1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Piedmont is a city in Calhoun and Cherokee counties in the U. S. state of Alabama. The population was 4,878 at the 2010 census, it is included in Alabama Metropolitan Statistical Area. Many surrounding communities are served by the 36272 ZIP code, including Spring Garden, Rock Run, Knighten's Crossroads, Nance's Creek; the current mayor is Bill Baker, chosen by the city council to lead after elected mayor Rick Freeman resigned due to medical issues. The area now known as Piedmont is a community that began in the early 1840s, located at the crossroads of two early post roads. Major Jacob Forney Dailey of North Carolina came to Alabama in 1848 and bought land in present-day Piedmont. Major Dailey named the area Cross Plains, an official post office with that name was established on September 22, 1851. In Reconstruction-era Alabama, an incident at Cross Plains affected race relations and the future of the northeast section of the state for generations as a result of the lynching of William Luke, a northern missionary, several other men in 1870.
In that year, the new northern-owned railroad to connect Washington, D. C. and the North with New Orleans was to have its headquarters near the small northeast Alabama town, at Patona. After the Ku Klux Klan-led lynchings, the headquarters was moved, the town never achieved the dominant position in Calhoun County, with Anniston, founded the next year, achieving that status instead. Wall Street financier Franklin Delano, uncle of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was president of the railroad at the time; the railroad sponsored a school for African-American children of freedmen, Luke was the teacher. Word spread in the area that Luke was teaching racial equality, resentment developed against him in the northern Calhoun County area; the railroad was planning to use the graduates as a source of students for Talladega College who might go on to work for the railroad. A racial fight at the Cross Plains station gave rise to arrests of certain freedmen, of Luke as well. Klansmen seized the prisoners and murdered them.
Congressional hearings followed, with strengthened civil rights laws, but the murderers were never properly punished. On July 30, 1888, the Postal Department renamed the office Piedmont, which means "Foot of the Mountains". An F4 tornado struck the community on Palm Sunday 1994, killing twenty people at Goshen United Methodist Church including Reverend Kelly Clem's four-year-old daughter, Hannah, it destroyed two other area churches mid-service as well as many homes in the town and neighboring communities. The Standard Coosa-Thatcher Company was a textile corporation founded in Piedmont, Alabama in 1891, it was publicly traded beginning in 1922. The firm is important because of its endurance for nearly a century and its expansion throughout the southeast United States and into the western United States. Known in Piedmont as the "Cotton Mill", it began operating in 1892 and closed in 1995. In 2016, demolition of the building began. Over the next two years or so workers will tear down the mill and reclaim more than 100 year-old lumber and other material for resell.
Piedmont is located at 33°55′34″N 85°36′47″W According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.9 square miles, of which 9.8 square miles is land and 0.077 square miles, or 0.67%, is water. The Piedmont City Schools athletic teams are known as the Bulldogs. Piedmont High School is a member of the Alabama High School Athletic Association and participates in Class 3A Football, Baseball, Golf and Track, they have a band: the Piedmont Blue Knights Marching Band, class 2A. On February 6, 2009, under Head Coach Harley Lamey, the Piedmont High School wrestling team won the first state championship in school history in any sport. At the AHSAA 1A-4A State Wrestling Championship, the bulldogs had two individual champions, two runners-up, nine wrestlers who placed; the Bulldogs were 14-0 in dual meets. On December 3, 2009, at Bryant–Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Head Coach Steve Smith led Piedmont to a 35-28 overtime win over the Cordova Blue Devils in the AHSAA 3A State Championship Game.
