International Men's Day
International Men's Day is an annual international event celebrated on 19 November. Inaugurated in 1992 on 7 February by Thomas Oaster, the project of International Men's Day was conceived one year earlier on 8 February 1991; the project was re-initialised in 1999 in Tobago. The longest running celebration of International Men's Day is Malta, where events have occurred since 7 February 1994. Jerome Teelucksingh, who revived the event, chose 19 November to honour his father's birthday and to celebrate how on that date in 1989 Trinidad and Tobago's football team had united the country with their endeavours to qualify for the World Cup. Teelucksingh has promoted International Men's Day as not just a gendered day but a day where all issues affecting men and boys can be addressed, he has said of IMD and its grass roots activists, "They are striving for gender equality and patiently attempt to remove the negative images and the stigma associated with men in our society"The objectives of celebrating an International Men's Day, set out in "The Six Pillars of International Men's Day", include focusing on men's and boys' health, improving gender relations, promoting gender equality, highlighting male role models.
It is an occasion to highlight discrimination against men and boys and to celebrate their achievements and contributions, in particular for their contributions to community, family and child care. The broader and ultimate aim of the event is to promote basic humanitarian values. International Men's Day is celebrated in over 80 countries, on 19 November, global support for the celebration is broad. International Men's Day is followed by Universal Children's Day on 20 November, forming a 48-hour celebration of men and children, respectively. Additionally, the month of November is occasionally recognized as International Men's Month. International Men's Day is supported by a variety of organisations including UNESCO. International Women's Day is celebrated on March 8. Calls for an International Men's Day have been noted since at least the 1960s, when many men were reported to "have been agitating to make 23 February International Men's Day, the equivalent of 8 March, International Women's Day" In the Soviet Union this day was The Red Army and Navy Day since 1922, which in 2002 was renamed to Defender of the Fatherland Day.
The date was informally viewed a male counterpart of Women's Day in some territories of the Union, however due to the day's limited focus to historical events some countries of the former union have moved to adopt the more'male specific' 19 November as International Men's Day, including Belarus, Moldova and Georgia. In 1968 the American journalist John P. Harris wrote an editorial in the Salina Journal highlighting a lack of balance in the Soviet system, which promoted an International Women's Day for the female workers without promoting a corresponding day for male workers. Harris stated that although he did not begrudge Soviet women their March day of glory, its resulting gender inequality exhibited a serious flaw in the Communist system, which, "makes much of the equal rights it has given the sexes, but as it turns out, the women are much more equal than the men." Harris stated that while the men toiled along in their grooves doing what their government and womenfolk tell them to do, there was no day when males are recognised for their service, leading Harris to conclude that "This strikes me as unwarranted discrimination and rank injustice."
Similar questions about the inequality of observing women's day without a corresponding men's day occurred in media publications from the 1960s through to the 1990s, at which time the first attempts at inaugurating international Men's Day are recorded. In the early 1990s, organizations in the United States and Malta held small events in February at the invitation of Thomas Oaster who directed the Missouri Center for Men's Studies at the University of Missouri–Kansas City. Oaster promoted the event in 1993 and 1994, but his following attempt in 1995 was poorly attended and he ceased plans to continue the event in subsequent years. Australians ceased to observe the event whilst the Maltese Association for Men's Rights continued as the only country that continued to observe the event each year in February. Being the only country still observing the original February date, the Maltese AMR Committee voted in 2009 to begin observing the day on 19 November in order to be synchronized with the rest of the world.
Although International Men's and Women's Day are considered to be'gender focussed' events, they are not ideological mirror images because they highlight issues that are considered unique to men or to women. The history of IMD concerns celebrating issues that are considered unique to the experiences of men and boys, along with an emphasis on positive role models, "deemed necessary in a social context, fascinated with images of males behaving badly... In highlighting positive male role models IMD attempts to show that males of all ages respond much more energetically to positive role models than they do to negative stereotyping." Citizens in Trinidad and Tobago were the first to observe IMD on 19 November 1999. The event was conceived and coordinated by Jerome Teelucksingh from The University of the West Indies at the Families in Action headquarters in Newtown, Port of Spain; as his rationale for creating the event Teelucksingh stated, "I realized there was no day for men... some have said that there is Father's Day, but what about young boys and men who are not fathers?"
