Construction is the process of constructing a building or infrastructure. Construction differs from manufacturing in that manufacturing involves mass production of similar items without a designated purchaser, while construction takes place on location for a known client. Construction as an industry comprises six to nine percent of the gross domestic product of developed countries. Construction starts with planning and financing. Large-scale construction requires collaboration across multiple disciplines. A project manager manages the job, a construction manager, design engineer, construction engineer or architect supervises it; those involved with the design and execution must consider zoning requirements, environmental impact of the job, budgeting, construction-site safety and transportation of building materials, inconvenience to the public caused by construction delays and bidding. Large construction projects are sometimes referred to as megaprojects. Construction is a general term meaning the art and science to form objects, systems, or organizations, comes from Latin constructio and Old French construction.
To construct is the verb: the act of building, the noun construction: how a building was built, the nature of its structure. In general, there are three sectors of construction: buildings and industrial. Building construction is further divided into residential and non-residential. Infrastructure is called heavy civil or heavy engineering that includes large public works, bridges, railways, water or wastewater and utility distribution. Industrial construction includes refineries, process chemical, power generation and manufacturing plants. There are other ways to break the industry into sectors or markets. Engineering News-Record, a trade magazine for the construction industry, each year compiles and reports data about the size of design and construction companies. In 2014, ENR compiled the data in nine market segments divided as transportation, buildings, industrial, manufacturing, sewer/waste, hazardous waste and a tenth category for other projects. In their reporting, they used data on transportation, hazardous waste and water to rank firms as heavy contractors.
The Standard Industrial Classification and the newer North American Industry Classification System have a classification system for companies that perform or engage in construction. To recognize the differences of companies in this sector, it is divided into three subsectors: building construction and civil engineering construction, specialty trade contractors. There are categories for construction service firms and construction managers. Building construction is the process of adding structure to real property or construction of buildings; the majority of building construction jobs are small renovations, such as addition of a room, or renovation of a bathroom. The owner of the property acts as laborer and design team for the entire project. Although building construction projects consist of common elements such as design, financial and legal considerations, projects of varying sizes may reach undesirable end results, such as structural collapse, cost overruns, and/or litigation. For this reason, those with experience in the field make detailed plans and maintain careful oversight during the project to ensure a positive outcome.
Commercial building construction is procured or publicly utilizing various delivery methodologies, including cost estimating, hard bid, negotiated price, management contracting, construction management-at-risk, design & build and design-build bridging. Residential construction practices and resources must conform to local building authority regulations and codes of practice. Materials available in the area dictate the construction materials used. Cost of construction on a per square meter basis for houses can vary based on site conditions, local regulations, economies of scale and the availability of skilled tradesmen. Residential construction as well as other types of construction can generate waste such that planning is required. According to McKinsey research, productivity growth per worker in construction has lagged behind many other industries across different countries including in the United States and in European countries. In the United States, construction productivity per worker has declined by half since the 1960s.
The most popular method of residential construction in North America is wood-framed construction. Typical construction steps for a single-family or small multi-family house are: Obtain an engineered soil test of lot where construction is planned. From an engineer or company specializing in soil testing. Develop floor plans and obtain a materials list for estimations Obtain structural engineered plans for foundation and structure. To be completed by either a licensed engineer or architect. To include both a foundation and framing plan. Obtain lot survey Obtain government building approval if necessary If required obtain approval from HOA or ARC Clear the building site Survey to stake out for the foun
Formosa Air Battle
The Formosa Air Battle, 12–16 October 1944, was a series of large-scale aerial engagements between carrier air groups of the United States Navy Fast Carrier Task Force, Japanese land-based air forces of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army. The battle consisted of American air raids against Japanese military installations on Formosa during the day and Japanese air attacks at night against American ships. Japanese losses exceeded 300 planes destroyed in the air, while American losses amounted to fewer than 100 aircraft destroyed and two cruisers damaged; this outcome deprived the Japanese Navy's Combined Fleet of air cover for future operations, which proved decisive during the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October. Japanese strategic plans for a decisive battle with the U. S. fleet were established by September 1944. Anticipating the various options open to American landing forces, the Japanese operational order, code named Sho, provided four scenarios to counter an invasion anywhere between the Philippines and the Kuriles.