Luke Smith tied state record for most tackles in 3A state championship game and recovered Ryan Smith's fumble to secure the Bulldogs' win. Christian Cantrell was responsible for four of the Bulldogs' touchdowns and one two-point conversion totalling 26 points, but Chase Childers' performance as QB named him the MVP of the Championship Game; the team finished with a 13-2 record. On December 3, 2015, at Bryant–Denny Stadium in Tuscaloosa, Head Coach Steve Smith led Piedmont to a 44-7 win over Bayside Academy in the AHSAA 3A State Championship Game. Taylor Hayes and Darnell Jackson combined for 124 yards on four touchdowns; the victory gave Piedmont its second football state title in school history – six years after Bulldogs won their first, concluding the 2009 season. Piedmont’s run to the title included a school record for wins in a season and points scored. On May 4, 2013, Head Coach Mark Mitchell led the Piedmont High School Boys Track and Field Team to the 2013 AHSAA 3A Track & Field State Championship in Selma.
The Bulldogs scored 81 points to outpace runner-up Trinity Presbyterian, which scored 74. This was Coach Mitchell's seventh consecutive state championship. On December 1, 2016, at Jordan-Hare Stadium in Auburn, the Piedmont Bulldogs defeated Mobile Christian 22-12; this resulted in back-to-back High School Football State Championships. The Piedmont Bulldogs now have a total of 3 High School Football State Championships; the Bulldogs finished the 2016 season with a 15-
North American Numbering Plan
The North American Numbering Plan is a telephone numbering plan that encompasses twenty-five distinct regions in twenty countries in North America, including the Caribbean. Some North American countries, most notably Mexico, do not participate in the NANP; the NANP was devised in the 1940s by AT&T for the Bell System and independent telephone operators in North America to unify the diverse local numbering plans, established in the preceding decades. AT&T continued to administer the numbering plan until the breakup of the Bell System, when administration was delegated to the North American Numbering Plan Administration, a service, procured from the private sector by the Federal Communications Commission in the United States; each participating country forms a regulatory authority that has plenary control over local numbering resources. The FCC serves as the U. S. regulator. Canadian numbering decisions are made by the Canadian Numbering Administration Consortium; the NANP divides the territories of its members into numbering plan areas which are encoded numerically with a three-digit telephone number prefix called the area code.
Each telephone is assigned a seven-digit telephone number unique only within its respective plan area. The telephone number consists of a four-digit station number; the combination of an area code and the telephone number serves as a destination routing address in the public switched telephone network. For international call routing, the NANP has been assigned the international calling code 1 by the International Telecommunications Union; the North American Numbering Plan conforms with ITU Recommendation E.164, which establishes an international numbering framework. From its beginnings in 1876 and throughout the first part of the 20th century, the Bell System grew from local or regional telephone systems; these systems expanded by growing their subscriber bases, as well as increasing their service areas by implementing additional local exchanges that were interconnected with tie trunks. It was the responsibility of each local administration to design telephone numbering plans that accommodated the local requirements and growth.
As a result, the Bell System as a whole developed into an unorganized system of many differing local numbering systems. The diversity impeded the efficient operation and interconnection of exchanges into a nationwide system for long-distance telephone communication. By the 1940s, the Bell System set out to unify the various numbering plans in existence and developed the North American Numbering Plan as a unified, systematic approach to efficient long-distance service that did not require the involvement of switchboard operators; the new numbering plan was accepted in October 1947, dividing most of North America into eighty-six numbering plan areas. Each NPA was assigned a numbering plan area code abbreviated as area code; these codes were first used by long-distance operators to establish long-distance calls between toll offices. The first customer-dialed direct call using area codes was made on November 10, 1951, from Englewood, New Jersey, to Alameda, California. Direct distance dialing was subsequently introduced across the country.
By the early 1960s, most areas of the Bell System had been converted and DDD had become commonplace in cities and most larger towns. In the following decades, the system expanded to include all of the United States and its territories, Canada and seventeen nations of the Caribbean. By 1967, 129 area codes had been assigned. At the request of the British Colonial Office, the numbering plan was first expanded to Bermuda and the British West Indies because of their historic telecommunications administration through Canada as parts of the British Empire and their continued associations with Canada during the years of the telegraph and the All Red Line system. Not all North American countries participate in the NANP. Exceptions include Mexico, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the Central American countries and some Caribbean countries; the only Spanish-speaking state in the system is the Dominican Republic. Mexican participation was planned, but implementation stopped after three area codes had been assigned, Mexico opted for an international numbering format, using country code 52.
