Morpeth is a historic market town in Northumberland, North East England, lying on the River Wansbeck. Nearby villages include Pegswood. In the 2011 census, the population of Morpeth was given as 14,017, up from 13,833 in the 2001 census; the earliest record of the town is believed to be from the Neolithic period. The meaning of the town's name is uncertain, but it may refer to its position on the road to Scotland and a murder which occurred on that road; the de Marley family was granted the Barony of Morpeth in c. 1080 and built two castles in the town in the late 11th century and the 13th century. The town was granted its coat of arms in 1552. By the mid 1700s it had become one of the main markets in England, having been granted a market charter in 1199, but the opening of the railways in the 1800s lead the market to decline; the town's history is celebrated in the annual Northumbrian Gathering. Morpeth is governed by Morpeth Town Council; the town is split into three wards – North and Stobhill – for the purposes of parish elections.
In 2008 the town suffered a severe flood, repeated in 2012, resulting in the construction of new flood defences. Morpeth railway station is on the east coast line and a curve to the south of it has caused several rail crashes. Several sports teams compete in Morpeth, with Morpeth Town A. F. C. Having been the winner of the FA Vase in 2016; the town hosted its own Olympics from 1873 to 1958. Two middle schools and seven primary schools are situated in Morpeth, as well as several churches of Anglican, Roman Catholic, United Reformed and Methodist denominations. Morpeth's Carlisle Park, the recipient of several awards, contains one of the four floral clocks in England. Morpeth was founded at a crossing point of the River Wansbeck. Remains from prehistory are scarce, but the earliest evidence of occupation found is a stone axe thought to be from the Neolithic period. There is a lack of evidence of activity during the Roman occupation of Britain, although there were settlements in the area at that time.
Morpeth is recorded in the Assize Rolls of Northumberland of 1256 as Morpath and Morthpath, was archaically spelt Morepath. The meaning of the town's name is uncertain. Another possible meaning is that the name derives from the Old English pre-7th-century compound morð-pæð or Morthpaeth, meaning "murder path", in remembrance of "some forgotten" slaying on the road, although some old documents suggest that this meaning is a fallacy; the barony of Morpeth was granted to the de Merlay family in around 1080, by 1095 a motte-and-bailey castle had been built by William de Merlay. Newminster Abbey, located on the outskirts of Morpeth, was founded in 1138 by William's son, Ranulf de Merlay, lord of Morpeth, his wife, daughter of Gospatric II, Earl of Lothian, as one of the first daughter houses of Fountains Abbey. King John granted a market charter for the town to Roger de Merlay in 1199, it became one of the main markets in Northern England by the mid 1700s and by the mid 18th century was one of the key cattle markets in England.
The market is still held on Wednesdays. The town was badly damaged by fire set by the barons in 1215 during the First Barons' War, in an attempt to block the military operations of King John; the motte-and-bailey castle was burnt down by King John in 1216. Morpeth Castle was built in the 13th century by Ranulph de Merlay, to the south of Haw Hill. In the 13th century, a stone bridge was built over the Wansbeck in Morpeth, to the west of the current bridge, replacing the ford in use in Morpeth. For some months in 1515–16, Margaret Tudor, the Queen Consort of Scotland, had laid ill in Morpeth Castle, having been brought there from Harbottle Castle; the only remains of the castle are the gatehouse, restored by the Landmark Trust, parts of the ruined castle walls. In 1540, Morpeth was described by the royal antiquary John Leland as "long and metely well-builded, with low houses" and "a far fairer town than Alnwick". During the 1543–51 war of the Rough Wooing, Morpeth was occupied by a garrison of Italian mercenaries, who "pestered such a little street standing in the highway" by killing deer and withholding payment for food.