The plan was problematic for morale, because it broke with IJN tradition by assigning overriding importance to sinking U. S. supply vessels rather than U. S. warships. As a result, the Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet Admiral Soemu Toyoda flew out to the front in early October to rally the troops behind Sho. By 10 October Toyoda's tour of the front was complete, he intended to depart from Formosa for Japan that same day but was forced to change his plans when Vice Admiral Marc Mitscher's Fast Carrier Task Force appeared to the north, launching strikes against the Ryukyu Islands. Toyoda could not risk a return trip home through a concentrated enemy carrier force that now embarked more than 1,000 aircraft not after previous Combined Fleet commanders had been lost during aerial engagements; as a result, he was grounded far from Combined Fleet headquarters at a decisive moment. Out of position and with inadequate lines of communication, the response to such overwhelming enemy air power was left to Toyoda's Chief of Staff, Vice Admiral Ryūnosuke Kusaka.
Kusaka saw these strikes as a precursor to U. S. troop landings, in part due to Imperial Navy intelligence collected over the previous week. Because he was still unsure where enemy forces would land, he chose to execute the air component of Sho-1 or Sho-2 – the planned defense of the Philippines or Formosa – on the morning of 10 October. Sho was a complex plan involving multiple naval surface forces sortieing from bases as far away as Singapore and Japan, it would take these warships time to maneuver into position for a concerted attack. Rather than waiting for the arrival of the fleet for a combination of sea and air power, Kusaka ordered the air forces reserved for Sho to engage the enemy at once, he reinforced this order by implementing Sho-2 in full on the morning of 12 October. Many aircraft were available for Sho but were dispersed. On 10 October Vice Admiral Shigeru Fukudome's Sixth Base Air Force consisted of 740 planes spread out from Formosa to Kyushu. Over the course of the next four days an additional 690 or so planes arrived from China.
Although this represented a huge number of available aircraft, the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service was still recovering from losses suffered at the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June. While units were reconstituted in terms of quantity by this time, pilot quality was in clear decline. Moreover, though the overall number of planes committed to battle by 12 October dwarfed any force that Japan had fielded in the air, the U. S. Navy's Fast Carrier Force was capable of committing a much larger better-trained force. Imperial Japanese NavyImperial Japanese Navy Air Service: 1,225 fighters/bombers. 1st Air Fleet: based in Manila, Philippines 2nd Air Fleet: based in Takao, Taiwan 3rd Air Fleet: carrier based, moved to land under command of 2nd Air Fleet Imperial Japanese ArmyImperial Japanese Army Air Service: 200 fighters/bombers 4th Air Army: based in Manila, Philippines United States NavyThird Fleet Task Force 38: 17 aircraft carriers, 6 battleships, 4 heavy cruisers, 11 light cruisers, 57 destroyers Task Group 38.1: USS Cowpens, USS Hornet, USS Monterey, USS Wasp Task Group 38.2: USS Bunker Hill, USS Cabot, USS Hancock, USS Independence, USS Intrepid Task Group 38.3: USS Essex, USS Langley, USS Lexington, USS Princeton Task Group 38.4: USS Belleau Wood, USS Enterprise, USS Franklin, USS San Jacinto Radar-equipped Japanese reconnaissance aircraft sighted various task groups of the Third Fleet throughout the day and night of 11 October, giving area commanders on Formosa and in the Philippines early warning.