The area codes in use were subsequently withdrawn in 1991. Area code 905 for Mexico City, was reassigned to a split of area code 416 in the Greater Toronto Area. Dutch-speaking Sint Maarten joined the NANP in September 2011, receiving area code 721; the NANP is administered by the North American Numbering Plan Administration. Today, this function is overseen by the Federal Communications Commission, which assumed the responsibility upon the breakup of the Bell System; the FCC solicits private sector contracts for the role of the administrator. The service was provided by a division of Lockheed Martin. In 1997, the contract was awarded to Neustar Inc.. In 2012, the contract was renewed until 2017. In 2015, the contract beginning 2017 was granted to Ericsson; the vision and goal of the architects of the North American Numbering Plan was a system by which telephone subscribers in the United States and Canada could themselves dial and establish a telephone call to any other subscriber wi
Etowah County, Alabama
Etowah County is a county of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census the population was 104,430, its county seat is Gadsden. Its name is from a Cherokee word meaning "edible tree". In total area, it is one of the most densely populated. Etowah County comprises the Gadsden Metropolitan Statistical Area; the territory of Etowah County was split among the neighboring counties, with most of it belonging to DeKalb and Cherokee counties. It was separated and established as Baine County on December 7, 1866, by the first postwar legislature, was named for General David W. Baine of the Confederate Army; the county seat was designated as Gadsden. Because of postwar tensions and actions of insurgents against freedmen, a state constitutional convention was called in 1868. During it, this new county was abolished, replaced on December 1, 1868 by one aligned to the same boundaries and named Etowah County, from a Cherokee language word. Most of the Cherokee had been removed in the 1830s to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River.
Etowah County had issues of racial discrimination and injustice, Jim Crow. It had one documented lynching. Bunk Richardson, an innocent African-American man, was lynched by about 25 masked whites in the county seat of Gadsden, Alabama, on February 1906 because he was associated with a case in which a white woman was raped and killed; the whites were angry that the governor had commuted the death sentence of one defendant in the case, after two men had been executed for the crime. An F4 tornado struck here on Palm Sunday March 27, 1994, it destroyed Piedmont's Goshen United Methodist Church twelve minutes after the National Weather Service of Birmingham issued a tornado warning for northern Calhoun, southeastern Etowah, southern Cherokee counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 549 square miles, of which 535 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water, it is the smallest county by area in Alabama. DeKalb County – north Cherokee County – east Calhoun County – southeast St. Clair County – southwest Blount County – west Marshall County – northwest Alabama and Tennessee River Railway Norfolk Southern Railway Tennessee and Georgia Railway As of the census of 2000, there were 103,459 people, 41,615 households, 29,463 families residing in the county.
The population density was 193 people per square mile. There were 45,959 housing units at an average density of 86 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 82.9% White, 14.7% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.4% Asian, <0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 0.9% from two or more races. 1.7% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 41,615 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2.93. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.8% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 24.1% from 45 to 64, 16.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.80 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,170, the median income for a family was $38,697. Males had a median income of $31,610 versus $21,346 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,783. About 12.3% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.6% of those under age 18 and 13.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 104,430 people, 42,036 households, 28,708 families residing in the county; the population density was 195 people per square mile. There were 47,454 housing units at an average density of 86 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 80.3% White, 15.1% Black or African American, 0.4% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, 1.5% from two or more races. 3.3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 42,036 households out of which 27.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.3% were married couples living together, 14.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families.
