical span is an exquisite sense of balance in the layout and development of patterns. Curvilinear forms are set out so that positive and negative, filled areas and spaces form a harmonious whole. Control and restraint were exercised in the use of surface relief. Complex curvilinear patterns were designed to cover the most awkward and irregularly shaped surfaces"; the ancient peoples now called "Celts" spoke a group of languages that had a common origin in the Indo-European language known as Common Celtic or Proto-Celtic. This shared linguistic origin was once accepted by scholars to indicate peoples with a common genetic origin in southwest Europe, who had spread their culture by emigration and invasion. Archaeologists identified various cultural traits of these peoples, including styles of art, traced the culture to the earlier Hallstatt culture and La Tène culture. More recent genetic studies have indicated that various Celtic groups do not all have shared ancestry, have suggested a diffusion and spread of the culture without involving significant movement of peoples.
The extent to which "Celtic" language and genetics coincided and interacted during prehistoric periods remains uncertain and controversial. Celtic art is associated with the peoples known as Celts; the term "Celt" was used in classical times as a synonym for the Gauls. Its English form is modern, attested from 1607. In the late 17th century the work of scholars such as Edward Lhuyd brought academic attention to the historic links between Gaulish and the Brythonic—and Goidelic—speaking peoples, from which point the term was applied not just to continental Celts but those in Britain and Ireland. In the 18th century the interest in "primitivism", which led to the idea of the "noble savage", brought a wave of enthusiasm for all things Celtic and Druidic; the "Irish revival" came after the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 as a conscious attempt to demonstrate an Irish national identity, with its counterpart in other countries subsequently became the "Celtic Revival". The earliest archaeological culture, conventionally termed Celtic, the Hallstatt culture, comes from the early European Iron Age, ca.
800-450 BC. Nonetheless the art of this and periods reflects considerable continuity, some long-term correspondences, with ear
Mordelles is a commune in the Ille-et-Vilaine department of Brittany in northwestern France. The Meu forms the commune's southwestern border. Inhabitants of Mordelles are called in French mordelais. Communes of the Ille-et-Vilaine department INSEE Mayors of Ille-et-Vilaine Association Official website French Ministry of Culture list for Mordelles