Knowing that dawn strikes on 12 October were imminent, ground forces were placed on alert and aircraft were readied for early morning intercept. Combat experience of U. S. carrier air groups during the battle depended to a considerable degree upon disposition of their task group and assigned strike targets. On the morning of 12 October, the four task groups of the Fast Carrier Task Force were strung out from northwest to southeast. Task Group 38.2, as the northernmost group, was assigned the northern third of Formosa. Task Group 38.3 was next in line and assigned the central portion of the island. Task Groups 38.1 a
Pacific Ocean theater of World War II
The Pacific Ocean theater, during World War II, was a major theater of the war between the Allies and the Empire of Japan. It was defined by the Allied powers' Pacific Ocean Area command, which included most of the Pacific Ocean and its islands, while mainland Asia was excluded, as were the Philippines, the Dutch East Indies, Australia, most of the Territory of New Guinea and the western part of the Solomon Islands, it came into existence on March 30, 1942, when US Admiral Chester Nimitz was appointed Supreme Allied Commander Pacific Ocean Areas. In the other major theater in the Pacific region, known as the South West Pacific theatre, Allied forces were commanded by US General Douglas MacArthur. Both Nimitz and MacArthur were overseen by the US Joint Chiefs and the Western Allies Combined Chiefs of Staff. Most Japanese forces in the theater were part of the Combined Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy, responsible for all Japanese warships, naval aircraft, marine infantry units; the Rengō Kantai was led by Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto, until he was killed in an attack by U.
S. fighter planes in April 1943. Yamamoto was succeeded by Admiral Soemu Toyoda; the General Staff of the Imperial Japanese Army was responsible for Imperial Japanese Army ground and air units in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific. The IJN and IJA did not formally use joint/combined staff at the operational level, their command structures/geographical areas of operations overlapped with each other and those of the Allies. In the Pacific Ocean theater, Japanese forces fought against the United States Navy, the U. S. Marine Corps and the U. S. Army; the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia and other Allied nations contributed forces. Central Pacific Theater Attack on Pearl Harbor 7 December 1941 Battle of Wake Island 7–23 December 1941 Philippines Campaign 8 December 1941 - 8 May 1942 Doolittle Raid 18 April 1942 Battle of the Coral Sea 4–8 May 1942 Battle of Midway 4–7 June 1942 Guadalcanal Campaign 7 August 1942 to 9 February 1943 Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign 1943–44 Makin Island raid 17–18 August 1942 Battle of Tarawa 20 November 1943 Battle of Makin 20–23 November 1943 Battle of Kwajalein 14 February 1944 Battle of Eniwetok 17 February 1944 Attack on Truk Island 17–18 February 1944 Mariana and Palau Islands campaign 1944 Battle of Saipan 15 June 1944 Battle of the Philippine Sea 19–21 June 1944 Battle of Guam 21 July 1944 Battle of Tinian 24 July 1944 Battle of Peleliu 15 September 1944 Battle of Angaur 17 September 1944 Battle of Leyte 20 October 1944Battle of Leyte Gulf 23 October 1944 Battle of Iwo Jima 19 February 1945 Battle of Okinawa 1 April 1945 North Pacific Theater Aleutian Islands Campaign 1942–43 Battle of the Komandorski Islands 26 March 1943 The following references are arranged in inverse chronology: Toll, Ian.