Teelucksingh, understanding the importance of celebrating good male role models, felt that his own father had been an example
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. The era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period, its half overlaps with the first part of the Belle Époque era of Continental Europe. In terms of moral sensibilities and political reforms, this period began with the passage of the Reform Act 1832. There was a strong religious drive for higher moral standards led by the nonconformist churches, such as the Methodist, the Evangelical wing of the established Church of England. Britain's relations with the other Great Powers were driven by the colonial antagonism of the Great Game with Russia, climaxing during the Crimean War. Britain embarked on global imperial expansion in Asia and Africa, which made the British Empire the largest empire in history. National self-confidence peaked. Ideologically, the Victorian era witnessed resistance to the rationalism that defined the Georgian period and an increasing turn towards romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, arts.
Domestically, the political agenda was liberal, with a number of shifts in the direction of gradual political reform, industrial reform, the widening of the franchise. There were unprecedented demographic changes: the population of England and Wales doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotland's population rose from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Ireland's population decreased from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901 due to emigration and the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrated from Great Britain to the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia; the two main political parties during the era remained the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone, Lord Salisbury; the unsolved problems relating to Irish Home Rule played a great part in politics in the Victorian era in view of Gladstone's determination to achieve a political settlement in Ireland.
In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837—after the death of her uncle, William IV—until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII. Her reign lasted for seven months, a longer period than any of her predecessors; the term'Victorian' was in contemporaneous usage to describe the era. The era has been understood in a more extensive sense as a period that possessed sensibilities and characteristics distinct from the periods adjacent to it, in which case it is sometimes dated to begin before Victoria's accession—typically from the passage of or agitation for the Reform Act 1832, which introduced a wide-ranging change to the electoral system of England and Wales. Definitions that purport a distinct sensibility or politics to the era have created scepticism about the worth of the label "Victorian", though there have been defences of it.
Michael Sadleir was insistent that "in truth the Victorian period is three periods, not one". He distinguished early Victorianism – the and politically unsettled period from 1837 to 1850 – and late Victorianism, with its new waves of aestheticism and imperialism, from the Victorian heyday: mid-Victorianism, 1851 to 1879, he saw the latter period as characterised by a distinctive mixture of prosperity, domestic prudery, complacency – what G. M. Trevelyan called the "mid-Victorian decades of quiet politics and roaring prosperity". In 1832, after much political agitation, the Reform Act was passed on the third attempt; the Act abolished many borough seats and created others in their place, as well as expanding the franchise in England and Wales. Minor reforms followed in 1835 and 1836. On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV, her government was led by the Whig prime minister Lord Melbourne, but within two years he had resigned, the Tory politician Sir Robert Peel attempted to form a new ministry.
In the same year, a seizure of British opium exports to China prompted the First Opium War against the Qing dynasty, British imperial India initiated the First Anglo-Afghan War—one of the first major conflicts of the Great Game between Britain and Russia. In 1840, Queen Victoria married her German cousin Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfield, it proved a happy marriage, whose children were much sought after by royal families across Europe. In 1840 the Treaty of Waitangi established British sovereignty over New Zealand; the signing of the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 ended the First Opium War and gave Britain control over Hong Kong Island. However, a disastrous retreat from Kabul in the same year led to the annihilation of a British army column in Afghanistan. In 1845, the Great Famine began to cause mass starvation and death in Ireland, sparking large-scale emigration. Peel was replaced by the Whig ministry of Lord John Russell. In 1853, Britain fought alongside France in the Crimean War against Russia.
The goal was to ensure that Russia could not benefit from the declining status
Brunel University London
Brunel University London is a public research university located in Uxbridge, West London, United Kingdom. It was named after the Victorian engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, it is organised into three colleges and three major research institutes, a structure adopted in August 2014 which changed the university's name to Brunel University London. Brunel has over 12,900 students and 2,500 staff, had a total income of £200.7 million in 2014/15, of which 25% came from grants and research contracts. Brunel College of Technology separated from Acton Technical College in 1957, focused on the education of engineers. Brunel College of Technology was awarded the status of College of Advanced Technology in 1960 and became Brunel College of Advanced Technology in 2018. In June 1966 Brunel College of Advanced Technology was awarded a royal charter and became Brunel University London, it is described as a British plate glass university. Brunel is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the European University Association, Universities UK.