28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 27.8% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.5 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,422, the median income for a family was $44,706. Males had a median income of $39,814 versus $30,220 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,439. About 13.1% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.6% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over. Attalla Boaz Gadsden Glencoe Hokes Bluff Rainbow City Southside Altoona Reece City Ridgeville Sardis City (partly in Marshall County
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
A ZIP Code is a postal code used by the United States Postal Service in a system it introduced in 1963. The term ZIP is an acronym for Zone Improvement Plan; the basic format consists of five digits. An extended ZIP+4 code was introduced in 1983 which includes the five digits of the ZIP Code, followed by a hyphen and four additional digits that reference a more specific location; the term ZIP Code was registered as a servicemark by the U. S. Postal Service, but its registration has since expired; the early history and context of postal codes began with postal district/zone numbers. The United States Post Office Department implemented postal zones for numerous large cities in 1943. For example: The "16" was the number of the postal zone in the specific city. By the early 1960s, a more organized system was needed, non-mandatory five-digit ZIP Codes were introduced nationwide on July 1, 1963; the USPOD issued its Publication 59: Abbreviations for Use with ZIP Code on October 1, 1963, with the list of two-letter state abbreviations which are written with both letters capitalized.
An earlier list in June had proposed capitalized abbreviations ranging from two to five letters. According to Publication 59, the two-letter standard was "based on a maximum 23-position line, because this has been found to be the most universally acceptable line capacity basis for major addressing systems", which would be exceeded by a long city name combined with a multi-letter state abbreviation, such as "Sacramento, Calif." along with the ZIP Code. The abbreviations have remained unchanged, with the exception of Nebraska, changed from NB to NE in 1969 at the request of the Canadian postal administration, to avoid confusion with the Canadian province of New Brunswick. Robert Moon is considered the father of the ZIP Code; the post office only credits Moon with the first three digits of the ZIP Code, which describe the sectional center facility or "sec center." An SCF is a central mail processing facility with those three digits. The fourth and fifth digits, which give a more precise locale within the SCF, were proposed by Henry Bentley Hahn Sr.
The SCF sorts mail to all post offices with those first three digits in their ZIP Codes. The mail is sorted according to the final two digits of the ZIP Code and sent to the corresponding post offices in the early morning. Sectional centers do not deliver mail and are not open to the public, most of their employees work the night shift. Mail picked up at post offices is sent to their own SCF in the afternoon, where the mail is sorted overnight. In the case of large cities, the last two digits coincide with the older postal zone number thus: In 1967, these became mandatory for second- and third-class bulk mailers, the system was soon adopted generally; the United States Post Office used a cartoon character, which it called Mr. ZIP, to promote the use of the ZIP Code, he was depicted with a legend such as "USE ZIP CODE" in the selvage of panes of postage stamps or on the covers of booklet panes of stamps. In 1971 Elmira Star-Gazette reporter Dick Baumbach found out the White House was not using a ZIP Code on its envelopes.
Herb Klein, special assistant to President Nixon, responded by saying the next printing of envelopes would include the ZIP Code. In 1983, the U. S. Postal Service introduced an expanded ZIP Code system that it called ZIP+4 called "plus-four codes", "add-on codes", or "add-ons". A ZIP+4 Code uses the basic five-digit code plus four additional digits to identify a geographic segment within the five-digit delivery area, such as a city block, a group of apartments, an individual high-volume receiver of mail, a post office box, or any other unit that could use an extra identifier to aid in efficient mail sorting and delivery. However, initial attempts to promote universal use of the new format met with public resistance and today the plus-four code is not required. In general, mail is read by a multiline optical character reader that instantly determines the correct ZIP+4 Code from the address—along with the more specific delivery point—and sprays an Intelligent Mail barcode on the face of the mail piece that corresponds to 11 digits—nine for the ZIP+4 Code and two for the delivery point.
