Denver the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U. S. state of Colorado. Denver is located in the South Platte River Valley on the western edge of the High Plains just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains; the Denver downtown district is east of the confluence of Cherry Creek with the South Platte River 12 mi east of the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Denver is named after James W. Denver, a governor of the Kansas Territory, it is nicknamed the Mile High City because its official elevation is one mile above sea level; the 105th meridian west of Greenwich, the longitudinal reference for the Mountain Time Zone, passes directly through Denver Union Station. Denver is ranked as a Beta world city by World Cities Research Network. With an estimated population of 704,621 in 2017, Denver is the 19th-most populous U. S. city, with a 17.41% increase since the 2010 United States Census, it has been one of the fastest-growing major cities in the United States.
The 10-county Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 2,888,227 and is the 19th most populous U. S. metropolitan statistical area. The 12-city Denver-Aurora, CO Combined Statistical Area had an estimated 2017 population of 3,515,374 and is the 15th most populous U. S. metropolitan area. Denver is the most populous city of the 18-county Front Range Urban Corridor, an oblong urban region stretching across two states with an estimated 2017 population of 4,895,589. Denver is the most populous city within a 500-mile radius and the second-most populous city in the Mountain West after Phoenix, Arizona. In 2016, Denver was named the best place to live in the United States by U. S. News & World Report. In the summer of 1858, during the Pike's Peak Gold Rush, a group of gold prospectors from Lawrence, Kansas established Montana City as a mining town on the banks of the South Platte River in what was western Kansas Territory; this was the first historical settlement in what was to become the city of Denver.
The site faded however, by the summer of 1859 it was abandoned in favor of Auraria and St. Charles City. On November 22, 1858, General William Larimer and Captain Jonathan Cox, both land speculators from eastern Kansas Territory, placed cottonwood logs to stake a claim on the bluff overlooking the confluence of the South Platte River and Cherry Creek, across the creek from the existing mining settlement of Auraria, on the site of the existing townsite of St. Charles. Larimer named the townsite Denver City to curry favor with Kansas Territorial Governor James W. Denver. Larimer hoped the town's name would help make it the county seat of Arapaho County but, unbeknownst to him, Governor Denver had resigned from office; the location was accessible to existing trails and was across the South Platte River from the site of seasonal encampments of the Cheyenne and Arapaho. The site of these first towns is now the site of Confluence Park near downtown Denver. Larimer, along with associates in the St. Charles City Land Company, sold parcels in the town to merchants and miners, with the intention of creating a major city that would cater to new immigrants.
Denver City was a frontier town, with an economy based on servicing local miners with gambling, saloons and goods trading. In the early years, land parcels were traded for grubstakes or gambled away by miners in Auraria. In May 1859, Denver City residents donated 53 lots to the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express in order to secure the region's first overland wagon route. Offering daily service for "passengers, mail and gold", the Express reached Denver on a trail that trimmed westward travel time from twelve days to six. In 1863, Western Union furthered Denver's dominance of the region by choosing the city for its regional terminus; the Colorado Territory was created on February 28, 1861, Arapahoe County was formed on November 1, 1861, Denver City was incorporated on November 7, 1861. Denver City served as the Arapahoe County Seat from 1861 until consolidation in 1902. In 1867, Denver City became the acting territorial capital, in 1881 was chosen as the permanent state capital in a statewide ballot.
With its newfound importance, Denver City shortened its name to Denver. On August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted to the Union. Although by the close of the 1860s, Denver residents could look with pride at their success establishing a vibrant supply and service center, the decision to route the nation's first transcontinental railroad through Cheyenne, rather than Denver, threatened the prosperity of the young town. A daunting 100 miles away, citizens mobilized to build a railroad to connect Denver to the transcontinental railroad. Spearheaded by visionary leaders including Territorial Governor John Evans, David Moffat, Walter Cheesman, fundraising began. Within three days, $300,000 had been raised, citizens were optimistic. Fundraising stalled before enough was raised, forcing these visionary leaders to take control of the debt-ridden railroad. Despite challenges, on June 24, 1870, citizens cheered as the Denver Pacific completed the link to the transcontinental railroad, ushering in a new age of prosperity for Denver.