Pacific Crucible: War at Sea in the Pacific, 1941–1942. W. W. Norton and Company. ISBN 0-393-34341-3. Miller, Edward S.. War Plan Orange: The U. S. Strategy to Defeat Japan, 1897–1945. US Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-500-7. Cressman, Robert J.. The Official Chronology of the U. S. Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-55750-149-1. Drea, Edward J.. In the Service of the Emperor: Essays on the Imperial Japanese Army. Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-1708-0. Hakim, Joy. A History of Us: War and all that Jazz. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509514-6. Silverstone, Paul H.. U. S. Warships of World War II. Doubleday and Company. Potter, E. B.. Sea Power. Prentice-Hall. Kafka, Roger. Warships of the World. New York: Cornell Maritime Press. Ofstie, Ralph A.. The Campaigns of the Pacific War. Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office
Bank of Taiwan
The Bank of Taiwan is a commercial bank headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan. It is owned by the Executive Yuan of Taiwan; the Bank of Taiwan was established as Taiwan's central bank during Japanese rule. The bank's creation was authorized in 1897 by the Bank Act of Taiwan which encouraged Japanese enterprises, such as the Mitsubishi and Mitsui Groups, to invest in Taiwan. Extensive cooperation ensued between the Bank of Taiwan. A financial crisis facing these banks in 1927 was relieved with assistance from the Bank of Japan. Bank branches were created in other parts of Asia as the empire expanded, including areas in China and Southeast Asia. After the Japanese surrender in 1945, the ROC government took over the Bank of Taiwan and began issuing Taiwan dollars known as Taiwan Nationalist Yuan, through the Bank of Taiwan; this currency is now referred to as the "old Taiwan dollar." Severe inflation of this currency during the Chinese Civil War led the Bank of Taiwan to issue the New Taiwan Dollar in 1949.
After the loss of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War by the KMT and its subsequent retreat to Taiwan, the Bank of Taiwan took on a more central role as the central bank of the ROC until the Central Bank of China was reestablished in 1961. The Bank of Taiwan was governed under the Taiwan Provincial Government until 1998 when governance was transferred to the ROC Finance Ministry. In 2001 the Central Bank of China took over the task of issuing the New Taiwan Dollar; the Bank of Taiwan operates a total of 169 domestic branches as well as branches in Tokyo, Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China. Branches have been established in New York City, Los Angeles and South Africa. In July 2007, the Bank of Taiwan merged with the Central Trust of China as part of a government financial reform package; the bank continues to operate as an independent company taking over some aspects of the Trust's banking business. In January 2008, the Bank became part of the Taiwan Financial Holding Group, which contains BankTaiwan Securities and BankTaiwan Life Insurance.
The Bank of Taiwan consists of the following departments of businesses: Department of Planning Department of Circulation Department of Business Department of Risk Management Department of Corporate Finance Department of Public Treasury Department of Consumer Finance Department of International Banking Department of Treasury Department of Trusts Department of Electronic Banking Department of Wealth Management Department of Credit Management Department of Government Employee Insurance Department of Real Estate Management Department of Procurement Department of Domestic Operations Department of Load Assets Management Department of Credit Analysis Department of Precious Metals Department of Accounting Department of Legal Affairs Department of Human Resources Department of Information Management Department of General Affairs Department of Economic Research Department of Ethics Secretariat The Bank of Taiwan Building in the Bund, Shanghai. Economy of Taiwan List of banks in Taiwan List of companies of Taiwan Old Taiwan dollar Taiwanese yen The Bank of Taiwan Official Website Banknotes issued under Japanese authorities
Subic Bay is a bay on the west coast of the island of Luzon in the Philippines, about 100 kilometres northwest of Manila Bay. An extension of the South China Sea, its shores were the site of a major United States Navy facility named U. S. Naval Base Subic Bay, now the location of an industrial and commercial area known as the Subic Bay Freeport Zone under the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority. Today, water as well as the towns and establishments surrounding the bay are collectively referred to as Subic Bay; this includes the former US naval base at SBMA, Hanjin shipyard, Olongapo city, the town of Barrio Baretto, the Municipality of Subic, the erstwhile US defence housing areas of Binictican and Kalayan housing, up to Morong in Bataan Province. The bay was long recognized for its deep and protected waters, but development was slow due to lack of level terrain around the bay. In 1542, Spanish conquistador Juan de Salcedo sailed into Subic Bay but no port developed there because the main Spanish naval base would be established in the nearby Manila Bay.