Brunel is one of a number of British universities which were established in the 1960s following the Robbins Report on higher education. It is sometimes described as a "plate glass university"; the university's origins lie in Acton Technical College, split into two in 1957: Acton Technical College continued to cater for technicians and craftsmen, the new Brunel College of Technology was dedicated to the education of chartered engineers. The campus buildings were designed in the Brutalist style of architecture by Richard Sheppard, Robson & Partners, Architects. In 1960 Brunel College of Technology was awarded the status of College of Advanced Technology, it was decided that it should expand at another site in order to accommodate the extra buildings that would be needed. Uxbridge was chosen to house the new buildings, construction work hadn’t begun before the Ministry of Education changed the College’s status: it was named Brunel College of Advanced Technology in 1962 – the tenth Advanced Technology College in the country, the last to be awarded this title.
The Uxbridge railway branch line was closed in 1964, the college purchased the land adjacent to its site where the railway had run for £65,000 from the local council. The royal charter granting university status was awarded on 9 June 1966; the university continued to use both campuses until 1971. In 1980 the university merged with Shoreditch College of Education, located at Cooper's Hill, Runnymede; this became Brunel's second campus. In 1995 the university expanded again, integrating the West London Institute of Higher Education, adding campuses in Osterley and Twickenham; this increased the number of courses. Traditionally the university's strengths were in engineering, science and social sciences but with the addition of the West London Institute, new departments such as arts, humanities and earth science and sports science were added, the size of the student body increased to over 12,000. Brunel has been the subject of controversy as its approach to higher education has been both market-driven and politically conservative.
The decision to award an honorary degree to Margaret Thatcher in 1996, following the University of Oxford's refusal to do so, provoked an outcry by staff and students, as a result the ceremony had to be held in the House of Lords instead of on campus. In the late 1990s, the Departments of Physics and Materials Engineering were all closed, and, in 2004, the Vice-Chancellor Steven Schwartz, initiated the reorganisation of the university's faculties and departments into schools, closed the Department of Geography and Earth Sciences; the succeeding Vice-Chancellor, the sociologist Christopher Jenks, took office in 2006. and he was followed by Julia Buckingham at Imperial College London, who took up the position of Vice Chancellor at Brunel in October 2012. In June 2011, Brunel University London licensed Creative Barcode, an automated idea sharing platform which protects ownership of early stage ideas. In the late 1990s Brunel devised a £ 250 million masterplan for the campus; this involved selling off campus sites at Runnymede and Twickenham and using the revenue from the sales to renovate and update the buildings and facilities on the Uxbridge campus.
Works carried out included a library extension, a state-of-the-art sports complex, renovated students' union facilities, a new Health Sciences teaching centre, the construction of more halls of residence. The Brunel campus has appeared in several films, most famously in Stanley Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange, large parts of which were filmed on campus, it has featured in several UK television series including Spooks, Silent Witness,The Sweeney and Inspector Morse. Brunel has three constituent Academic Colleges: College of Engineering and Physical Sciences Computer Science Design Electronic and Computer Engineering Mathematics Mechanical and Aerospace Civil EngineeringCollege of Business and Social Sciences Brunel Business School Brunel Law School Arts and Humanities Economics and Finance Education Social and Political SciencesCollege of Health and Life Sciences Clinical Sciences Life Sciences Research at Brunel has been organised into three institutes: Institute of Energy Futures Institute of Environment and Societies Institute of Materials and Manufacturing Brunel exists by virtue of a royal charter first granted in 1966 and it has the status of an exempt charity as defined by the Charities Act 2006.
MidKent College is a further education college in Kent, England. It runs courses from two separate campuses in Maidstone and Medway, including a number of higher education courses. There are 8,500 students aged 16 years and upwards enrolled at the college. Courses offered range from pre-entry level to degree level and cover a wide range of vocational and academic subject areas; the college has two main campuses: the Medway Campus in the Maidstone Campus. In September 2009 all courses at the old sites of the Horsted Centre in Chatham and the City Way Centre in Rochester were moved to a new combined campus on Prince Arthur Road in Gillingham; the new campus, which received more than £40 million of Learning and Skills Council funding, cost a total of £86million. It offers training facilities in a range of subject areas including construction, performing arts and catering; the Medway Campus was opened by The Princess Royal on Thursday 25 March 2010. In late 2012 work started on a £22 million refurbishment of the Maidstone Campus to bring its facilities up to the standard of the Medway Campus.