For Post Office Boxes, the general rule is. The add-on code is one of the following: the last four digits of the box number, zero plus the last three digits of the box number, or, if the box number consists of fewer than four digits, enough zeros are attached to the front of the box number to produce a four-digit number. However, there is no uniform rule, so the ZIP+4 Code must be looked up individually for each box; the ZIP Code is translated into an Intelligent Mail barcode, printed on the mailpiece to make it easier for automated machines to sort. A barcode can be printed by the sender, it is better to let the post office put one on. In general, the post office uses OCR technology, though in some cases a human might have to read and enter the address. Customers who send bulk mail can get a discount on postage if they have printed the barcode themselves and have presorted the mai
National Weather Service
The National Weather Service is an agency of the United States federal government, tasked with providing weather forecasts, warnings of hazardous weather, other weather-related products to organizations and the public for the purposes of protection and general information. It is a part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration branch of the Department of Commerce, is headquartered in Silver Spring, within the Washington metropolitan area; the agency was known as the United States Weather Bureau from 1890 until it adopted its current name in 1970. The NWS performs its primary task through a collection of national and regional centers, 122 local Weather Forecast Offices; as the NWS is an agency of the U. S. federal government, most of its products are in available free of charge. In 1870, the Weather Bureau of the United States was established through a joint resolution of Congress signed by President Ulysses S. Grant with a mission to "provide for taking meteorological observations at the military stations in the interior of the continent and at other points in the States and Territories...and for giving notice on the northern Lakes and on the seacoast by magnetic telegraph and marine signals, of the approach and force of storms."
The agency was placed under the Secretary of War as Congress felt "military discipline would secure the greatest promptness and accuracy in the required observations." Within the Department of War, it was assigned to the U. S. Army Signal Service under Brigadier General Albert J. Myer. General Myer gave the National Weather Service its first name: The Division of Telegrams and Reports for the Benefit of Commerce. Cleveland Abbe – who began developing probabilistic forecasts using daily weather data sent by the Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and Western Union, which he convinced to back the collection of such information in 1869 – was appointed as the Bureau's first chief meteorologist. In his earlier role as the civilian assistant to the chief of the Signal Service, Abbe urged the Department of War to research weather conditions to provide a scientific basis behind the forecasts. While a debate went on between the Signal Service and Congress over whether the forecasting of weather conditions should be handled by civilian agencies or the Signal Service's existing forecast office, a Congressional committee was formed to oversee the matter, recommending that the office's operations be transferred to the Department of War following a two-year investigation.
The agency first became a civilian enterprise in 1890, when it became part of the Department of Agriculture. Under the oversight of that branch, the Bureau began issuing flood warnings and fire weather forecasts, issued the first daily national surface weather maps; the first Weather Bureau radiosonde was launched in Massachusetts in 1937, which prompted a switch from routine aircraft observation to radiosondes within two years. The Bureau prohibited the word "tornado" from being used in any of its weather products out of concern for inciting panic until 1938, when it began disseminating tornado warnings to emergency management personnel; the Bureau would be moved to the Department of Commerce in 1940. On July 12, 1950, bureau chief Francis W. Reichelderfer lifted the agency's ban on public tornado alerts in a Circular Letter, noting to all first order stations that "Weather Bureau employees should avoid statements that can be interpreted as a negation of the Bureau's willingness or ability to make tornado forecasts", that a "good probability of verification" exist when issuing such forecasts due to the difficulty in predicting tornadic activity.
However it would not be until it faced criticism for continuing to refuse to provide public tornado warnings and preventing the release of the USAF Severe Weather Warning Center's tornado forecasts beyond military personnel that the Bureau issued its first experimental public tornado forecasts in March 1952. In 1957, the Bureau began using radars for short-term forecasting of local storms and hydrological events, using modified versions of those used by Navy aircraft to create the WSR-57, with a network of WSR systems being deployed nationwide through the early 1960s; the Weather Bureau became part of the Environmental Science Services Administration when that agency was formed in August 1966. The Environmental Science Services Administration was renamed the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on October 1, 1970, with the enactment of the National Environmental Policy Act. At this time, the Weather Bureau became the National Weather Service. NEXRAD, a system of Doppler radars deployed to improve the detection and warning time of severe local storms, replaced the WSR-57 and WSR-74 systems between 1988 and 1997.
Bob Glahn has written a comprehensive history of the first hundred years of the National Weather Service. The NWS, through a variety of sub-organizations, issues different forecasts to users, including the general public. Although, throughout history, text forecasts have been the means of product dissemination, the NWS has been using more forecast products of a digital, gridded, im