When the British captured this base in 1762, the Spanish were forced to find an alternate location and Subic Bay was found to be a strategic and superb port location. In 1884, King Alfonso XII of Spain decreed that Subic was to become "a naval port and the property appertaining thereto set aside for naval purposes." The Americans captured the Spanish base in 1899 during the Philippine–American War, controlled the bay until 1991. During this period, the naval facilities were built up and expanded, including a new naval air station, built in the early 1950s by slicing the top half from a mountain and moving the soil to reclaim a part of Subic Bay. In 1979, the area under American control was reduced from 24,000 hectares to 6,300 hectares when the Philippines claimed sovereign rule over the base. Following the destruction of the 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption, the Americans closed the base, the area was transformed into the Subic Bay Freeport Zone. In 2012, controversy arose when a contracted shipping firm was accused of dumping toxic waste into Subic Bay.
MT Glenn Guardian, one of the vessels owned by a Malaysian firm, had collected some 189,500 litres of domestic waste and about 760 litres of bilge water from USS Emory S. Land, a US Navy ship. Since the Malaysian firm was contracted by the US Navy, albeit under Philippine approval, this incident ignited anti-American sentiments in the Philippines from a single militant group; the Pamulaklakin Nature Park is a reserve area of Binictican. Part of the 11 thousand hectares of forest is found at Subic Bay; the park was created by the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority to supplement the income of the indigenous people. The term Pamulaklakin was derived from the native Ambala language; the majority of the wrecks in Subic Bay are a result of either the Spanish–American War in 1898 or of World War II, where a number of Japanese vessels were sunk by American aircraft. El Capitan was a freighter of nearly 3,000 tons just under 130 meters long, she sank in Subic Bay. Hell ship Oryoku Maru: On 15 December 1944, she had 1,619 American and Czech prisoners of war on board when she was sunk, under heavy bombardment by American fighters while on her way from Subic Bay to Japan.
She was less than half a kilometer off the Alava Pier. About 300 prisoners died during the short voyage during the attack. Seian Maru: During an air raid on Subic Bay, the 3,712-ton freighter Seian Maru was bombed and sunk; this was only four days after the sinking of Oryoku Maru on 19 December 1944. LST: This is one of the large LSTs that litter the floor of Subic Bay, she was scuttled in 1946 in the middle of Subic Bay between the southern tip of the runway and Grande Island. The old USS New York, renamed USS Rochester in 1917. At the onset of the Japanese invasion of the Philippines, this ship was acting as a floating workshop and storehouse. Decommissioned, the armored hull of the old cruiser was considered too valuable to allow Japanese forces to capture it, so the ship was scuttled in December 1941 by American forces. San Quentin: During the Spanish–American War in 1898, the Spanish scuttled their San Quintín in the hope of blocking the passage between Grande Island and Chiquita Islands near the mouth of Subic Bay.
Port of Subic Subic Bay International Airport Subic, Zambales The Official Tourism Website for Subic Bay, contains visitor and accommodation information Official website of Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority News Source
Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall
The National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall is a famous national monument and tourist attraction erected in memory of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, former President of the Republic of China. It is located in Zhongzheng District, Republic of China; the monument, surrounded by a park, stands at the east end of Liberty Square. It is flanked on the south by the National Theater and National Concert Hall; the monument underwent a controversial renaming process in 2007 under Chen Shui-bian's government, subsequently reverted in 2009 with a change of government. In February 2017 Taiwan's Ministry of Culture announced plans to transform the hall into a national center for “facing history, recognizing agony, respecting human rights.” A corresponding de-emphasis of Chiang's personality cult is underway as proposals for transforming the hall are reviewed. The Memorial Hall is white with four sides; the roof is blue and octagonal, a shape that picks up the symbolism of the number eight, a number traditionally associated in Asia with abundance and good fortune.
Two sets of white stairs, each with 89 steps to represent Chiang's age at the time of his death, lead to the main entrance. The ground level of the memorial houses a library and a museum documenting Chiang Kai-shek's life and career, with exhibits detailing Taiwan's history and development; the upper level contains the main hall, in which a large statue of Chiang Kai-shek is located, where a guard mounting ceremony takes place at regular intervals. After President Chiang Kai-shek died on 5 April 1975, the Executive branch of the government established a Funeral Committee to build a memorial; the design, by architect Yang Cho-cheng, was chosen in a competition. Yang's design incorporated many elements of traditional Chinese architecture to recall the Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum in Nanjing, China. Groundbreaking for the memorial took place on 31 October 1976, the 90th anniversary of Chiang's birth; the hall opened on 5 April 1980, the fifth anniversary of the leader's death. Yang's design placed the main building at the east end of the Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Park, covering over 240,000 square metres in Zhongzheng District.
A main gate, the Gate of Great Centrality and Perfect Uprightness was placed at the west end on Chung Shan South Road, with a Gate of Great Loyalty standing at the north side on Hsin Yi Road and a Gate of Great Piety standing at the south side on Ai Kuo East Road. A Boulevard of Homage, bordered by manicured bushes, connected the main hall with the square; the square became Taipei's site of choice for mass gatherings as soon. The nature of many of those gatherings gave the site new public meanings; the hall and square became the hub of events in the 1980s and early 1990s that ushered Taiwan into its era of modern democracy. Of the many pro-democracy demonstrations that took place at the square, the most influential were the Wild Lily student movement rallies of 1990; the movement provided the impetus for the far-reaching political reforms of President Lee Teng-hui. These culminated in the first popular elections of national leaders in 1996; the site's importance in the development of Taiwan's democracy led to the plaza's rededication as Liberty Square by President Chen Shui-bian in 2007.
Memorial Hall was renamed in a dedication to democracy. The announcement of the new names were greeted with hostility by Kuomintang officials; the original dedication to Chiang was subsequently restored to the hall by President Ma Ying-jeou, while the name Liberty Square was affirmed by officials across party lines. In 2017, on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of the February 28 Incident and the 30th anniversary of the lifting of martial law, Taiwan's Ministry of Culture announced plans to transform the hall into a national center for “facing history, recognizing agony, respecting human rights.” Scholars and experts were invited to form an advisory group to help plan the hall's transformation. Public discussion of the transformation began the following year in forums held throughout Taiwan; the Chinese inscription now over the main gate declares the plaza Liberty Square. The calligraphic style recalls that of Wang Xizhi in the East Jin Dynasty; the style is noted for its sense of vitality and freedom.
The characters in the inscription are placed in left-to-right sequence to follow modern practice in Taiwan. See: Liberty Square entrance of Chiang Kai-Shek Memorial Hall on YouTube In 2018, pro independence student activists stormed the hall and threw paint to the statue of Chiang Kai-Shek, two were arrested and penalized for NT$2000. Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall: 25.034567555808202, 121.52185544371605 National Concert Hall: 25.036594344699495, 121.51896804571152 National Theater: 25.03573284200235, 121.51846379041672 Liberty Square Centre: 25.03616298655947, 121.51872128248215 Liberty Square Main Gate: 25.036667250150774, 121.51768863201141 National Theater and Concert Hall Liberty Square Presidential Office Building Chiang Kai-shek Cihu Presidential Burial Place Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall Sun Yat-sen Mausoleum Ching-kuo Memorial Hall in Matsu National Scenic Area Chiang Ching-kuo Memorial Hall in Kinmen National Park Chen Tsyr-shiou Memorial Park Kuomintang Wild Lily student movement List of museums in Taiwan National Chiang Kai-shek Memorial Hall official website National Theater and Concert Hall official website Taiwan Ministry of Culture official website Austra
Kaohsiung is a coastal city in southern Taiwan. It is a special municipality with an area of 2,952 km2 stretching from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range; as of 2018, the municipality has a population of 2.77 million, making it the third most populous administrative division in Taiwan. Since founding in the 17th century, Kaohsiung has grown from a small trading village into the political and economic centre of southern Taiwan, with key industries such as manufacturing, steel-making, oil refining, freight transport and shipbuilding, it is classified as'High Sufficiency' by GaWC, with some of the most prominent infrastructures in Taiwan. The Port of Kaohsiung is the largest and busiest harbour in Taiwan while Kaohsiung International Airport is the second busiest airport in number of passengers; the city is well-connected to other major cities by high speed and conventional rail, as well as several national freeways. It hosts the Republic of China Navy fleet headquarters and its naval academy.
More recent public works such as Pier-2 Art Center, National Kaohsiung Center for the Arts and Kaohsiung Music Center have been aimed at growing the tourism and cultural industries of the city. Hoklo immigrants to the area during the 16th and 17th centuries called the region Takau; the surface meaning of the associated Chinese characters was "beat the dog". According to one theory, the name Takau originates from the aboriginal Siraya language and translates as "bamboo forest". According to another theory, the name evolved via metathesis from the name of the Makatao tribe, who inhabited the area at the time of European and Hoklo settlement; the Makatao are considered to be part of the Siraya tribe. During the Dutch colonization of southern Taiwan, the area was known as Tancoia to the western world for a period of about three decades. In 1662, the Dutch were expelled by the Kingdom of Tungning, founded by Ming loyalists of Koxinga, his son, Zheng Jing, renamed the village Banlian-chiu in 1664. The name of "Takau" was restored in the late 1670s, when the town expanded drastically with immigrants from mainland China, was kept through Taiwan's cession to the Japanese Empire in 1895.
In his 1903 general history of Taiwan, US Consul to Formosa James W. Davidson relates that "Takow" was a well-known name in English. In 1920, the name was administered the area under Takao Prefecture. While the new name had quite a different surface meaning, its pronunciation in Japanese sounded more or less the same as the old name spoken in Hokkien. After Taiwan was handed to the Republic of China, the name did not change, but the official romanization became "Kaohsiung" after the Standard Chinese pronunciation of 高雄; the name Takau remains the official name of the city in Austronesian languages of Taiwan such as Rukai, although these are not spoken in the city. The name remains popular locally in the naming of businesses and events; the written history of Kaohsiung can be traced back to the early 17th century, through archaeological studies have found signs of human activity in the region from as long as 7,000 years ago. Prior to the 17th century, the region was inhabited by the Makatao people of the Siraya tribe, who settled on what they named Takau Isle.
The earliest evidence of human activity in the Kaohsiung area dates back to 4,700–5,200 years ago. Most of the discovered remnants were located in the hills surrounding Kaohsiung Harbor. Artifacts were found at Shoushan, Longquan Temple, Zuoying, Houjing and Fengbitou; the prehistoric Dapenkeng, Niuchouzi and Niaosong civilizations were known to inhabit the region. Studies of the prehistoric ruins at Longquan Temple have shown that that civilization occurred at the same times as the beginnings of the aboriginal Makatao civilization, suggesting a possible origin for the latter. Unlike some other archaeological sites in the area, the Longquan Temple ruins are well preserved. Prehistoric artifacts discovered have suggested that the ancient Kaohsiung Harbor was a lagoon, with early civilizations functioning as hunter-gatherer societies; some agricultural tools have been discovered, suggesting that some agricultural activity was present. The first Chinese records of the region were written in 1603 by Chen Di, a member of Ming admiral Shen You-rong's expedition to rid the waters around Taiwan and Penghu of pirates.
In his report on the "Eastern Barbarian Lands", Chen Di referred to a Ta-kau Isle: It is unknown when the barbarians arose on this island in the ocean beyond Penghu, but they are present at Keeong Harbor, the bay of Galaw, Yaw Harbor, Takau Isle, Little Tamsui, Gali forest, the village of Sabah, Dwabangkang. Taiwan became a Dutch colony in 1624, after the Dutch East India Company was ejected from Penghu by Ming forces. At the time, Takau was one of the most important fishing ports in southern Taiwan; the Dutch named the place Tankoya, the harbor Tancoia. The Dutch missionary François Valentijn named Takau Mountain "Ape Berg", a name that would find its way onto European navigational charts well into the 18th century