In 1552, William Hervey, Norroy King of Arms, granted the borough of Morpeth a coat of arms. The arms were the same with the addition of a gold tower. In the letters patent, Hervey noted that he had included the arms of the "noble and valyaunt knyght... for a p'petuall memory of his good will and benevolence towardes the said towne". Morpeth was a borough by prescription, but received its first charter of confirmation from Charles II; the corporation it created was controlled by seven companies: the Merchant Tailors, the Tanners, the Fullers and Dyers, the Smiths, the Cordwainers, the Weavers and the Butchers. This remained the governing charter until the borough was reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835. During the Second World War, RAF Morpeth, an air-gunnery training school, opened at nearby Tranwell; the town and the county's history and culture are celebrated at the annual Northumbrian Gathering. The gathering includes the Border Cavalcade and Pageant; the 50th gathering took place in 2017.
Morpeth has two tiers of local government. The lower tier is Morpeth Town Council. Morpeth is a civil pa
Henry Tyler (Conservative politician)
Sir Henry Whatley Tyler was a pioneering British engineer and politician, who contributed to the Great Exhibition of 1851 and whose collections helped found the Science Museum in South Kensington. His interests were in railways, where he served Inspector of Railways and a railway company director but in water and iron working, he was a Conservative politician who sat in the House of Commons from 1880 to 1892. Tyler was born in Mayfair, London the son of John Chatfield Tyler and attended the Royal Military Academy Woolwich, he joined the Royal Engineers and in 1851 was a lieutenant called upon by Henry Cole to assist with the organisation of the Great Exhibition. In 1860 he donated a set of prospectuses to the State Library of Victoria. Tyler was appointed an Inspecting Officer for Railways in 1853 a function, carried out by Royal Engineers officers, holding the position for 24 years. A typical investigation is reported in the press in 1858. Other important investigations included the Wooton bridge collapse and the Clayton Tunnel rail crash, both of which occurred in 1861.
The former involved failure of cast iron beams supporting the track in a wooden bridge, through which a coal train fell, killing the driver and stoker instantly. The Clayton tunnel crash involved a collision in the tunnel and was the worst rail disaster at the time, killing 24 passengers in the rear coaches, he reported on the Bull bridge accident when yet another cast iron girder failed as a train was passing over. His expertise was called upon not only in the UK but in various locations in Europe. In 1866, he was sent to inspect the railway systems of France and Italy, in order to determine how best to transfer mail destined for India from northern France to the Italian port of Brindisi. On his recommendation the route was accepted. In 1867, he investigated London's water supply following an outbreak of cholera, an investigation which involved emptying a reservoir of the East London Waterworks Company next to the river Lea, tasting the contaminated water, his report helped confirm. In 1868, he spent two periods of leave building the first railway in Greece from Athens to Piraeus.
In 1871, he received promotion to Chief Inspector of Railways, in 1874 he went to America to inspect the Erie for British investors. He was a member of the abortive Channel Tunnel Commission in 1875 to 1876. On retirement from the Railway Inspectorate, he became President of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada in 1877 where he established a successful working relationship with Sir Joseph Hickson, he was chairman of the Westinghouse Air Brake Company and Deputy Chairman of the Great Eastern Railway Company. He was a director of National Mutual Assurance and Globe Insurance Company, chairman of the Rhymney Iron Company, chairman of the Peruvian Bondholders Committee and chairman of the Peruvian Corporation. At the 1880 general election, Tyler was elected as Conservative Member of Parliament for Harwich in Essex. In 1882 he objected to a Theosophist article against which he raised a charge of blasphemy and became embroiled in a conflict with Annie Besant. In 1885 he lost the seat at the 1892 election.
In 1893 he gave up the presidency of the Grand Trunk Railway Company. Tyler married Margaret Pasley, daughter of General Sir Charles Pasley, K. C. B. in 1852. Lady Tyler's Terrace in Rhymney is named after her, he was interested in homeopathy and contributed large sums of money for the expansion of the London Homeopathic Hospital. His daughter Margaret Lucy Tyler was a student of James Tyler Kent and became one of the most influential homeopaths of all time Railway Inspectorate PR Lewis, Disaster on the Dee: Robert Stephenson's Nemesis of 1847, Tempus Publishing ISBN 978-0-7524-4266-2 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Henry Whatley Tyler
The sleeping car or sleeper is a railway passenger car that can accommodate all its passengers in beds of one kind or another for the purpose of making nighttime travel more restful. George Pullman was the American inventor of the sleeper car; the first such cars saw sporadic use on American railroads in the 1830s. Some of the more luxurious types have private rooms; the earliest example of a sleeping car was on the London & Birmingham and Grand junction Railways between London and Lancashire, England. This was made available to first class passengers in 1838; the Cumberland Valley Railroad pioneered sleeping car service in the spring of 1839, with a car named "Chambersburg", between Chambersburg and Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. A couple of years a second car, the "Carlisle", was introduced into service. In 1857, the Wason Manufacturing Company of Springfield, Massachusetts – one of the United States' first makers of railway passenger coach equipment – produced America's first designed sleeping car.
The man who made the sleeping car business profitable in the United States was George Pullman, who began by building a luxurious sleeping car in 1865. The Pullman Company, founded as the Pullman Palace Car Company in 1867, owned and operated most sleeping cars in the United States until the mid-20th century, attaching them to passenger trains run by the various railroads. During the peak years of American passenger railroading, several all-Pullman trains existed, including the 20th Century Limited on the New York Central Railroad, the Broadway Limited on the Pennsylvania Railroad, the Panama Limited on the Illinois Central Railroad, the Super Chief on the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. Pullman cars were a dark "Pullman green", although some were painted in the host railroad's colors; the cars carried individual names, but did not carry visible numbers. In the 1920s, the Pullman Company went through a series of restructuring steps, which in the end resulted in a parent company, Pullman Incorporated, controlling the Pullman Company and the Pullman-Standard Car Manufacturing Company.
Due to an antitrust verdict in 1947, a consortium of railroads bought the Pullman Company from Pullman Incorporated, subsequently railroads owned and operated Pullman-made sleeping cars themselves. Pullman-Standard continued manufacturing sleeping cars and other passenger and freight railroad cars until 1980. One unanticipated consequence of the rise of Pullman cars in the US in the 19th and early 20th centuries was their effect on civil rights and African-American culture; each Pullman car was staffed by a uniformed porter. The majority of Pullman Porters were African Americans. While still a menial job in many respects, Pullman offered better pay and security than most jobs open to African Americans at the time, in addition to a chance for travel, it was a well regarded job in the African-American community of the time; the pullman attendants, regardless of their true name, were traditionally referred to as "George" by the travelers, the name of the company's founder, George Pullman. The Pullman company was the largest employer of African Americans in the United States.
Subsequently, railway porters fought for political recognition and were unionized. Their union, the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, became an important source of strength for the burgeoning Civil Rights Movement in the early 20th century, notably under the leadership of A. Philip Randolph; because they moved about the country, Pullman porters became an important means of communication for news and cultural information of all kinds. The African-American newspaper, the Chicago Defender, gained a national circulation in this way. Porters used to re-sell phonograph records bought in the great metropolitan centres adding to the distribution of jazz and blues and the popularity of the artists. From the 19th to the mid-20th century, the most common and more economical type of sleeping car accommodation on North American trains was the "open section". Open-section accommodations consist of pairs of seats, one seat facing forward and the other backward, situated on either side of a center aisle; the seat pairs can be converted into the combination of an upper and a lower "berth", each berth consisting of a bed screened from the aisle by a curtain.
A famous example of open sections can be seen in the movie. As the 20th century progressed, an increasing variety of private rooms was offered. Most of these rooms provided more space than open-section accommodations could offer. Open-sections, in the 1950s were phased out, in favor of roomettes; some of them, such as the rooms of the "slumbercoach" cars manufactured by the Budd Company and first put into service in 1956, were triumphs of miniaturization. These allowed a single car to increase the number of sleepers over a conventional sleeping car of private rooms. A Roomette, in the correct sense of the word, is a private room for a single passenger, containing a single seat, a folding bed, a toilet, a washbasin; when a traditional Roomette is in night mode, the bed blocks access to the toilet. Like open sections, Roomettes are placed with a corridor down the center. Duplex Roomettes, a Pullman-produced precursor to the slumbercoach, are staggered vertically, with every second accommodation rais
Automatic Warning System
The Automatic Warning System was introduced in 1956 in the United Kingdom to provide a train driver with an audible warning and visual reminder that they were approaching a distant signal at caution. Its operation was extended to give warnings for. AWS was based on a 1930 system developed by Alfred Ernest Hudd and marketed as the "Strowger-Hudd" system. An earlier contact system, installed on the Great Western Railway since 1906 and known as automatic train control, was supplanted by AWS within the Western Region of British Railways. Information is conveyed by electromagnetic induction to the moving train through equipment fixed in the middle of the track, known as an AWS magnet; the system works by the train detecting sequences and polarities of magnetic fields passing between the track equipment and the train equipment via a receiver under the train. Multiple unit trains have a receiver at each end. Vehicles that can operate singly only have one; this could be either at the rear depending on the direction the vehicle is travelling in.
The equipment on a train consists of. If the signal being approached is displaying a'clear' for a semaphore or green for a multiple aspect colour light signal, the AWS will sound a bell and leave the visual indicator black; this lets the driver know that the AWS system is working. If the signal being approached is displaying a restrictive aspect, the AWS will sound a horn; the driver has 2 seconds to cancel the warning by pressing and releasing the AWS/TPWS acknowledgement button. On cancelling the warning, the horn stops and the visual indicator changes to a pattern of black and yellow spokes, which persists until the next AWS magnet and reminds the driver that they have cancelled the AWS; as a fail-safe mechanism, if the driver fails to cancel the warning in time, the emergency brake will apply and bring the train to a stand. When this occurs the red Brake demand light will flash on the AWS/TPWS Driver machine interface; the driver must now push the AWS/TPWS acknowledgement button, the brakes will release after a safety time out period has elapsed.
AWS is provided at most main aspect signals on running lines, though there are some exceptions: At through stations where the permitted speed is 30 mph or less and the layout is complex. Where this occurs, these are called AWS gap areas. AWS magnets are not provided at semaphore stop signals. Where a line is not fitted with AWS magnets, it is shown in the Sectional Appendix; the system works in the same way as for signals, except that a fixed magnet positioned between the running rails is located at the service braking distance before the speed reduction. The single magnet will always cause a horn to sound in the cab, which the driver must cancel to prevent the emergency brake applying. Beyond the magnet, a lineside warning board will advise the driver of the speed requirement ahead. Early devices used a mechanical connection between the locomotive. In 1840, the locomotive engineer Edward Bury experimented with a system whereby a lever at track level, connected to the signal, sounded the locomotive's whistle and turned a cab-mounted red lamp.
Ten years the redoubtable Colonel William Yolland of the Railway Inspectorate was calling for a system that not only alerted the driver but automatically applied the brakes when signals were passed at danger but no satisfactory method of bringing this about was found. In 1873, United Kingdom Patent No. 3286 was granted to C. Davidson and C. D. Williams for a system in which, if a signal was passed at danger, a trackside lever operated the locomotive's whistle, applied the brake, shut off steam and alerted the guard. Numerous similar patents followed but they all bore the same disadvantage – that they could not be used at higher speeds for risk of damage to the mechanism – and they came to nothing. In Germany, the Kofler system used arms projecting from signal posts to connect with a pair of levers, one representing caution and the other stop, mounted on the locomotive cab roof. To address the problem of operation at speed, the sprung mounting for the levers was connected directly to the locomotive's axle box to ensure correct alignment.
When Berlin's S-Bahn was electrified in 1929, a development of this system, with the contact levers moved from the roofs to the sides of the trains, was installed at the same time. The first useful device was invented by Vincent Raven of the North Eastern Railway in 1895, patent number 23384. Altho
East Coast Main Line
The East Coast Main Line is a 393-mile long major railway between London and Edinburgh via Peterborough, York, Darlington and Newcastle. The route is a key transport artery on the eastern side of Great Britain and broadly paralleled by the A1 road; the line's origins were built during the 1840s by three railway companies, the North British Railway, the North Eastern Railway, the Great Northern Railway. In 1923, the enactment of the Railway Act of 1921 led to their amalgamation to form the London and North Eastern Railway; the line was the primary route of the LNER, who competed against the London and Scottish Railway for long-distance passenger traffic between London and Scotland. The LNER's chief engineer Sir Nigel Gresley designed iconic Pacific locomotives, including the steam locomotives "Flying Scotsman" and "Mallard" which achieved a world record speed for a steam locomotive, 126 miles per hour on the Grantham-to-Peterborough section. On 1 January 1948, the railways were nationalised by the government, operated by British Railways.
During the early 1960s, steam locomotion was replaced by Diesel-electric traction, including the Deltics and sections of the line were upgraded so trains could run at speeds of up to 100 miles per hour. With the demand for higher speed, British Rail introduced InterCity 125 High Speed trains between 1976 and 1981. In 1973, the prototype of the HST, the Class 41, achieved a top speed of 143 mph in a test run on the line. During the 1980s, the line was electrified and InterCity 225 trains were introduced; the line links London, South East England and East Anglia, with Yorkshire, the North East Regions and Scotland and is important to the economy of several areas of England and Scotland. It carries key commuter flows for the north side of London and handles cross-country and local passenger services, carries freight traffic. Services north of Edinburgh to Inverness use diesel trains. In 1997, operations were privatised; the current operator is London North Eastern Railway, bringing the LNER name back into use, which took over from Virgin Trains East Coast in June 2018.
The ECML is part of Network Rail's Strategic Route G which comprises six separate lines: The main line between London King's Cross and Edinburgh Waverley stations, via Stevenage, Grantham, Newark North Gate, Doncaster, Northallerton, Durham, Morpeth, Berwick-upon-Tweed and Dunbar. The line crosses the Anglo-Scottish border at Marshall Meadows Bay; the branch line to North Berwick The Dunbar loopThe core route is the main line between King's Cross and Edinburgh, the Hertford Loop is used for local and freight services and the Northern City Line provides an inner suburban service to the city. The route has ELRs ECM1 - ECM9; the ECML was constructed by three railway companies. During the 1830s and 1840s, each company built part of the line to serve their own areas, but intended linking together to form the through route that became the East Coast Main Line. From north to south, these companies were: the North British Railway, from Edinburgh to Berwick-upon-Tweed, completed in 1846; the North Eastern Railway from Berwick-upon-Tweed to Shaftholme.
The Great Northern Railway from Shaftholme to King's Cross, completed in 1850. The GNR established an end-on connection at Askern, described by the GNR's chairman as being "a ploughed field four miles north of Doncaster". Askern was connected to the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway, a short section of which linked with the NER at Knottingley. In 1871, the line was shortened when the NER opened a direct line from an end-on junction with the GNR at Shaftholme just south of Askern to Selby and direct to York. Recognising that through journeys were an important and lucrative element of their businesses, the companies built special rolling stock for through traffic, services were operated under the name of "East Coast Joint Stock"; this continued from 1860 until 1922. In 1923 the Railway Act of 1921 required the companies to form North Eastern Railway. Throughout its existence, the LNER was the second largest railway company in Britain, with lines to the north and east of London. On 1 January 1948, after the Transport Act of 1947 was implemented by Clement Attlee's Labour Government, the LNER was nationalised with the other companies to form British Railways.
British Railways managed the ECML as its Eastern Region division up to discorporation during the early 1980s. Alterations to short sections of the ECML's route have taken place, including the King Edward VII Bridge in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1906 and the Selby Diversion, built to bypass mining subsidence from the Selby coalfield and a bottleneck at Selby station. During 1983, the Selby Diversion opened: it diverged from the ECML at Temple Hirst Junction, north of Doncaster, joined the Leeds to York Line at Colton Junction, south west of York; the old line between Selby and York is used as a cycleway. Mining subsidence affecting 200 metres of track 17 km to the east of Edinburgh, near Wallyford, led to a temporary realignment while the ground was stabilised; the tracks and overhead electrification equipment were re-routed. Stabilisation was completed in 2000 and the track returned to its original alignment. In 2001 severe subsidence occurred at Dolphingstone and about 2km of track was relocated avoiding a permanent speed restriction.
This was completed in 2002. The line was worked for many years
Great Britain is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe. With an area of 209,331 km2, it is the largest of the British Isles, the largest European island, the ninth-largest island in the world. In 2011, Great Britain had a population of about 61 million people, making it the world's third-most populous island after Java in Indonesia and Honshu in Japan; the island of Ireland is situated to the west of Great Britain, together these islands, along with over 1,000 smaller surrounding islands, form the British Isles archipelago. The island is dominated by a maritime climate with quite narrow temperature differences between seasons. Politically, Great Britain is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, constitutes most of its territory. Most of England and Wales are on the island; the term "Great Britain" is used to include the whole of England and Wales including their component adjoining islands. A single Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the union of the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland by the 1707 Acts of Union.
In 1801, Great Britain united with the neighbouring Kingdom of Ireland, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, renamed the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland" after the Irish Free State seceded in 1922. The archipelago has been referred to by a single name for over 2000 years: the term'British Isles' derives from terms used by classical geographers to describe this island group. By 50 BC Greek geographers were using equivalents of Prettanikē as a collective name for the British Isles. However, with the Roman conquest of Britain the Latin term Britannia was used for the island of Great Britain, Roman-occupied Britain south of Caledonia; the earliest known name for Great Britain is Albion or insula Albionum, from either the Latin albus meaning "white" or the "island of the Albiones". The oldest mention of terms related to Great Britain was by Aristotle, or by Pseudo-Aristotle, in his text On the Universe, Vol. III. To quote his works, "There are two large islands in it, called the British Isles and Ierne".
Pliny the Elder in his Natural History records of Great Britain: "Its former name was Albion. Old French Bretaigne and Middle English Bretayne, Breteyne; the French form replaced the Old English Breoton, Bryten, Breten. Britannia was used by the Romans from the 1st century BC for the British Isles taken together, it is derived from the travel writings of the Pytheas around 320 BC, which described various islands in the North Atlantic as far north as Thule. Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, described the island group as αἱ Πρεττανικαὶ νῆσοι; the peoples of these islands of Prettanike were called the Priteni or Pretani. Priteni is the source of the Welsh language term Prydain, which has the same source as the Goidelic term Cruithne used to refer to the early Brythonic-speaking inhabitants of Ireland; the latter were called Picts or Caledonians by the Romans. Greek historians Diodorus of Sicily and Strabo preserved variants of Prettanike from the work of Greek explorer Pytheas of Massalia, who travelled from his home in Hellenistic southern Gaul to Britain in the 4th century BC.
The term used by Pytheas may derive from a Celtic word meaning "the painted ones" or "the tattooed folk" in reference to body decorations. The Greco-Egyptian scientist Ptolemy referred to the larger island as great Britain and to Ireland as little Britain in his work Almagest. In his work, Geography, he gave the islands the names Alwion and Mona, suggesting these may have been the names of the individual islands not known to him at the time of writing Almagest; the name Albion appears to have fallen out of use sometime after the Roman conquest of Britain, after which Britain became the more commonplace name for the island. After the Anglo-Saxon period, Britain was used as a historical term only. Geoffrey of Monmouth in his pseudohistorical Historia Regum Britanniae refers to the island as Britannia major, to distinguish it from Britannia minor, the continental region which approximates to modern Brittany, settled in the fifth and sixth centuries by migrants from Britain; the term Great Britain was first used in 1474, in the instrument drawing up the proposal for a marriage between Cecily the daughter of Edward IV of England, James the son of James III of Scotland, which described it as "this Nobill Isle, callit Gret Britanee".
It was used again in 1604, when King James VI and I styled himself "King of Great Brittaine and Ireland". Great Britain refers geographically to the island of Great Britain, it is often used to refer politically to the whole of England and Wales, including their smaller off shore islands. While it is sometimes used to refer to the whole of the United Kingdom, including Northern Ireland, this is not correct. Britain can refer to either all island
British Rail Class 47
The British Rail Class 47 is a class of British railway diesel-electric locomotive, developed in the 1960s by Brush Traction. A total of 512 Class 47s were built at Crewe Works and Brush's Falcon Works, Loughborough between 1962 and 1968, which made them the most numerous class of British mainline diesel locomotive, they were fitted with the Sulzer 12LDA28C twin-bank twelve-cylinder unit producing 2,750 bhp – though this was derated to 2,580 bhp to improve reliability – and have been used on both passenger and freight trains on Britain's railways for over 50 years. Despite the introduction of more modern types of traction, a significant number are still in use, both on the mainline and on heritage railways; as of September 2018, 80 locomotives still exist as Class 47s, with further examples having been converted to other classes. The Class 47 history begins in the early 1960s with the stated aim of the British Transport Commission to remove steam locomotives from British Rail by a target date of 1968.
It therefore required. This required locomotives producing at least 2,500 bhp but with an axle load of no more than 19 long tons. However, the BTC was not convinced that the future of diesel traction lay down the hydraulic transmission path of the Western Region, began looking at various diesel-electric designs; the BTC invited tenders to build 100 locomotives to the new specification. The following responses were received: A consortium of the Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company, Associated Electrical Industries and Sulzer offered a production version of their D0260 Lion prototype under construction at the time, with both steam and electric heating Brush Traction offered three options. Bidding for this new order went in favour of Brush; this initial build of 20 locomotives were mechanically different from the remainder of the type, using Westinghouse-supplied brake systems, would be withdrawn earlier than the rest of the class which used Metcalfe-Oerlikon brakes. However, based on these and the success of LION, an order for 270 locomotives was made, revised upwards a number of times to reach the final total of 512.
Five locomotives, Nos. D1702 to D1706, were fitted with a Sulzer V12 12LVA24 power unit and classified as Class 48s. 310 locomotives were constructed by Brush in Loughborough, the remaining 202 at BR's Crewe Works. The first 500 locomotives were numbered sequentially from D1500 to D1999, with the remaining twelve being numbered from D1100 to D1111; the locomotives went to work on freight duties on all regions of British Rail. Large numbers went to replace steam locomotives on express passenger duties; the locomotives, bar a batch of 81 built for freight duties, were all fitted with steam heating boilers for train heat duties. The initial batch of twenty, plus D1960 and D1961, were fitted with electric train heating. With this type of heating becoming standard, a further large number of locomotives were fitted with this equipment. In the mid 1960s, it was decided to de-rate the engine output of the fleet from 2,750 bhp to 2,580 bhp improving reliability by reducing stresses on the power plant, whilst not causing a noticeable reduction in performance.
In the early 1970s, the fleet was renumbered into the 47xxx series to conform with the computerised TOPS systems. This enabled a number of recognisable sub-classes to be created, depending on the differing equipment fitted; the original series were as follows. Class 47/3: Locomotives with no train heating. Class 47/4: Locomotives with dual or electric train heating. However, this numbering system was disrupted as locomotives were fitted with extra equipment and were renumbered into other sub-classes. For an overview of the renumbering see the British Rail Class 47 renumbering page; this section summarises the main sub-classes. TOPS numbered from 47001 to 47298, these locomotives were the "basic" Class 47 with steam heating equipment fitted. In the 1970s and 1980s, with steam heating of trains being phased out, all locomotives fitted with the equipment had their steam heating boilers removed; some were fitted with ETH and became 47/4s, whilst the others remained with no train heating capability and were therefore used on freight work.
In the 1990s, the class designation 47/2 was applied to some class 47/0s and class 47/3s after they were fitted with multiple working equipment. The locomotives involved had their vacuum braking systems removed or isolated, leaving them air braked only; this was a paper exercise