Linked to the rest of the nation by rail, Denver prospered as a service and supply center. The young city grew during these years, attracting millionaires with their mansions, as well as the poverty and crime of a growing city. Denver citizens were proud when the rich chose Denver and were thrilled when Horace Tabor, the Leadville mining millionaire, built an impressive business block at 16th and Larimer as well as the el
Gunslinger and gunfighter are words used to refer to men in the American Old West who had gained a reputation of being dangerous with a gun and had participated in gunfights and shootouts. Gunman was a more common term used for these individuals in the 19th century. Today, the term "gunslinger" is more or less used to denote someone, quick on the draw with a pistol, but can refer to riflemen and shotgun messengers; the gunfighter is one of the most popular characters in the Western genre and has appeared in associated films, video games, literature. The gunfighter could be a lawman, cowboy, or shooting exhibitionist, but was more a hired gun who made a living with his weapons in the Old West; the term "gun slinger" was used in the Western film Drag Harlan. The word was soon adopted by other Western writers, such as Zane Grey, became common usage. In his introduction to The Shootist, author Glendon Swarthout says "gunslinger" and "gunfighter" are modern terms, the more authentic terms for the period would have been "gunman", "pistoleer", "shootist," or "bad man".
Swarthout seems to have been correct about "gunslinger", but the term "gunfighter" existed in several newspapers in the 1870s, as such the term existed in the 19th century. Bat Masterson used the term "gunfighter" in the newspaper articles which he wrote about the lawmen and outlaws whom he had known. However, Joseph Rosa noted that though Masterson used the term "gunfighter", he "preferred the term'mankiller'" when discussing these individuals. Clay Allison, a notorious New Mexico and Texas gunman and cattleman, originated the term "shootist"; the term has been applied to men who would hire out for contract killings or at a ranch embroiled in a range war where they would earn "fighting wages". Others, like Billy the Kid, were notorious bandits, still others were lawmen like Pat Garrett and Wyatt Earp. A gunfighter could be an outlaw—a robber or murderer who took advantage of the wilderness of the frontier to hide from genteel society and to make periodic raids on it; the gunfighter could be an agent of the state, archetypically a lone avenger, but more a sheriff, whose duty was to face the outlaw and bring him to justice or to administer it.
There were a few historical cowboys who were actual gunfighters, such as the outlaw cowboy gang who participated in the bloody Skeleton Canyon Massacre. Gunslingers appear as stock characters in Western movies and novels, along with cowboys; the hero of a Western meets his opposite "double", a mirror of his own evil side that he has to destroy. Western gunslinger heroes are portrayed as local lawmen or enforcement officers, army officers, territorial marshals, nomadic loners, or skilled fast-draw artists, they are masculine persons of integrity and principle – courageous, tough and self-sufficient, maverick characters, possessing an independent and honorable attitude. They are depicted as similar to a knight-errant, wandering from place to place with no particular direction facing curious and hostile enemies, while saving individuals or communities from those enemies in terms of chivalry; the Western hero stands alone and faces danger on his own against lawlessness, with an expert display of his physical skills.
In films, the gunslinger possesses a nearly superhuman speed and skill with the revolver. Twirling pistols, lightning draws, trick shots are standard fare for the gunmen of the big screen. In the real world, gunmen who relied on flashy tricks and theatrics died and most gunslingers took a much more practical approach to their weapons. Real gunslingers did not shoot to disarm or to impress. Another classic bit of cinema, a myth is the showdown at high noon, where two well-matched gunslingers agree to meet for a climactic formal duel; these duels did happen, as in the case of the Luke Short – Jim Courtright duel, but gunfights were more spontaneous, a fight that turned deadly when one side reached for a weapon, no one knew who won the fight for several minutes until the air cleared of smoke. Gunfights could be won by simple distraction, or pistols could be emptied as gunmen fought from behind cover without injury; when a gunman did square off, it was with another gunfighter. Gunslingers gave each other a wide berth, it was uncommon for two well-known gunslingers to face off.