The wider development of the Maidstone Campus includes a refurbishment of the University for the Creative Arts' Maidstone campus – located at Oakwood Park –, purchased by the College in 2011. In 2014 both City Way and Horsted centres were demolished; the college has been delivering vocational education in Maidstone for nearly 100 years. Its roots lie in the technical institutes established within the Medway towns in the 1890s and Maidstone around 1918; the college first began delivering courses from the Horsted Centre in Chatham in 1954. The site was opened as Medway College of Technology by the Duke of Edinburgh on 5 April the following year. Medway College of Technology and Maidstone Technical College amalgamated in 1966 to become Medway and Maidstone College of Technology; the purpose-built City Way site in Rochester was subsequently opened as an additional college site in 1968. The college changed its name to Mid-Kent College of Higher and Further Education in 1978, before dropping the hyphen and space and the latter part of its title to become MidKent College in October 2008.
Throughout the 1950s, 60s and 70s, the college's students were famed for their Rag Day parade. This saw them conducting a carnival procession through the Medway Towns; the parade ended at the esplanade in Rochester. Each year the students elected their own "Rag Day Queen" to head the procession; the current principal of MidKent College is Simon Cook, who has held the position since July 2014 after the sad death of principal Sue McLeod. The mother-of-one had worked across the Caribbean, United States and Europe during her time in the travel industry, including a stint aboard cruise liners, she had earlier achieved a degree in Business Studies at the Dorset Institute of Higher Education – now Bournemouth University – where she returned to study Travel and Tourism prior to embarking on her teaching career with MidKent College. In 2014 Sue McLeod was diagnosed with a brain tumour. On 24 July 2014, MidKent College informed the public via social media that she had died, the statement stated "It is with great sadness that MidKent College announces the death of its much-loved principal Sue McLeod at the age of 53."
The current chief executive of MidKent College is Simon Cook, who has held the position since the retirement of previous CEO, Stephen Grix, in July 2016. Mr Grix first joined the College in 1971 when, having left school at age 15 with no formal qualifications, he enrolled as a day-release bricklaying student at the old Horsted site in Chatham. After 13 years in the trade he returned to study an education degree, followed by a master's degree in education management; the father-of-three went on to become principal of Sir George Monoux College in Walthamstow, north-east London, head of Ofsted's post-compulsory education division. Next was a role as director of education for the London borough of Tower Hamlets before Mr Grix returned to MidKent College as principal and chief executive in March 2005. Once back at the place where he launched his career, Mr Grix took on the mammoth task of closing the College's dated Horsted and City Way sites and identifying funding opportunities for the new £86 million Medway Campus, which opened in 2009.
He turned his attention to improving the Maidstone Campus, undergoing a £23m redevelopment due for completion in December 2013. In January 2013, Mr Grix announced he would step down as principal at the end of the academic year but continue as chief executive on a part-time basis until 2015, he was succeeded as principal by his former deputy Sue McLeod. In June 2013 Mr Grix was appointed an OBE for services to further education in The Queen's Birthday Honours List. Mr Grix is an executive director of MKC Training Services Ltd, which administers the College's contract to deliver training within the Royal School of Military Engineering at Brompton Barracks. MidKent College became an associate college of the University of Kent in 2001; the University of Kent validates. Caroline Feraday and radio broadcaster Mo Abudu, African businesswoman and television personality Andy Walker, radio broadcaster Kat Driscoll, Olympic trampolinist Jack Green, Olympic hurdler Matt Coles, England cricketer Charlotte Evans, Winter Paralympic gold medalist MidKent College website Medway Mag Online
University of Pretoria
The University of Pretoria is a multi-campus public research university in Pretoria, the administrative and de facto capital of South Africa. The university was established in 1908 as the Pretoria campus of the Johannesburg-based Transvaal University College and is the fourth South African institution in continuous operation to be awarded university status; the university has grown from the original 32 students in a single late Victorian house to 39,000 in 2010. The University was built on 7 suburban campuses on 1,120 hectares; the University is organised into a business school. Established in 1920, the University of Pretoria Faculty of Veterinary Science is the second oldest veterinary school in Africa and the only veterinary school in South Africa. In 1949 the university launched the first MBA programme outside North America and the university's Gordon Institute of Business Science has been ranked the top business school in Africa for executive education, as well as being placed in the top 50 in the world.
