Deborah Kaye Allen is an American actress, choreographer, television director, television producer, a member of the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities. She is best known for her work on the 1982 musical-drama television series Fame, where she portrayed dance teacher Lydia Grant, served as the series' principal choreographer, she portrays Catherine Fox on Grey's Anatomy. She is the younger sister of actress/director/singer Phylicia Rashad. Allen was born in Houston, the third child to orthodontist Andrew Arthur Allen Jr. and Pulitzer Prize-nominated artist, playwright and publisher, Vivian Allen, She went on to earn a B. A. degree in classical Greek literature and theater from Howard University. She studied acting at HB Studio in New York City, she holds honoris causa Doctorates from Howard University and the University of North Carolina School of the Arts. She teaches young dancers, she taught choreography to former Los Angeles Lakers dancer-turned-singer, Paula Abdul. Her daughter, Vivian Nixon, played Kalimba in the Broadway production of Hot Feet.
After her trip with her family from Mexico, both Debbie Allen and her family decided to return to their permanent home in Texas. When she returned to her home in Texas, Debbie Allen auditioned at the Houston Ballet School at the age of twelve. Though her audition performance exceeded beyond the qualifications of admission, Debbie Allen was denied admission to the school due to systemic racism that had corrupted the process. A year after hearing this devastating news, Allen was given another chance and was admitted by a Russian instructor who accidentally saw Debbie Allen perform in a show. Once admission recruiters from the Houston Ballet School became aware of the situation, they allowed Allen to stay in the institution because they were pleased with the talent she had showcased; this is not the only time. When she was sixteen, she had a successful audition for the North Carolina School of the Arts, was given an opportunity to demonstrate dance techniques to other prospective students applying to the institution.
Allen was rejected acceptance due to her body not being suited for ballet. In many cases, African American dancers were discouraged from dance because they were told their body structure did not fit the preferred stereotype ballet dancer's body; this prejudice barred many talented and skilled dancers from ballet. After receiving numerous rejections, Allen decided to focus on her academics and, from on, was well on her way to the start of her career. Debbie Allen had her Broadway debut in the chorus of Purlie. Allen created the role of Beneatha in the Tony Award-winning musical Raisin, she first began receiving critical attention in 1980 for her appearance in the role of Anita in the Broadway revival of West Side Story which earned her a Tony Award nomination and a Drama Desk Award, she would receive a second Tony Award nomination in 1986 for her performance in the title role of Bob Fosse's Sweet Charity. One of her earlier television appearances was in the TV sitcom Good Times in a memorable 2-part episode titled "J.
J.'s Fiancee'" as J. J.'s Diana. Allen was first introduced as Lydia Grant in the 1980 film Fame. Although her role in the film was small, Lydia would become a central figure in the television adaptation, which ran from 1982 to 1987. During the opening montage of each episode, Grant told her students: "You've got big dreams? You want fame? Well, fame costs, and right here is where you start paying... in sweat." Allen was nominated for the Emmy Award for Best Actress four times during the show's run. She is the only actress to have appeared in all three screen incarnations of Fame, playing Lydia Grant in both the 1980 film and 1982 television series and playing the school principal in the 2009 remake. Allen was lead choreographer for the film and television series, winning two Emmy Awards and one Golden Globe Award. In 1981, she had the important role of Sarah, the lover of Coalhouse Walker, killed while trying to defend him in the movie version of the best-selling novel Ragtime; the same role earned a Tony Award for her performance in the Broadway Musical.
In an article from the Museum of Broadcast Communications, The Hollywood Reporter commented on Allen's impact as the producer-director of the television series, A Different World. The show dealt with the life of students at the fictional black college and ran for six seasons on NBC. Debbie Allen was selected to appear in the 1979 miniseries Roots: The Next Generations by Alex Haley where she plays the wife of Haley. In 2008 she directed the all-African-American Broadway production of Tennessee Williams' Pulitzer Prize-winning drama Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, starring stage veterans James Earl Jones, her sister Phylicia Rashad and Anika Noni Rose, as well as film actor Terrence Howard, who made his Broadway debut as Brick; the production, with some roles recast, had a limited run in London. Allen has released two solo albums, 1986's Sweet Charity and 1989's Special Look which had several singles off the album. In 1995, Allen lent her voice to the children's animated series C Bear and Jamal for Film Roman and Fox Kids.
In 2001, Allen fulfilled a lifelong dream by opening the Debbie Allen Dance Academy in Los Angeles, California. Allen's academy offers a comprehensive curriculum for boys and girls ages four to eighteen in all the major dance techniques including Classical Ballet, African and Hip-Hop. In addition, special workshops are he
Mary Nell Steenburgen is an American actress and singer. She won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress and Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress for playing the role of Lynda Dummar in Jonathan Demme's 1980 film Melvin and Howard. Steenburgen, who studied at New York's Neighborhood Playhouse in the 1970s received a Golden Globe nomination for the 1981 film Ragtime, a BAFTA TV Award nomination for the 1985 miniseries Tender is the Night and an Emmy Award nomination for the 1988 TV film The Attic: The Hiding of Anne Frank, her other film appearances include Cross Creek, Back to the Future Part III, What's Eating Gilbert Grape, The Brave One, Step Brothers, The Proposal, The Help. Steenburgen was born in Newport, Arkansas, to Nellie Mae, a school-board secretary, Maurice Hoffman Steenburgen, a freight-train conductor who worked at the Missouri Pacific Railroad, she has Nancy Kelly, a teacher. Her ancestry includes Dutch, English and Welsh. In 1971, she enrolled at Hendrix College to study drama.
She subsequently traveled to Dallas at the suggestion of her drama teacher where she auditioned for New York City's Neighborhood Playhouse. Steenburgen moved to Manhattan in 1972 after being selected by the Neighborhood Playhouse to study acting, she worked for Doubleday while studying under Will Esper. Steenburgen's break came when she was discovered by Jack Nicholson in the reception room of Paramount's New York office, was cast as the female lead in his second directorial work, the 1978 Western Goin' South. Steenburgen had a leading role in the 1979 film Time After Time as a modern woman who falls in love with author H. G. Wells, played by her future first husband, Malcolm McDowell. In her third film, she won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for the 1980 film Melvin and Howard, playing Lynda Dummar, the wife of Melvin Dummar a trucker and aspiring singer, who claimed to have befriended reclusive eccentric Howard Hughes. Another notable film appearance came in the well-received 1983 film Cross Creek, in which she played Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, author of The Yearling.
In 1985, she starred in the movie One Magic Christmas as a mother and wife who falls on devastating times at Christmas only to rely on a Christmas miracle to save her family. In 1989 she played the wife of Steve Martin's character in Parenthood. In Back to the Future Part III, Steenburgen played Clara Clayton, a school teacher who falls in love with Doc Brown, played by Christopher Lloyd, she was persuaded to play the role by her children, as well as by fans of the Back to the Future films, reprised the role by providing the character's voice in Back to the Future: The Animated Series. Other performances have been: in What's Eating Gilbert Grape, as a woman, having an affair with the title character, she has appeared in the comedy films Step Brothers, starring Will Ferrell, playing the mother of Ferrell's character. Dirty Girl, which features Steenburgen along with Juno Temple, Milla Jovovich and William H. Macy, premiered at the Toronto International Film Festival on September 12, 2010, she appeared in the critically acclaimed film The Help, starring alongside Emma Stone, Viola Davis and Bryce Dallas Howard, had a featured role as a lounge singer, the romantic interest in a love triangle, in the 2013 comedy Last Vegas.
She had a small part in the 2015 film A Walk in the Woods as Jeannie. In 2018, Steenburgen starred opposite Jane Fonda, Diane Keaton, Candice Bergen in the romantic comedy film Book Club. In television, Steenburgen appeared as Kate Montgomery in Ink with her husband, Ted Danson, co-starred with Danson as Mary Gulliver in Gulliver's Travels, she has a recurring role as herself with Danson in Curb Your Enthusiasm. Steenburgen co-starred as Helen Girardi, the mother of Amber Tamblyn's title character in Joan of Arcadia. In 2011, she had a recurring role as Josephine in the HBO sitcom Bored to Death with Danson again. Steenburgen starred as Anastasia Lee in the 2011 FX pilot, Outlaw Country, but it was passed by the network, she appeared on FX in the dark sitcom Wilfred from 2011 through 2013 as Catherine Newman, the title character's eccentric and mentally ill mother. Steenburgen had a recurring role on the NBC sitcom 30 Rock from 2012 to 2013 where she played Diana Jessup. In 2014, she began a recurring role as former Dixie Mafia boss Katherine Hale in the fifth and sixth seasons of Justified.
On June 13, 2014, it was announced that Steenburgen would have a recurring role as Delia in the Netflix crime comedy-drama Orange Is the New Black in the third season. From 2015 to 2018, she starred as Gail Klosterman on the comedy series The Last Man on Earth. After minor surgery on her arm, on April 17, 2007, which required a general anesthetic, Steenburgen developed a new passion for singing and songwriting, she by 2017 had composed more than 40 songs. She has collaborated with musicians from Nashville and was signed to Universal Music as a songwriter. In Last Vegas, Steenburgen plays a lounge singer and performs one of her original compositions on screen. In 1978, Steenburgen met and began dating actor Malcolm McDowell while both were co-starring in
Elizabeth Lee McGovern is an American film and theater actor, musician. She received an Academy Award nomination for her role as Evelyn Nesbit in the 1981 film Ragtime, she is known for her performance as Cora Crawley, Countess of Grantham in the British drama series Downton Abbey, for which she has been nominated for an Emmy Award and Golden Globe Award. Her other films include Ordinary People, Once Upon a Time in America, The Handmaid's Tale and The Wings of the Dove. McGovern was born in Evanston, the daughter of Katharine Wolcott, a high school teacher, William Montgomery McGovern, Jr. a university professor. Her younger sister is novelist Cammie McGovern, her paternal grandfather was adventurer William Montgomery McGovern, her maternal great-grandfathers were U. S. diplomat Ethelbert Watts and Admiral Charles P. Snyder, her maternal great-great-grandfather was Congressman Charles P. Snyder. During her early years, the McGovern family moved to Los Angeles, where her father accepted a teaching position with the law school at UCLA.
Agent Joan Scott saw her performance in The Skin of Our Teeth by Thornton Wilder, was impressed by her talent, recommended she take acting lessons. McGovern studied at the American Conservatory Theater in San Francisco, studied toward a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Drama at the Juilliard School in New York City as a member of Group 12 from 1979 to 1981. In 1980, while studying at Juilliard, McGovern was offered a part in what became her first film, Ordinary People, in which she played the girlfriend of troubled teenager Conrad Jarrett; the following year she completed her acting education at the American Conservatory Theatre and Juilliard, began to appear in plays, first Off-Broadway and in famous theaters. In 1981 she earned an Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Evelyn Nesbit in the film Ragtime. In 1984, she starred in Sergio Leone's gangster epic Once Upon a Time in America as Robert De Niro's romantic interest Deborah Gelly, she had leading roles in two other films that year, Racing with the Moon, a coming-of-age story starring Sean Penn and Nicolas Cage, the comedy Lovesick, as a patient whose psychiatrist falls in love with her, risking his practice.
In 1989, she played Mickey Rourke's girlfriend in Johnny Handsome, directed by Walter Hill, the same year she appeared as a rebellious lesbian in Volker Schlöndorff's film The Handmaid's Tale. McGovern co-starred with Kevin Bacon in a romantic comedy, She's Having a Baby, directed by John Hughes, starred in the thriller The Bedroom Window, directed by Curtis Hanson, she teamed with Michael Caine in 1990's A Shock to the System, a comic mystery about a man who plots the murder of his wife. In a 1994 comedy, The Favor, McGovern played a woman who cheats on her boyfriend by becoming her married best friend's proxy in a tryst with a man the friend has fantasized about. McGovern appeared in a number of films in the 21st century, including Woman in Gold, a drama starring Helen Mirren. McGovern has appeared in several television productions in the UK. In 1999 and 2000 McGovern played Marguerite St. Just in a BBC television series loosely based on the novel The Scarlet Pimpernel. On American TV, she appeared in a 2006 episode of Law & Order: Special Victims Unit titled "Harm," in which her character of Dr. Faith Sutton was a psychiatrist accused of complicity in detainee abuse.
Her other television work includes Broken Glass. In May 2007, she played Ellen Doubleday, Daphne du Maurier's paramour, in Daphne, a BBC2 television drama by Amy Jenkins based on Margaret Forster's biography of the author. In December 2008, McGovern appeared as Dame Celia Westholme in "Appointment with Death", an episode of Agatha Christie's Poirot. In the same year, she appeared in the three-part BBC comedy series Freezing, written by James Wood and directed and co-produced by her husband Simon Curtis. First broadcast on BBC Four, it was shown on BBC2 in February 2008. McGovern played an American expatriate actress named Elizabeth, living in Chiswick with her publisher husband, played by Hugh Bonneville, co-starring Tom Hollander as her theatrical agent. From 2010 to 2015, she portrayed Cora Crawley, Countess of Grantham, wife of Robert Crawley, 7th Earl of Grantham in the British TV series Downton Abbey. McGovern is a singer-songwriter. In 2008 she began fronting the band Sadie and the Hotheads at The Castle pub venue in Portobello Road, London.
The band released an album of songs she developed with The Nelson Brothers, who are now part of the band. The album includes Ron Knights on bass and Rowan Oliver, borrowed from Goldfrapp, as drummer for the recording sessions. Michelle Dockery, who plays McGovern's eldest daughter in Downton Abbey, has sung with the band. Roles in New York include: Melissa Gardner in Love Letters at the Edison Theatre, October 1989 Ophelia in Hamlet with the Roundabout Theater Company at the Criterion Center Stage Right, April 1992. Mrs. Conway in Time and the Conways at the American Airlines Theatre, October 2017In her theatre programme CVs, McGovern lists her other theatre work in the U. S. as including: My Sister in This House Painting Churches The Hitch-Hiker A Map of the World Aunt Dan and Lemon A Midsummer Night's Dream at the New York Shakespeare Festival, Winter 1987 When I Was a Girl I
John Dezso Ratzenberger is an American actor, voice actor, entrepreneur. He played Cliff Clavin in the TV show Cheers, for which he earned two Emmy nominations, plays voice roles in Pixar Animation Studios' films, including Hamm in the Toy Story franchise, The Underminer in The Incredibles franchise, Mack in the Cars franchise, he is the only actor to appear in all of Pixar's feature films, with minor appearances in major films such as Superman and The Empire Strikes Back, he is one of the most successful actors of all time in terms of box-office receipts. Born in Bridgeport, Ratzenberger began his entertainment career while living in London in the 1970s, he had minor film and television roles throughout the late 70s and early 1980s before creating, landing, the role of the know-it-all mailman Cliff Clavin on Cheers, a role he portrayed throughout the show's eleven seasons. His first Pixar role was the voice of Hamm the Piggy Bank in Toy Story and has voiced Pixar characters in films and video games since.
From 2004 to 2008 he hosted the TV documentary series Made in America. Outside of acting, he has promoted American entrepreneurship and manufacturing, campaigned for several Republican candidates. Ratzenberger was born in Bridgeport, the son of Bertha Veronica, who worked for Remington Arms, Dezso Alexander Ratzenberger, a Texaco truck driver, his father was of Austrian and Hungarian descent, his mother was of Polish ancestry. He attended Sacred Heart University in Fairfield, Connecticut. In 1969, Ratzenberger was a tractor operator at the Woodstock Festival, he stayed there for 10 years. Ratzenberger was a house framer living in London. Through the 1970s, he performed with Ray Hassett as the comedic theatrical duo Sal's Meat Market, which toured across the UK. Peter Richardson and Nigel Planer as The Outer Limits and in The Comic Strip were influenced by Sal's Meat Market, his first role was a patron in The Ritz. Throughout the late 1970s and early 1980s, Ratzenberger appeared in various minor roles in major feature films, including Firefox.
Ratzenberger played mail carrier Cliff Clavin on the sitcom Cheers. He had read for the part of Norm Peterson, but after the audition, he sensed that they were not going to give him the part. Sensing an opportunity, he asked if they had written a bar know-it-all, which the producers decided was a great idea. Ratzenberger came up with the idea for Cliff's trademark white socks, which he wore as a tribute to French comedian Jacques Tati. Cliff became known for his outlandish stories of plausible half-truths, uninteresting trivia, misinformation, in general for being a pretentious blowhard. Cliff and Norm, the primary customer characters, became iconic bar buddies. Ratzenberger provided the voice for an animated version of Cliff on The Simpsons sixth-season episode "Fear of Flying". Ratzenberger was nominated for an Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series in 1985 and again in 1986; when Paramount Television licensed the look of the Cheers bar to the Host International subsidiary of Host Marriott Services for use in airports in the U.
S. and New Zealand, the group created animatronic barflies. They were called "Hank" and "Bob"; the case languished in court for eight years before all sides settled in 2001. Ratzenberger has had a voice part in many of Pixar's feature films, ranging from main characters to characters who appear in only one scene, his roles include: Hamm the Piggy Bank in the Toy Story series P. T. Flea, the Circus Ring Leader in A Bug's Life The Abominable Snowman in the Monsters, Inc. series The school of Moonfish in Finding Nemo The Underminer in The Incredibles series Mack the truck in the Cars series Mustafa the waiter in Ratatouille John in WALL-E Tom the construction worker in Up Gordon the guard in Brave Fritz in Inside Out Earl the Velociraptor in The Good Dinosaur Bill the crab in Finding Dory Juan Ortodoncia in Coco Ratzenberger's tenure at Pixar was parodied during the end credits of Cars, where his character, watches car-themed versions of Pixar films. Mack notes that all the characters Ratzenberger has played were excellent until he realizes that they are performed by the same actor, at which point he remarks, "They're just using the same actor over and over," and asks, "What kind of cut-rate production is this?!"
His favorite of his Pixar characters was P. T. Flea, because "in real life, I always get a kick out of those kinds of characters, people who just go into a rage for explicable reason, he was always on edge. His blood pressure was always way over the top, everything that he did was done in a panicked state. So it was a lot of fun to play him." Although technically not Pixar films, Ratzenberger voiced Harland the jet tug in DisneyToon Studios' Planes and a mustached plane named Brodi in its sequel, Planes: Fire & Rescue, both of which are set in Pixar's Cars franchise. Additionally, Ratzenberger will reprise his role as T
The 1900s was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1900, ended on December 31, 1909. The term "nineteen-hundreds" can mean the entire century 1900–1999 years beginning with a 19; the Edwardian era covers a similar span of time. There are several main varieties of how individual years of the decade are pronounced in American English. Using 1906 as an example, they are "nineteen-oh-six", "nineteen-six", "nineteen-aught-six". Which variety is most prominent depends somewhat on global region and generation. In American English, "nineteen-oh-six" is the most common. In the post-World War II era through the 1990s, mentions of "nineteen-ought-six" or "aught-six" distinctly connoted old-fashioned speech; the strength of the comedic effect diminished during the aughts of the next century, as the public grew used to questioning how to refer to an "ohs" or "aughts" decade. The New Imperialism The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the French Third Republic sign Entente Cordiale Second Boer War ends.
Philippine–American War takes place. Russo-Japanese War establishes the Empire of Japan as a world power. Battle of Riyadh was a minor battle of the Unification of Saudi Arabia. Battle of Dilam was a major battle of the Unification War between Saudi rebels. First Saudi–Rashidi War was engaged between the Saudi loyal forces of the newborn Emirate of Riyadh versus the Emirate of Ha'il; the Russian Revolution of 1905. Demand for Home Rule for Ireland Herero and Namaqua Genocide in German South-West Africa. January 1, 1901, British colonies in Australia federate, forming the Commonwealth of Australia May 20, 1902 – Cuba gains independence from the United States. June 7, 1905 – The Norwegian Parliament declares the union with Sweden dissolved, Norway achieves full independence. October 5, 1908 – Bulgaria declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire. September 8, 1900 – A powerful hurricane hits Galveston, Texas, USA killing about 8,000. April 19, 1902 – A magnitude 7.5 earthquake rocks Guatemala, killing 2,000.
May 8, 1902 – In Martinique, Mount Pelée erupts, destroying the town of Saint-Pierre and killing over 30,000. April 7, 1906 – Mount Vesuvius erupts and devastates Naples. April 18, 1906 – The 1906 San Francisco earthquake on the San Andreas Fault destroys much of San Francisco, USA, killing at least 3,000, with 225,000–300,000 left homeless, $350 million in damages. September 18, 1906 – A typhoon and tsunami kill an estimated 10,000 in Hong Kong. January 14, 1907 – An earthquake in Kingston, Jamaica kills more than 1,000. June 30 - The Tunguska event or "Russian explosion" near the Podkamennaya Tunguska River in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russian Empire occuers resulting in the flattening 2,000 km2 of forest, it is believed to have been caused by the air burst of a large meteoroid or comet fragment, at an altitude of 5–10 kilometres above the Earth's surface. December 28, 1908 – An earthquake and tsunami destroys Messina and Calabria, killing over 150,000 people. April 26, 1900 – The Great Lumber Fire of Ottawa–Hull kills 7 and leaves 15,000 homeless.
May 1, 1900 – The Scofield Mine disaster in Scofield, Utah caused by explosion killing at least 200 men. June 30, 1900 – Hoboken Docks Fire: The German passenger ships Saale, Main and Kaiser William der Grosse, all owned by the North German Lloyd Steamship line, catch fire at the docks in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA; the fire began on a wharf and spread to the adjacent piers and smaller craft, killing 326 people. May 3, 1901 – The Great Fire of 1901 begins in Jacksonville, FL, USA. July 10, 1902 – The Rolling Mill Mine disaster in Johnstown, Pennsylvania, USA kills 112 miners. August 10, 1903 – Paris Métro train fire. December 30, 1903 – A fire at the Iroquois Theater in Chicago, USA kills 600. February 7, 1904 – The Great Baltimore Fire in Baltimore, USA destroys over 1,500 buildings in 30 hours. June 15, 1904 – A fire aboard the steamboat General Slocum in New York City's East River kills 1,021. June 28, 1904 – The Danish ocean liner SS Norge runs aground and sinks close to Rockall, killing 635, including 225 Norwegian emigrants.
January 22, 1906 – The SS Valencia strikes a reef off Vancouver Island, killing over 100 in the ensuing disaster. Prominent assassinations, targeted killings, assassination attempts include: July 29, 1900 – King Umberto I of Italy is assassinated by Italian-born anarchist Gaetano Bresci. March 6, 1901 – In Bremen, an assassin attempts to kill Wilhelm II of Germany. September 6, 1901 – American anarchist Leon Czolgosz shoots U. S. President William McKinley at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. McKinley dies 8 days later. June 16, 1904 – Eugen Schauman assassinates Nikolai Bobrikov, Governor-General of Finland. February 1, 1908 – Carlos I of Portugal is assassinated in Lisbon, Portugal. October 26, 1909 – Itō Hirobumi, four time Prime Minister of Japan and Resident-General of Korea, is assassinated by Ahn Jung-geun at the Harbin train station in Manchuria; the cost of an American postage stamp was worth 1 cent. March 17, 1905 - Annus Mirabilis papers - Albert Einstein publishes his paper "On a heuristic viewpoint concerning the production and transformation of light", in which he explains the photoelectric effect, using the notion of light quanta.
For this paper Einstein received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921. May 11, 1905 - Annus Mirabilis papers - Albert Einstein submits his doctoral dissertation "On the Motio
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i
Donald David Dixon Ronald O’Connor was an American dancer and actor who came to fame in a series of movies in which he co-starred alternately with Gloria Jean, Peggy Ryan, Francis the Talking Mule. He is best known today for his role as Don Lockwood's friend and colleague Cosmo Brown in Singin' in the Rain. Though he considered Danville, Illinois to be his hometown, O’Connor was born in St. Elizabeth Hospital in Chicago, his parents, Effie Irene and John Edward "Chuck" O'Connor, were vaudeville entertainers. His father's family was from Ireland. O'Connor said, "I was about 13 months old, they tell me, when I first started dancing, they'd hold me up by the back of my neck and they'd start the music, I'd dance. You could do that with any kid, only I got paid for it." When O'Connor was only two years old, he and his sister Arlene, seven at the time, were in a car crash outside a theater in Hartford, Connecticut. A few weeks his father died of a heart attack while dancing on stage in Brockton, Massachusetts.
O'Connor joined a dance act with elder brother Jack. They were billed as the Royal Family of Vaudeville, they toured the country doing singing, dancing and acrobatics. "Our entire family composed an act," he says. "We didn't have a choice. I loved vaudeville; the live audiences created a certain spontaneity."When they did not tour they stayed with O'Connor's Uncle Bill in Danville Illinois. O'Connor never went to school, he said, " I learned two dance routines. I looked like the world's greatest dancer. I did everything, but I had never had any formal training. So, when I went into movies and started working with all those great dancers, I had a terrible time. I couldn't pick up routines. At the age of 15 -- from 15 on, I had to learn to dance, and that's quite old for someone to start dancing real heavy, professionally."O'Connor was began performing in movies in 1937, making his debut aged 11 in Melody for Two appearing with his family act. He was in Columbia's It Can't Last Forever. O'Connor signed a contract at Paramount.
He appeared in Men with Wings, directed by William Wellan, as Fred MacMurray's character as a boy. He was billed fifth in Sing You Sinners playing Bing Crosby's younger brother, he was in Sons of the Legion had the lead in a B-picture, Tom Sawyer, playing Huckleberry Finn opposite Billy Cook's Tom Sawyer. O'Connor third billed in both Boy Trouble and Unmarried, playing John Hartley as a young boy in the latter. O'Connor was billed fourth in Million Dollar Legs with Betty Grable, he played Gary Cooper as a young boy in Beau Geste, directed by Wellman. Night Work was a sequel to Boy Trouble and O'Connor was in Death of a Champion, he went to Warner Bros to play Eddie Albert as a young boy in On Your Toes. He returned to his family act in vaudeville for two years. In 1941, O’Connor signed with Universal Pictures for $200 a week, where he began with What's Cookin'?, a B-level with The Andrews Sisters, Gloria Jean and Peggy Ryan. The film was popular and Universal began to develop O'Connor and Ryan as their version of Mickey Rooney and Judy Garland.
He, Ryan and the Andrews Sisters were in Private Buckaroo and Give Out, Sisters he, Ryan and Jane Frazee were in Get Hep to Love and When Johnny Comes Marching Home. He made It Comes Up Love without Ryan. O'Connor and Ryan were in Mister Big. Before this film was released, O’Connor's popularity soared. Universal promoted the "B" movie to "A" status. O'Connor and Ryan were in Top Man, with Suannah Foster, Chip Off the Old Block, with Ann Blyth. O'Connor and Ryan both had cameos in Universal's all-star Follow the Boys. On his 18th birthday in August 1943, during World War II O'Connor was drafted into the United States Army. Before he reported for induction on February 6, 1944, Universal had four O’Connor films completed, they rushed production to complete four more by that date, all with Ryan: This Is the Life, with Foster. With a backlog of seven features, deferred openings kept O’Connor's screen presence uninterrupted during the two years he was overseas. Upon his return, a merger in 1946 had reorganized the studio as Universal-International.
The studio paired O'Connor opposite their biggest female star, Deanna Durbin, in Something in the Wind. He starred in Are You with It? with Olga San Juan, Feudin', Fussin' and A-Fightin' with Marjorie Main and Percy Kilbridge, Yes Sir, That's My Baby with Gloria De Haven."I wasn't a dancer, a good dancer, until I got older," he said later. "I could do those wings and stuff and I looked good, but my heavens it was very hard for me to pick up on -- pick up steps. It was just oh -- so laborious for me. I didn't have a short cut like the other dancers do." In 1949, O'Connor played the lead role in Francis, the story of a soldier befriended by a talking mule. Directed by Arthur Lubin, the film was a huge success; as a consequence, his musical career was interrupted by production of one Francis film per year until 1955. O'Connor said the films "were fun to make, they were quite challenging. I had to play s