The gunslinger's reputation was as valuable as any skills possessed. In Western films and books, young toughs challenge experienced gunmen with the hopes of building a reputation, but this happened in real life. A strong reputation was enough to keep others civil and would spare a gunfighter from conflict. Other gunslingers were to avoid any unnecessary confrontation. In the days of the Old West, tales tended to grow with repeated telling, a single fight might grow into a career-making reputation. For instance, the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral made legends of Wyatt Earp and the Outlaw Cowboy gang, but they were minor figures before that conflict; some gunslingers, such as Bat Masterson engaged in self-promotion. Johnny Ringo built a reputation as a gunslinger while never taking part in a gunfight or killing unarmed civilians. Most gunfights are portrayed in films or books as having two men square off, waiting for one to make the first move; this was the case. A gunfight was spur-of-the-moment, with one drawing his pistol, the other reacting.
As general terms, Indian Territory, the Indian Territories, or Indian country describe an evolving land area set aside by the United States Government for the relocation of Native Americans who held aboriginal title to their land. In general, the tribes ceded land they occupied in exchange for land grants in 1803; the concept of an Indian Territory was an outcome of the 18th- and 19th-century policy of Indian removal. After the Civil War, the policy of the government was one of assimilation; the term Indian Reserve describes lands the British government set aside for indigenous tribes between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River in the time before the American Revolutionary War. Indian Territory came to refer to an unorganized territory whose general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834, was the successor to the remainder of the Missouri Territory after Missouri received statehood; the borders of Indian Territory were reduced in size as various Organic Acts were passed by Congress to create incorporated territories of the United States.
The 1907 Oklahoma Enabling Act created the single state of Oklahoma by combining Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory, ending the existence of an Indian Territory. Indian Territory known as the Indian Territories and the Indian Country, was land within the United States of America reserved for the forced re-settlement of Native Americans. Therefore, it was not a traditional territory for the tribes settled upon it; the general borders were set by the Indian Intercourse Act of 1834. The territory was located in the Central United States. While Congress passed several Organic Acts that provided a path for statehood for much of the original Indian Country, Congress never passed an Organic Act for the Indian Territory. Indian Territory was never an organized incorporated territory of the United States. In general, tribes could not sell land to non-Indians. Treaties with the tribes restricted entry of non-Indians into tribal areas; the region never had a formal government until after the American Civil War.
After the Civil War, the Southern Treaty Commission re-wrote treaties with tribes that sided with the Confederacy, reducing the territory of the Five Civilized Tribes and providing land to resettle Plains Indians and tribes of the Midwestern United States. These re-written treaties included provisions for a territorial legislature with proportional representation from various tribes. In time, the Indian Territory was reduced to; the Organic Act of 1890 reduced Indian Territory to the lands occupied by the Five Civilized Tribes and the Tribes of the Quapaw Indian Agency. The remaining western portion of the former Indian Territory became the Oklahoma Territory; the Oklahoma organic act applied the laws of Nebraska to the incorporated territory of Oklahoma Territory, the laws of Arkansas to the still unincorporated Indian Territory. The concept of an Indian territory is the successor to the British Indian Reserve, a British North American territory established by the Royal Proclamation of 1763 that set aside land for use by the Native American people.