In 2012 the Financial Times ranked the GIBS Executive MBA 1st in 60th in the world. Since 1997, the university has produced more research outputs every year than any other institution of higher learning in South Africa, as measured by the Department of Education's accreditation benchmark. In 2008, the university awarded 15.8% of all masters and doctorate degrees in South Africa, the highest percentage in the country. The university is referred to as UP, Tuks, or Tukkies and in post-nominals the university is abbreviated as Pret or UP, although Pretoria is used in official publications; the proposal for a university for the capital, first mooted in the Volksraad in 1889, was interrupted by the outbreak of the Anglo Boer War in 1899. In 1896 the South African School of Mines was founded in Kimberley. Eight years in 1904, the school was moved to Johannesburg and was renamed the Transvaal Technical Institute; the school's name changed yet again in 1906 to Transvaal University College. In 1902 after the signing of the Peace of Vereeniging, the Normal College for teacher training was established in Groenkloof, Pretoria.
On 4 March 1908 when the Transvaal University College transferred its arts and science courses to its newly established Pretoria Campus the precursor to the university was established offering courses in languages and law. Instruction commenced with 32 students, 4 professors and 3 lecturers in the Kya Rosa, 270 Skinner Street a late Victorian residence purchased from Leo Weinthal the owner of The Press; the first four professors were Prof H. Th. Reinink, J. Purves, D. F. du Toit Malherbe and A. C. Paterson, who would become the first Vice-ChancellorIn 1910 the Colonial Secretary, General Jan Smuts tabled the act constituting the university as a separate entity before the Transvaal Parliament, the "Transvaalse Universiteits-Inlijvingswet" Law 1 of 1910. On 17 May 1910 the Johannesburg and Pretoria campuses separated, each becoming an independent institution; the Johannesburg campus being reincorporated as the South African School of Mines and Technology, while the Pretoria campus retained the name of Transvaal University College until 1930.
The South African School of Mines and Technology would go on to become the University of the Witwatersrand in 1922. In 1910 the TUC acquired its own campus in the East of Pretoria, what is now the western part of the university's main campus in Hatfield. On 3 August 1910 Governor-General Herbert John Gladstone, 1st Viscount Gladstone laid the cornerstone of the Old Arts Building, the first building to be built on the newly established Hatfield campus; the building's striking Cape Dutch and Neo-Romanesque architectural style was recognised in 1968 when it was declared a provincial heritage site. During this time the colloquial name for the university, Tukkies or Tuks, was derived from the Afrikaans acronym for the college i.e. Transvaalse Universiteitskollege; the late 1910s and early 1920s saw the establishment of several faculties as the academic activities were expanded. Courses in agriculture, theology and political science, veterinary science, music were established as the institution grew.
On 10 October 1930 the University of Pretoria Private Act, No. 13 of 1930 changed the name of the TUC to the University of Pretoria. The TUC established as an English medium institution had evolved into the only bilingual university in South Africa and remained as such until the early 1930s; the rapid increase of Afrikaans speaking students brought about an imbalance between the demographics of students and the languages of instruction. By 1931, although 65% of students were Afrikaans speaking, 68% of the classes were conducted in English. In 1932 the University Council addressed the imbalance, deciding that Afrikaans would become the only medium of instruction. An increase in student numbers necessitated the building of new facilities such as the Club Hall and Administration Building when the 7th faculty, the Medical Faculty, was established in 1943; this period further saw the establishment of numerous student activities such as the annual Spring Day event and intervarsity. Student publications established include the Trek in 1931, the first Rag Mag in 1936 and the weekly student newspaper, Die Perdeby in 1939.
The period of 1948–1982 is characterised by the substantial increase in numbers of an exclusively white student body and the concomitant physical growth of the university infrastructure. The nearly doubling of stu
A rubber duck (also known as is a toy shaped like a stylized duck yellow with a flat base. It may be made of rubber or rubber-like material such as vinyl plastic; the yellow rubber duck has achieved an iconic status in Western pop culture and is symbolically linked to bathing. The history of the rubber duck is linked to the emergence of rubber manufacturing in the late 19th century; the earliest rubber ducks were made from harder rubber when manufacturers began using Charles Goodyear's invention, vulcanized rubber. These solid rubber ducks were not capable of floating and were instead intended as chew toys. Sculptor Peter Ganine created a sculpture of a duck in the 1940s, he patented it and reproduced it as a floating toy, of which over 50 million were sold. Besides the ubiquitous yellow rubber duck with which most people are familiar, there have been numerous novelty variations on the basic theme, including character ducks representing professions, politicians, or celebrities. There are ducks that glow in the dark, change color, have interior LED illumination, or include a wind-up engine that enables them to "swim".