The proclamation limited the settlement of Europeans to Crown-claimed lands east of the Appalachian Mountains. The territory remained active until the Treaty of Paris that ended the American Revolutionary War, land was ceded to the United States; the British administration reduced the land area of the Indian Reserve – the United States further reduced it after the American Revolutionary War – until it included only lands west of the Mississippi River. At the time of the American Revolution, many Native American tribes had long-standing relationships with British who were loyal to the British Empire, but they had a less-developed relationship with the Empire's colonists-turned-rebels. After the defeat of the British, the Americans twice invaded the Ohio Country and were twice defeated, they defeated the Indian Western Confederacy at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794 and imposed the Treaty of Greenville, which ceded most of what is now Ohio, part of present-day Indiana, the lands that include present-day Chicago and Detroit, to the United States federal government.
The period after the American Revolutionary War was one of rapid western expansion. The areas occupied by Native Americans in the United States were called Indian country, not an unorganized territory, as the areas were established by treaty. In 1803 the United States of America agreed to purchase France's claim to French Louisiana for a total of $15 million. President Thomas Jefferson doubted the legality of the purchase. However, the chief negotiator, Robert R. Livingston believed that the 3rd article of the treaty providing for the Louisiana Purchase would be acceptable to Congress; the 3rd article stated, in part: the inhabitants of the ceded territory shall be incorporated in the Union of the United States, admitted as soon as possible, according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all the rights and immunities of citizens of the United States. Which committed the US government to "the ultimate, but not to the immediate, admission" of the territory as multiple states, "postponed its incorporation into the Union t
Colorado is a state of the Western United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains. It is the 8th most extensive and 21st most populous U. S. state. The estimated population of Colorado was 5,695,564 on July 1, 2018, an increase of 13.25% since the 2010 United States Census. The state was named for the Colorado River, which early Spanish explorers named the Río Colorado for the ruddy silt the river carried from the mountains; the Territory of Colorado was organized on February 28, 1861, on August 1, 1876, U. S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed Proclamation 230 admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state. Colorado is nicknamed the "Centennial State" because it became a state one century after the signing of the United States Declaration of Independence. Colorado is bordered by Wyoming to the north, Nebraska to the northeast, Kansas to the east, Oklahoma to the southeast, New Mexico to the south, Utah to the west, touches Arizona to the southwest at the Four Corners.
Colorado is noted for its vivid landscape of mountains, high plains, canyons, plateaus and desert lands. Colorado is part of the western and southwestern United States, is one of the Mountain States. Denver is most populous city of Colorado. Residents of the state are known as Coloradans, although the antiquated term "Coloradoan" is used. Colorado is notable for its diverse geography, which includes alpine mountains, high plains, deserts with huge sand dunes, deep canyons. In 1861, the United States Congress defined the boundaries of the new Territory of Colorado by lines of latitude and longitude, stretching from 37°N to 41°N latitude, from 102°02'48"W to 109°02'48"W longitude. After 158 years of government surveys, the borders of Colorado are now defined by 697 boundary markers and 697 straight boundary lines. Colorado and Utah are the only states that have their borders defined by straight boundary lines with no natural features; the southwest corner of Colorado is the Four Corners Monument at 36°59'56"N, 109°2'43"W.
This is the only place in the United States where four states meet: Colorado, New Mexico and Utah. The summit of Mount Elbert at 14,440 feet elevation in Lake County is the highest point in Colorado and the Rocky Mountains of North America. Colorado is the only U. S. state that lies above 1,000 meters elevation. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas, is the lowest point in Colorado at 3,317 feet elevation; this point, which holds the distinction of being the highest low elevation point of any state, is higher than the high elevation points of 18 states and the District of Columbia. A little less than half of Colorado is flat and rolling land. East of the Rocky Mountains are the Colorado Eastern Plains of the High Plains, the section of the Great Plains within Nebraska at elevations ranging from 3,350 to 7,500 feet; the Colorado plains are prairies but include deciduous forests and canyons. Precipitation averages 15 to 25 inches annually. Eastern Colorado is presently farmland and rangeland, along with small farming villages and towns.
Corn, hay and oats are all typical crops. Most villages and towns in this region boast both a grain elevator. Irrigation water is available from subterranean sources. Surface water sources include the South Platte, the Arkansas River, a few other streams. Subterranean water is accessed through artesian wells. Heavy use of wells for irrigation caused underground water reserves to decline. Eastern Colorado hosts considerable livestock, such as hog farms. 70% of Colorado's population resides along the eastern edge of the Rocky Mountains in the Front Range Urban Corridor between Cheyenne and Pueblo, Colorado. This region is protected from prevailing storms that blow in from the Pacific Ocean region by the high Rockies in the middle of Colorado; the "Front Range" includes Denver, Fort Collins, Castle Rock, Colorado Springs, Pueblo and other townships and municipalities in between. On the other side of the Rockies, the significant population centers in Western Colorado are the cities of Grand Junction and Montrose.
The Continental Divide of the Americas extends along the crest of the Rocky Mountains. The area of Colorado to the west of the Continental Divide is called the Western Slope of Colorado. West of the Continental Divide, water flows to the southwest via the Colorado River and the Green River into the Gulf of California. Within the interior of the Rocky Mountains are several large parks which are high broad basins. In the north, on the east side of the Continental Divide is the North Park of Colorado; the North Park is drained by the North Platte River, which flows north into Nebraska. Just to the south of North Park, but on the western side of the Continental Divide, is the Middle Park of Colorado, drained by the Colorado River; the South Park of Colorado is the region of the headwaters of the South Platte River. In southmost Colorado is the large San Luis Valley, where the headwaters of the Rio Grande are located; the valley sits between the Sangre De Cristo Mountains and San Juan Mountains, consists of large desert lands that run into the mountains.
The Rio Grande drains due south into New Mexico and Texas. Across the Sangre de Cristo Range to the east of the S
Denver and Rio Grande Western Railroad
The Denver & Rio Grande Western Railroad shortened to Rio Grande, D&RG or D&RGW the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad, was an American Class I railroad company. The railroad started as a 3 ft narrow-gauge line running south from Denver, Colorado in 1870, it served as a transcontinental bridge line between Denver, Salt Lake City, Utah. The Rio Grande was a major origin of coal and mineral traffic; the Rio Grande was the epitome of mountain railroading, with a motto of Through the Rockies, not around them and Main line through the Rockies, both referring to the Rocky Mountains. The D&RGW operated the highest mainline rail line in the United States, over the 10,240 feet Tennessee Pass in Colorado, the famed routes through the Moffat Tunnel and the Royal Gorge. At its height in the mid-1880s, the D&RG had the largest narrow-gauge railroad network in North America with 2,783 miles of track interconnecting the states of Colorado, New Mexico, Utah. Known for its independence, the D&RGW operated the Rio Grande Zephyr until its discontinuation in 1983.
This was the last private intercity passenger train in the United States until Brightline began service in Florida in 2018. In 1988, the Rio Grande's parent corporation, Rio Grande Industries, purchased Southern Pacific Transportation Company, as the result of a merger, the larger Southern Pacific Railroad name was chosen for identity; the Rio Grande operated as a separate division of the Southern Pacific, until that company was acquired by the Union Pacific Railroad. Today, most former D&RGW main lines are owned and operated by the Union Pacific while several branch lines are now operated as heritage railways by various companies; the Denver & Rio Grande Railway was incorporated on October 27, 1870 by General William Jackson Palmer, a board of four directors. It was announced that the new 3 ft railroad would proceed south from Denver and travel an estimated 875 miles south to El Paso via Pueblo, westward along the Arkansas River, continue southward through the San Luis Valley of Colorado toward the Rio Grande.
Assisted by his friend and new business partner Dr. William Bell, Palmer's new "Baby Road" laid the first rails out of Denver on July 28, 1871 and reached the location of the new town of Colorado Springs by October 21. Narrow gauge was chosen in part because construction and equipment costs would be more affordable when weighed against that of the prevailing standard gauge. Palmer's first hand impressions of the Ffestiniog Railway in Wales buoyed his interest in the narrow-gauge concept which would prove to be advantageous while conquering the mountainous regions of the Southwest; the route of the D&RG would be amended and added to as new opportunities and competition challenged the railroad's expanding goals. Feverish, competitive construction plans provoked the 1877–1880 war over right of way with the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway. Both rivals hired gunslingers and bought politicians while courts intervened to bring settlement to the disagreements. One anecdote of the conflict recounts June 1879 when the Santa Fe defended its roundhouse in Pueblo with Dodge City toughs led by Bat Masterson.
In March 1880, a Boston Court granted the AT&SF the rights to Raton Pass, while the D&RG paid an exorbitant $1.4 million for the trackage extending through the Arkansas River's Royal Gorge. The D&RG's possession of this route allowed quick access to the booming mining district of Leadville, Colorado. While this "Treaty of Boston" did not favor the purist of original D&RG intentions, the conquering of new mining settlements to the west and the future opportunity to expand into Utah was realized from this settlement. By late 1880 William Bell had begun to organize railway construction in Utah that would become the Palmer controlled Denver & Rio Grande Western Railway in mid-1881; the intention of the D&RGW was to work eastward from Provo to an eventual link with westward bound D&RG in Colorado. This physical connection was realized near Green River, Utah on March 30, 1883, by May of that year the D&RG formally leased its Utah subsidiary as planned. By mid-1883, financial difficulties due to aggressive growth and expenditures led to a shake up among the D&RG board of directors, General Palmer resigned as president of the D&RG in August 1883, while retaining that position with the Western.
Frederick Lovejoy would soon fill Palmer's vacated seat on the D&RG, the first in a succession of post Palmer presidents that would attempt to direct the railroad through future struggles and successes. Following bitter conflict with the Rio Grande Western during lease disagreements and continued financial struggles, the D&RG went into receivership in July 1884 with court appointed receiver William S. Jackson in control. Eventual foreclosure and sale of the original Denver & Rio Grande Railway resulted within two years and the new Denver & Rio Grande Railroad took formal control of the property and holdings on July 14, 1886 with Jackson appointed as president. General Palmer would continue as president of the Utah line until retirement in 1901; the D&RG built west from Pueblo reaching Cañon City in 1874. The line through the Royal Gorge reached Salida on May 20, 1880 and was pushed to Leadville that same year. From Salida, the D&RG pushed west over the Continental Divide at the 10,845 feet Marshall Pass and reached Gunnison on August 6, 1881.
From Gunnison the line entered the Black Canyon of the
John Henry "Doc" Holliday was an American gambler and dentist, a good friend of Wyatt Earp. He is best known for his role in the events leading up to and following the Gunfight at the O. K. Corral, he developed a reputation as having killed more than a dozen men in various altercations, but modern researchers have concluded that, contrary to popular myth-making, Holliday killed only one or two men. Holliday's colorful life and character have been depicted in many books and portrayed by well-known actors in numerous movies and television series. At age 21 Holliday earned a degree in dentistry from the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery, he set up practice in Atlanta, but he was soon diagnosed with tuberculosis, the same disease that had claimed his mother when he was 15, having acquired it while tending to her needs while she was still in the contagious phase of the illness. Hoping the climate in the American Southwest would ease his symptoms, he moved to that region and became a gambler, a reputable profession in Arizona in that day.
Over the next few years, he had several confrontations. While in Texas, he saved Wyatt Earp's life and they became friends. In 1879, he joined Earp in Las Vegas, New Mexico and rode with him to Prescott and Tombstone. In Tombstone, local members of the outlaw Cochise County Cowboys threatened him and spread rumors that he had robbed a stage. On October 26, 1881, Holliday was deputized by Tombstone city marshal Virgil Earp; the lawmen attempted to disarm five members of the Cowboys near the O. K. Corral on the west side of town, which resulted in the 30-second shootout. Following the Tombstone shootout, Virgil Earp was maimed by hidden assailants and Morgan Earp was murdered. Unable to obtain justice in the courts, Wyatt Earp took matters into his own hands; as the appointed deputy U. S. marshal, Earp formally deputized Holliday, among others. As a federal posse, they pursued, they found Frank Stilwell lying in wait as Virgil killed him. The local sheriff issued a warrant for the arrest of five members of the federal posse, including Holliday.
The federal posse killed three other Cowboys during late March and early April 1882, before they rode to the New Mexico Territory. Wyatt Earp learned of an extradition request for Holliday and arranged for Colorado Governor Frederick Walker Pitkin to deny Holliday's extradition. Holliday spent the few remaining years of his life in Colorado, died of tuberculosis in his bed at the Glenwood Springs Hotel at age 36. Holliday was born in Georgia, to Henry Burroughs Holliday and Alice Jane Holliday, he was of Scottish ancestry. His father served in the Mexican–American War and the Civil War; when the Mexican–American War ended, Henry brought home an adopted son named Francisco and taught Holliday to shoot. Holliday was baptized at the First Presbyterian Church of Griffin in 1852. In 1864, his family moved to Valdosta, where his mother died of tuberculosis on September 16, 1866; the same disease killed his adopted brother. Three months after his wife's death, his father married Rachel Martin. Holliday attended the Valdosta Institute, where he received a classical education in rhetoric, mathematics and languages—principally Latin, but some French and Ancient Greek.
In 1870, 19-year-old Holliday left home for Philadelphia. On March 1, 1872, at age 20, he received his Doctor of Dental Surgery degree from the Pennsylvania College of Dental Surgery. Holliday graduated five months before his 21st birthday, so the school held his degree until he turned 21, the minimum age required to practice dentistry. Holliday moved to St. Louis, Missouri, so he could work as an assistant for a classmate, A. Jameson Fuches, Jr. Less than four months at the end of July, he relocated to Atlanta, where he joined a dental practice, he lived with his family so he could begin to build up his dental practice. A few weeks before Holliday's birthday, dentist Arthur C. Ford advertised in the Atlanta papers that Holliday would substitute for him while he was attending dental meetings. There are some reports that Holliday was involved in a shooting on the Withlacoochee River, Georgia, in 1873; the earliest mention is by Bat Masterson in a profile of Doc he wrote in 1907. According to that story, when Holliday was 22, he went with some friends to a swimming hole on his uncles' land, where they discovered it was occupied by a group of African-American youth.
Susan McKey Thomas, the daughter of Doc's uncle Thomas S. McKey, said her father told her: "'They rode in on the Negroes in swimming in a part of the Withlacoochee River that "Doc" and his friends had cleared to be used as their swimming hole; the presence of the Negroes in their swimming hole enraged "Doc," and he drew his pistol-shooting over their heads to scare them off. Papa said, "He shot over their heads!"'" According to Masterson's story, Holliday leveled a double-barreled shotgun at them, when they exited the swimming hole, killed two of the youths. Some family members thought it best that Holliday leave the state, but other members of Holliday's family dispute those accounts. Researcher and historian Gary Roberts searched for contemporary evidence of the event for many months without success. Earp author Allen Barra searched for evidence corroborating the incident and found no credibility in Masterson's story. Shortly after beginning his dental practice, Holliday was diagnosed with tuberculosis.
He was given only a few months to live, but was told that a drier and warmer climate might slow the deterioration of his health. Afte
Auburn is a city in and the county seat of Placer County, California. Its population was 13,330 during the 2010 census. Auburn is known for its California Gold Rush history, is registered as a California Historical Landmark. Auburn is part of the Sacramento metropolitan area and is home to the Auburn State Recreation Area, the site of more sporting endurance events than any other place in the world. Examples include the Western States Endurance Run. Archaeological finds place the southwestern border for the prehistoric Martis people in the Auburn area; the indigenous Nisenan, an offshoot of the Maidu, were the first to establish a permanent settlement in the Auburn area. In the spring of 1848, a group of French gold miners arrived and camped in what would be known as the Auburn Ravine; this group was on its way to the gold fields in Coloma, it included Francois Gendron, Philibert Courteau, Claude Chana. The young Chana discovered gold on May 16, 1848. After finding the gold deposits in the soil, the trio decided to stay for more prospecting and mining.
Placer mining in the Auburn area was good, with the camp first becoming known as the North Fork Dry Diggings. This name was changed to the Woods Dry Diggings, after John S. Wood settled down, built a cabin, started to mine in the ravine; the area soon developed into a mining camp, it was named Auburn in August 1849. By 1850, the town's population had grown to about 1,500 people, in 1851, Auburn was chosen as the seat of Placer County. Gold mining operations moved up the ravine to the site of present-day Auburn. In 1865, the Central Pacific Railroad, the western leg of the First Transcontinental Railroad, reached Auburn, as it was being built east from Sacramento toward Ogden, Utah; the restored Old Town has retail buildings from the middle of the 19th century. The oldest fire station and the Post Office date from the Gold Rush years. Casual gold-mining accessories, as well as American Indian and Chinese artifacts, can be viewed by visitors at the Placer County Museum. Auburn was the home and birthplace of noted science fiction and fantasy poet and writer Clark Ashton Smith.
A memorial to him is located near Old Town. The following films were, at least in part, shot in Auburn: The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle Protocol Breakdown My Family The Phantom Phenomenon Wisdom xXx The Ugly Truth Auburn is the town where George and Lennie were raised in John Steinbeck's novel Of Mice and Men. Auburn is home to Placer High School, one of the oldest high schools in California. Local dentist Kenneth H. Fox's colossal sculptures are located throughout the town; the statues chronicle Auburn's history, such as a middle-aged Claude Chana gold panning in the nearby American River, a Chinese "coolie" worker building the Transcontinental Railroad. Auburn is located at 38°53′55″N 121°04′28″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.2 square miles, of which 0.03 square miles, or 0.38%, is water. Auburn is situated in the Northern California foothills of the Sierra Nevada range 800 vertical feet above the confluence of the North Fork and Middle Fork of the American River.
It is located between Sacramento and Reno, Nevada along Interstate 80. Mountainous wilderness canyons and the western slope of the Sierra Nevada lie adjacent eastward, while gentle rolling foothills well-suited for agriculture lie to the west; the crest of the Sierra Nevada lies 45 miles eastward, the Central Valley lies ten miles to the west. Auburn has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, characterized by cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers. Average December temperatures are a maximum of 54.4 °F and a minimum of 39 °F. Average July temperatures are a maximum of 94.0 °F and a minimum of 61.0 °F. Annually, there are an average of 59.4 days with highs of 90 °F or higher, an average of 7.0 days with 100 °F or higher, an average of 17.1 days with 32 °F or lower. The record high temperature was 113 °F on July 15, 1972; the record low temperature was 16 °F on December 9, 1972 and December 7, 2009. Average annual precipitation is 37.36 inches. There are an average of 70 days with measurable precipitation.
The wettest year was 1983 with 64.87 inches and the driest year was 1976 with 11.76 inches. The most precipitation in one month was 23.08 inches in January 1909. The most precipitation in 24 hours was 5.41 inches on October 13, 1962, during the Columbus Day Storm. Snow falls in Auburn; the most snowfall in one year was 10.7 inches in 1972, including 6.5 inches in January 1972. Auburn's Köppen classification and climate similarities to locations such as Napa and parts of Italy make it a suitable region for growing wine grapes. Auburn and the surrounding areas of Placer County are home to over 20 wineries; the 2010 United States Census reported that Auburn had a population of 13,330. The population density was 1,860.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Auburn was 11,863 White, 100 African American, 129 Native American, 240 Asian, 9 Pacific Islander, 405 from other races, 584