In 2001, The Sun, a British tabloid reported that Queen Elizabeth II has a rubber duck in her bathroom that wears an inflatable crown. The duck was spotted by a workman, repainting her bathroom; the story prompted sales of rubber ducks in the United Kingdom to increase by 80% for a short period. Rubber ducks are collected by enthusiasts; the 2011 Guinness World Record for World's Largest Rubber Duck Collection stood at 5,631 different rubber ducks, was awarded to Charlotte Lee. In 2013, the rubber duck was inducted into the Toy Hall of Fame, a museum in Rochester, New York, along with the game of chess. Toys are selected based on factors like icon-status and innovation. Ernie, a popular Muppet from the television series Sesame Street, performed the song "Rubber Duckie". Ernie spoke to his duck and carried it with him in other segments of the show. On a special occasion, Little Richard performed the song. C. W. McCall's hit song "Convoy" are narrated from the viewpoint of a character who replaced the bulldog hood ornament on his Mack truck with a bathtub toy and used the on-air handle of "Rubber Duck".
The world's largest rubber duck was created by Dutch artist Florentijn Hofman in 2007, measuring 16.5 m × 20 m × 32 m and weighing about 600 kilograms. Since 2007, several ducks of various sizes created by Hofman have been on display in countries and territories such as Amsterdam, Netherlands. In 2013, China's "Great Firewall" blocks searches for "big yellow duck" because Chinese activists were photoshopping the Rubber Duck sculpture into the Tank Man photo of the Tiananmen Square Massacre. If the term "Big Yellow Duck" was searched, a message would say that according to relevant laws and policies, the results of the search could not be shown. Rubber duck races known as derby duck races, have been used as a method of fundraising for organizations worldwide. People donate money to the organization by sponsoring a duck. At the end of the fundraising drive, all of the ducks are dumped into a waterway, with the first to float past the finish line winning a prize for its sponsor. There are hundreds of races held in the United States and internationally.
The largest race in the United States is the annual Freestore Foodbank Rubber Duck Regatta in Cincinnati, Ohio. First run in 1995, the Rubber Duck Regatta now features over 150,000 ducks raced to raise money for the organization. Since its beginning in 1995 the Rubber Duck Regatta in Cincinnati Ohio has raised over $9 million, over $1 million has been raised for each year's race since 2014; the annual Aspen Ducky Derby was first run by the Rotary Club of Aspen, Colorado, in 1991. The derby now takes place each August in Aspen's Rio Grande Park. Through its past 20 years, the Aspen Ducky Derby has raised more than $2.3 million to benefit 65 nonprofit groups. One of the more famous rubber duck races is the Great Knoxville Rubber Duck Race; this race received attention when the Tennessee Supreme Court ruled that it was a lottery, which stopped the race for a few years. After the state amended its constitution to allow lotteries with special exceptions, the race was reinstituted; the Derby Duck race sees over 40,000 ducks race to benefit the Boys and Girls Club of Tennessee Valley.
A famous rubber duck race is the Halifax Duck Derby. This race has 10,000 rubber ducks in the Halifax Harbour along Bishops Landing. There is a grand prize of $1 million Canadian dollars; this race has been successful in raising money and awareness for its organizations. The Lumsden Duck Derby is a Labour Day tradition in the town of Lumsden, Saskatchewan, 31 kilometres northwest of Regina. Founded in 1988 to help the town raise funds for a new ice rink, nowadays the Derby races 25,000 rubber ducks down a stretch of the Qu'Appelle River and features a grand prize of CAD$1 million; the town makes a day out of it, with a pancake breakfast and other entertainments, kids' activities, a "parade to the post."The Estes Park Rotary Duck Race raises money for sixty-eight different charities. Contestants must choose; the Great Brisbane Duck Race is held on the Brisbane River each year to raise funds for the PA Research Foundation. The 100-metre race saw 30,000 rubber ducks ente
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations