Bristol Temple Meads railway station
Bristol Temple Meads is the oldest and largest railway station in Bristol, England. It is an important transport hub for public transport in the city. In addition to the train services there are bus services to many parts of the city and surrounding districts, a ferry to the city centre. Bristol's other major station, Bristol Parkway, is on the northern outskirts of the conurbation. Temple Meads was opened on 31 August 1840 as the western terminus of the Great Western Railway from London Paddington, 116 miles 31 chains from Paddington; the railway was the first to be designed by the British engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel. Soon the station was used by the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the Bristol and Gloucester Railway, the Bristol Harbour Railway and the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway. To accommodate the increasing number of trains, the station was expanded in the 1870s by Francis Fox and again between 1930 and 1935 by Percy Emerson Culverhouse. Brunel's terminus is no longer part of the operational station.
The historical significance of the station has been noted, most of the site is Grade I listed. The platforms are numbered 1 to 15 but passenger trains are confined to just eight tracks. Most platforms are numbered separately at each end, with odd numbers at the east end and numbers at the west. Platform 2 is not signalled for passenger trains, there is no platform 14. Temple Meads is managed by Network Rail and the majority of services are operated by the present-day Great Western Railway. Other operators are South Western Railway. In the 12 months to March 2014, 9.5 million entries and exits were recorded at the station. In Britain's 100 Best Railway Stations by Simon Jenkins, the station was one of only ten to be awarded five stars; the name Temple Meads derives from the nearby Temple Church, gutted by bombing during World War II. The word "meads" is a derivation of "mæd", an Old English variation of "mædwe", referring to the water meadows alongside the River Avon that were part of Temple parish.
As late as 1820 the site was undeveloped pasture outside the boundaries of the old city, some distance from the commercial centre. It lay between the Floating Harbour and the city's cattle market, built in 1830; the original terminus was built in 1839–41 for the Great Western Railway, the first passenger railway in Bristol, was designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, the railway's engineer. It was built to accommodate Brunel's 7 ft broad gauge; the station was on a viaduct to raise it above the level of the Floating Harbour and River Avon, the latter being crossed via the grade I listed Avon Bridge. The station was covered by a 200-foot train shed, extended beyond the platforms by 155 feet into a storage area and engine shed, fronted by an office building in the Tudor style. Train services to Bath commenced on 31 August 1840 and were extended to Paddington on 30 June 1841 following the completion of Box Tunnel. A few weeks before the start of the services to Paddington the Bristol and Exeter Railway had opened, on 14 June 1841, its trains reversing in and out of the GWR station.
The third railway at Temple Meads was the Bristol and Gloucester Railway, which opened on 8 July 1844 and was taken over by the Midland Railway on 1 July 1845. This used the GWR platforms, diverging onto its own line on the far side of the bridge over the Floating Harbour. Both these new railways were engineered by Brunel and were broad gauge. Brunel designed the Bristol and South Wales Union Railway, but this was not opened until 25 August 1863, nearly four years after his death, it terminated at Temple Meads. In 1845 the B&ER built its own station at right angles to the GWR station and an "express platform" on the curve linking the two lines so that through trains no longer had to reverse; the wooden B&ER station was known locally as "The Cowshed". The Bristol and Portishead Pier and Railway opened a branch off the Bristol and Exeter line west of the city on 18 April 1867, the trains being operated by the B&ER and using its platforms at Temple Meads. In 1850 an engine shed had been opened on the south bank of the River Avon on the east side of the line to the B&ER station.
Between 1859 and 1875, 23 engines were built in the workshops attached to the shed, including several distinctive Bristol and Exeter Railway 4-2-4T locomotives. The GWR built a 326-by-138-foot goods shed on the north side of the station adjacent to the Floating Harbour, with a small dock for transhipment of goods to barges. Wagons had to be lowered 12 feet to the goods shed on hoists. On 11 March 1872, a direct connection to the harbour was made in the form of the Bristol Harbour Railway, a joint operation of the three railways, which ran between the passenger station and the goods yard, across the street outside on a bridge, descended into a tunnel under the churchyard of St. Mary Redcliffe on its way to a wharf downstream of Bristol Bridge; the B&ER had a goods depot at Pylle Hill from 1850, the MR had an independent yard at Avonside Wharf on the opposite side of the Floating Harbour from 1858. On 29 May 1854 the Midland Railway laid a third rail along their line to Gloucester to provide mixed gauge so that it could operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge passenger trains while broad gauge goods trains could still run to collieries north of Bristol.
Sidings at South Wales Junction allowed traffic to be transhipped between wagons on the two different gauges. The GWR continued to operate its trains on the broad gauge, but on 3
Fifteen Guinea Special
The 1T57'Fifteen Guinea Special' was the last main-line passenger train to be hauled by steam locomotive power on British Rail on 11 August 1968 before the introduction of a steam ban that started the following day. It was a special rail tour excursion train organised for the occasion from Liverpool via Manchester to Carlisle and back, was pulled by four different steam locomotives in turn during the four legs of the journey; this was a special excursion. The last scheduled steam-hauled passenger services ran on 3rd August 1968 from Preston; the Fifteen Guinea Special was so named because of the high cost of tickets for the railtour. Guinea prices were only used for luxury items or professional fees, ticket prices had been inflated due to the high demand to travel on the last BR steam-hauled mainline train; the railtour started at 09:10 from Liverpool Lime Street station. The coaches were hauled by LMS Class 5 locomotive 45110, a late replacement for the original rostered engine, 45305, which had failed the night before with a collapsed firebox brick arch, to Manchester Victoria, arriving 8 minutes late at 10:42.
There, 45110 was replaced with Britannia Class 70013 Oliver Cromwell – the last steam locomotive to be overhauled by BR – and the train departed for Carlisle at 11:06. The train arrived at Carlisle, 33 minutes late, at 15:29. For the first part of the return leg, two LMS Stanier Class 5 locomotives, 44781 and 44871, double-headed the train back to Manchester Victoria; the train departed Carlisle at 15:44 – 14 minutes late – and arrived in Manchester at 19:00, 12 minutes late. Re-joining the train at Victoria station, 45110 worked the remainder of the journey back to Liverpool Lime Street, arriving only 9 minutes late at 19:59; the end of steam-hauled trains on British Railways was a turning point in the history of rail travel in Britain. The BR steam ban was introduced the day after the railtour, on 12 August 1968 to enable Oliver Cromwell to make one last positioning run back to Norwich and on to Diss for preservation; this made the Fifteen Guinea Special the last steam-hauled passenger train to be run by BR on its standard gauge network Thereafter, all mainline trains in Britain would be hauled by either diesel or electric power.
The ban did not apply to one mainline steam locomotive – Flying Scotsman, due to Alan Pegler having secured a clause in the purchase contract when she was purchased from BR in 1963. After this, the only opportunity to view mainline steam locos in operation after the ban was to be on owned heritage railways. Several other railtours had marked the end of steam haulage on other parts of the British network. During most of these railtours, the Fifteen Guinea Special included, the line was flanked with large crowds due to the high level of interest generated by their impending withdrawal and by the popularity of steam engines amongst rail enthusiasts. There was a general belief that it was unlikely that steam would be allowed back onto the network, although in the event steam specials on BR lines were reintroduced only three years later. Since the "return to steam" with an inaugural special hauled by GWR No.6000 King George V" in 1971 run charters have been allowed to use the mainline by arrangement provided that the steam locomotive has received necessary certification.
All but one of the locomotives that hauled the train were purchased straight from service and passed into preservation. 45110 now resides on the Severn Valley Railway and has been named RAF Biggin Hill, though is on static display awaiting overhaul. While not purchased straight from service, 45305, the loco replaced by 45110, was preserved after being sold to Albert Drapers and Sons Ltd. of Hull, where the scrapyard's owner, Albert Draper, saved the loco because it was the cleanest engine in the yard. 70013 Oliver Cromwell is now part of the National Collection and was restored to mainline running in 2008, being based on the Great Central Railway when not on the main line. 44871, owned by Ian Riley, is mainline operational and resides on the East Lancashire Railway. The only locomotive not preserved was LMS Black 5 no 44781, used for filming of the film The Virgin Soldiers at Bartlow in Essex, for which it was derailed and hung at an angle for visual effect. After filming was completed, an antique dealer enthusiast from Saffron Waldon purchased her, but was unable to find the amount quoted by BR to recover the engine and re-rail it.
It was sold for scrap to Kings of Norwich and cut up on site. As well as the three locomotives, two BR Mark 1 TSO coaches used in the train, Nos. 4933 and 4937, have been preserved on the East Lancashire Railway at Bury, itself not too far from the route of the original railtour, are both in passenger use in British Rail Blue & Grey livery, which both vehicles were painted in on the original run. 2008 was the 40th Anniversary since'1T57' and end of steam on British Railways and to celebrate a re-run of the tour ran on Sunday 10 August. It again ran from Liverpool Lime Street-Newton Le Willows-Manchester Victoria-Carlisle-Blackburn-Newton Le Willows-Liverpool Lime Street. 2013 marked the 45th Anniversary of'1T57' and as 11 August was on a Sunday there was to be a second re-run. However due to the original route from Liverpool to Manchester via Newton Le Willows being shut for engineering works the tour had to be diverted along
Barrow Hill Engine Shed
Barrow Hill Roundhouse & Railway Centre, until 1948 known as Staveley Roundhouse & Train Centre, is a former Midland Railway roundhouse in Barrow Hill, near Staveley and Chesterfield, Derbyshire. Staveley Roundhouse was built to a standard Midland Railway square shed design in 1870. After 1948 it became known as Barrow Hill so as not to confuse it with the ex-Great Central shed nearby, it was operational from 1870 until 9 February 1991. The last shed foreman was Pete Hodges and the last person to sign on at Barrow Hill was Joe Denston for the up sidings preparer; the last locomotives to use the shed on its final day of operation were four diesels. Class 58, number 58 016 came on shed at 11:00. Class 58, number 58 027 came on shed at 11:30 and coupled up to 58016. Both Class 58s left for Worksop at 11:40. Class 20, numbers 20 197 and 20 073 arrived on shed at 12:00. Both Class 20 locomotives left for Worksop at 12:10. Midland Railway: M24 London Midland & Scottish: 18D British Railways Eastern region: 41E British Railways: BH After closure, the building was vandalised.
After lobbying of the local council, the building was Grade II listed by the Department of the Environment in February 1991. Following negotiations with the British Railways Property Board, Chesterfield Borough Council became the new owners of the shed and nearby yard on 20 December 1996; the council subsequently granted a recurring maintenance lease to the Barrow Hill Engine Shed Society, who secured and refurbished the site, including renewal of the original 1870 roundhouse glass roof, except for one section. Funding was provided by the council, Derbyshire County Council, the Transport Trust, North Derbyshire Training and Enterprise Council, European Regional Development Fund and the Government SRB fund; the site reopened to the public in July 1998. Today, still retaining its connection to the UK national rail network through Network Rail, it is the home to many preserved British railway locomotives; the Harry Needle Railroad Company store and maintain a number of operational lease locomotives on site.
As well as the main roundhouse building, Barrow Hill is home to the former Pinxton Signal box. Relocated after closure, it has since been refurbished and fitted out as per a typical day in its last year of use for Network Rail. Note: Only preserved locomotives are listed below. There are various locomotives either stored or under repair that are not listed here, which are owned by commercial entities on site. Steam locomotives GER Class G58 0-6-0 no. 8217. Built in 1905. On loan from the National Railway Museum. On static display. GCR Class 11F 4-4-0 No. 506 "Butler Henderson". Built in 1919. On static display. MR 1000 Compound Class 4-4-0 no. 1000. Built in 1902. On loan from the National Railway Museum. On static display. MR 1F "Half-cab" 1377 Class 0-6-0T No 41708. Built in 1878. On static display. GWR 5101 Class 2-6-2T no. 5164. Built in 1930. On loan from the Severn Valley Railway. On static display. Hunslet Engine Company "Austerity" 0-6-0ST Works no. 3825, Running no. 68009. Built in 1955. Under restoration.
Hawthorn Leslie 0-4-0ST no. 2491 "Henry". Built in 1901. On static display. Yorkshire Engine Company 0-6-0T "Y/E no. 9". Undergoing restoration. Vulcan Foundry 0-4-0ST no. 3272 "Vulcan". Built in 1918. Operational. Manning Wardle 0-4-0ST no. 1795. Built in 1903. Under restoration. Diesel locomotives Drewry Car Co. 0-4-0 no. 2589 "Harry". Built in 1956. BR 0-4-0 Class 02 no. 02003 in BR Green. Built in 1960 BR 0-4-0 Class 02 no. D2868 in BR Green. Built in 1960 BR 0-6-0 Class 03 no. 03066 in BR Blue. Built in 1959 BR 0-6-0 Class 07 no. 07012 in BR Blue. Built in 1962 BR 0-6-0 Class 10 no. D4092 in BR Green. Built in 1962 BR Bo-Bo Class 23 no. D5910. New-build, launched in September 2010. Re-creating an example of the long-lost "Baby Deltic". BR Bo-Bo Class 26 no. 26007 in Railfreight Red Stripe. Built in 1958 BR Bo-Bo Class 27 no. 27066 in BR Blue. Built in 1962 BR Bo-Bo Class 33 no. 33035 in BR Blue. Built in 1961. BR Bo-Bo Class 33 no. 33108 in BR Blue. Built in 1960. On loan to Severn Valley Railway. BR 1Co-Co1 Class 40 no.
D213 "Andania" in BR Green. Built in 1959. BR 1Co-Co1 Class 45 no. 45060 "Sherwood Forester" in BR Blue. Built in 1961. BR 1Co-Co1 Class 45 no. 45105 in BR Blue. Built in 1961. BR Co-Co Class 55 no. D9009 "Alycidon" in BR Blue. Built in 1961. BR Co-Co Class 55 no. D9015 "Tulyar" in BR Green. Built in 1961. BR Co-Co Class 55 no. 55019 "Royal Highland Fusilier" in BR Blue. Built in 1961. Electric locomotives BR Bo-Bo Class 81 no. 81002 BR Blue. Built in 1960. BR Bo-Bo Class 82 no. 82008. Intercity Executive. Built in 1961. BR Bo-Bo Class 83 no. E3035. Electric Blue. Built in 1961 BR Bo-Bo Class 85 no. 85006 Built in 1961. BR Co-Co Class 89 no. 89001. Built in 1986. Intercity Executive. Hawkins, Chris. LMS Engine Sheds Vol 2: The Midland Railway. Wild Swan Publications. ISBN 0-906867-05-3. Kaye, A. R.. North Midland and Peak District Railways in the Steam Age, Volume 2. Chesterfield: Lowlander Publications. ISBN 0 946930 09 0. Barrow Hill Society website
Mainline steam trains in Great Britain
Although steam locomotives were withdrawn from normal railway service in Great Britain in 1968, due to sustained public interest including a locomotive preservation movement, steam hauled passenger trains can still be seen on the mainline railway in the present day. Following the ramping up of dieselisation efforts in the 1960s, the last steam-hauled service trains on the standard gauge mainline of the British Railways network ran in August 1968, the last train itself being the Fifteen Guinea Special on 11th August; the day after the final service, BR imposed a complete ban on mainline steam services, with one exception, Flying Scotsman, due to Alan Pegler having secured a clause in the purchase contract when she was purchased from BR in 1963. After this time, the only place to see steam trains was on owned heritage railways; the ban was lifted in 1971. A train hauled by King George V was the first to run after the ban, it paved the way for BR to authorise more and more routes for steam operation.
In the post-privatisation era, the typical manner in which mainline steam trains are operated is for a promoter or customer to contract a charter train operating company to run it on their behalf. The TOCs are the legal entities. Locomotives and coaching stock will ordinarily be hired by the TOC on an as needed basis, although some stock is owned by the TOCs directly; as of 2013, only two charter TOCs were licensed for steam operation – DB Schencker and West Coast Railways. Of the 410,000 miles of charter train operation in 2012/13, 103,000 of this was steam hauled. Due to their unique aspects, the safe operation of steam locomotives on the mainline is governed by its own Railway Group Standard, Steam Locomotive Operation, in addition to all other applicable standards. Depending on wheel diameter, locomotives on the mainline are permitted to operate up to maximum speeds ranging from 35 to 75 mph - the maximum permitted on minor and heritage lines being 25 mph. With water troughs having been removed after the withdrawal of mainline steam, trains must now stop for water, being refilled via hoses from road going tankers, although mainline water cranes do still exist in some places.
With the locomotives away from their home base, or any kind of operating base, support crews numbering around half a dozen people travel with the train, their role being to prepare the locomotive, tend to it on water stops and repair any fixable issues arising, clear the ashpan as part of a disposal routine at the end of the day. As a result, as well as the passenger coaches, mainline steam trains will feature a support coach a passenger brake van of the British Railways Mark 1 or Mark 2 era, specially fitted out to provide seating/sleeping and workshop facilities for the support crew, plus space to carry spares and equipment, including that required for the modern equipment needed on a mainline equipped train. While on the move, one support crew member rides on the footplate, to act as the locomotive owner's representative and assist the train crew – who have general knowledge of steam locomotives and the UK mainline – by offering specialist knowledge of the idiosyncrasies of the specific locomotive, reacting to matters arising.
On the move, the remaining crew in the support coach will record the locomotive's performance while operating, including punctuality and fuel efficiency. Most locomotives used are examples built during the steam era and preserved, being suitably modified to run on the modern mainline. In 2009 the locomotive Tornado hauled its maiden mainline train, being the first brand new steam locomotive to be built in Britain for use on the main line since Evening Star, completed in 1960; the most famous steam locomotive operating on the British main line is the 1923 built Flying Scotsman. After being taken into public ownership in 2004, following a decade long refit it returned to mainline service in 2016; the fastest steam locomotive built, the 1938 built Mallard, was certified for main line operation in the 1980s. Most steam-hauled mainline services are operated as public charters - i.e. trains organised by a tour operator and available to passengers on a pre-booked basis only. Certain services however are run as scheduled services.
In some cases, trains are operated as private charters. A small number of journeys by the British Royal Train have been hauled by steam traction. Many of the services have names which echo the historic named passenger trains of the United Kingdom, will feature an appropriate headboard; the Jacobite is summer season daily service along the West Highland Line in Scotland, voted the most scenic in the world in 2009. The Torbay Express is a regular summer season weekend service in the South West; the Scarborough Spa Express is another regular summer season service, run in the BR era of the 1980s, before being revived again in the 2000s by various private operators. Selected services run by the luxury train operator Belmond are
British Rail corporate liveries
The history of British Rail's corporate liveries is quite complex. Although from the mid-1960s to the 1980s the organisation was associated with "Rail Blue", a number of other schemes were used when it was split into operating units or "sectors" in the mid-1980s. At the formation of British Railways on 1 January 1948, early diesel and electric locos and the gas turbine locomotives 18000 and 18100 were painted black with aluminium trim, but by the late 1950s this had been superseded by the same shade of green, used on express passenger steam locomotives, although some locomotives were painted in a two-tone Brunswick and Sherwood green livery, Southern Region electric locomotives were painted a light shade of malachite green. Multiple units were generally green, although this tended to be a lighter and bluer shade compared to the colour used on steam and diesel locomotives. Corridor coaching stock was trialled in carmine and white before Crimson Lake and Cream livery was adopted across the network.
In 1956 an all-over darker maroon, which more resembled the pre-nationalisation LMS livery, was re-introduced, except for the Southern Region, where locomotive-hauled stock was painted'coaching stock' green and a small number of express carriages on the Western Region which were in traditional GWR-style chocolate and cream. With the reorganisation of British Railways in the mid-1960s, a complete break with the past was signalled by the introduction of a blue and grey livery which dominated all passenger rolling stock until the mid-1980s, when a new Intercity livery was introduced along with a number of regional colour schemes; the standard livery for most British Railways steam locomotives was black with a thin red and grey "lining", while express passenger locomotives were painted Brunswick Green, with orange and black lining. This had been the livery of the old Great Western Railway, the Western Region, which now covered the same area, managed to paint far more of their locomotives in these traditional colours than elsewhere.
All Class 42 "Warship" class diesels were delivered in green but some Class 52s were delivered in maroon to match the then-standard coaching stock livery. This livery suited these diesel hydraulic classes, allowed the Western Region to once again show a degree of independence; the 25 kV electric locomotives were painted from new in a striking shade of bright blue, known as "Electric Blue". They retained this livery for some years, before being painted in Rail Blue when that became the norm. In 1964, as part of a plan to develop a new corporate image for British Railways, a number of experiments were tried. No. D5578 was painted in an unlined'Light Electric blue', No. D5579 was painted in a colour variously described as'Bronze Gold' and'Golden Ochre'; the first Class 52 "Western" class, No. D1000 Western Enterprise was painted in a pale brown livery known as'Desert Sand' livery when first delivered in 1961. Another Class 52, No. D1015 Western Champion was delivered in another, darker yellow/brown colour described as'Golden Ochre', though somewhat different from that applied to D5579.
These non-standard liveried "Western" diesel hydraulics were fitted with the cast aluminium lion and wheel emblem, standard issue on the 25 kV electric locomotives. Discussions on the livery for British Railways coaching stock in 1948 settled on a network-wide two-tone livery of crimson lake and cream for corridor coaches, with all-over crimson lake being used for local, non-corridor stock; the colours were chosen to be different from those of any of the "Big Four" pre-nationalisation railway companies while retaining a traditional aspect. However many people were not happy with the loss of the traditional "historic" regional colour schemes as used by the former private companies. From 1956 there was a move toward the return of regional colour schemes. Most regions adopted a maroon livery which resembled that of the former London Midland and Scottish Railway but the Western Region returned some of its coaches that were used on named express trains to a chocolate/cream scheme similar to that used by the GWR before nationalisation and from July 1956 the Southern Region began using a'coaching stock' green, somewhat darker than the malachite green colour of the old Southern Railway.
For cost reasons, liveries were changed piecemeal, when coaches came in for scheduled maintenance. Coaches from different regions could often find themselves coupled together. Due to the consequent muddle of liveries, many trains began to get an untidy if not tatty appearance which added to the run-down image of the railway; the rebranding of British Railways to British Rail on 1 January 1965 was coupled with the introduction of an new national livery. A mock-up for the British Railways Mark 2 stock was displayed at the Design Centre, 28 Haymarket, London, in 1964; this included many of the features which were incorporated in the Mark 2, trialled in an experimental train designated XP64. This mock-up was shown in an orange and grey livery, however, never appeared on rolling stock in service; the XP64 train was used to test technology and carriage arrangements for the planned BR Mark 2 coaches. The coaches for the XP64 train were painted in a lighter version of what would become Rail Blue, with a 44-inch-wide Pa
The Jacobite (steam train)
The Jacobite is a steam locomotive-hauled tourist train service that operates over part of the West Highland Railway Line in Scotland. It has been operating under various names and with different operators every summer since 1984, it has played an important role in sustaining a scenic route. The Mallaig Extension of the West Highland Railway opened in 1901 and was operated by the North British Railway, it was intended to help open up this rural and remote part of the Scottish Atlantic coast, the building of the line was subsidised by the British Government. It became part of the London and North Eastern Railway at the Grouping in 1923, British Railways at Nationalisation in 1948. Regular steam services over the West Highland Line were withdrawn in 1967, in line with the British Rail Modernisation Plan which outlined the replacement of all steam locomotives with more efficient and reliable diesel locomotives. In 1984, British Rail re-introduced a steam-hauled service over part of the line, in an effort to encourage tourism and boost income on the subsidised line.
Called the "West Highlander", it proved so successful. It was renamed "The Lochaber". In 1995 following the privatisation of British Rail, the operating licence for the West Highlander trains was granted to the West Coast Railway Company, they began operating the service that summer under the new name of "The Jacobite"; the daily service arrives at Mallaig at 12.25 pm. The return from Mallaig departs at 2.10pm arriving back into Fort William at 4pm. The service crosses the additional afternoon train at Glenfinnan on Mondays to Fridays and this is the only regular crossing of two steam services passing each other on the national network. In 2011, for the first time, train operator West Coast Railway Company added a second daily Jacobite service from Fort William to Mallaig due to demand, using Ian Riley's Black 5 44871 and a spare set of coaches that were used for "The Cambrian"; the additional service departs Fort William at 2.40pm with an arrival time back in Fort William of 8.30pm and runs from June to August, Monday to Friday.
The future of the Jacobite service was thrown into doubt in 2015 by the complete suspension of West Coast Railways' train operating company licence. The ban was lifted on 8 May 2015. West Coast Railway were banned again between February and March 2016; the Jacobite runs a distance of 41 miles between Fort William and Mallaig, passing through an area of great scenic beauty including alongside Loch Eil, Glenfinnan Viaduct and Arisaig. Trains cross with regular service trains at Glenfinnan station; the route is the same shown in the Harry Potter films. The company running the Jacobite service provided Warner Brothers with the train used as the Hogwarts Express in all of the movies and allowed them use of the Jacobite's route for filming; the locomotive used to pull the Hogwarts Express in the films, the GWR 4900 Class 5972 Olton Hall, is presently located at Warner Bros. Studio Tour London - The Making of Harry Potter and can be seen during studio tours. Various steam locomotives have been used to haul the service over the years of types that would have been used on the route in pre-1967 steam days, including: LNER Gresley Class K4 2-6-0 No. 61994 The Great Marquess.
LNER Peppercorn Class K1 2-6-0 No. 62005 Lord of the Isles. LMS Stanier Class 5 4-6-0. For 2014, the locomotives for the main service are either Ian Riley's LMS Black 5 44871 or 45407 The Lancashire Fusilier, plus LNER K1 62005 Lord of the Isles or Bert Hitchen's LMS Black 5 45231 The Sherwood Forester. From 2 June one of these locomotives will be in charge of the additional afternoon service until 29 August; the carriages have all been of the British Railways Mark 1 type owned by British Rail and painted blue and grey, but now owned by WCRC and painted in an approximation of British Rail Maroon with vacuum brakes. For the afternoon service an air braked set of British Railways Mark 2 carriages are based in Fort William. A tune which takes its name from this line, Steam Train to Mallaig, was composed by Mary-Ann MacKinnon in 1993, is extensively played by the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards pipe band, including on their album Highland Cathedral. Http://www.scot-rail.co.uk/page/The+Jacobite http://www.westcoastrailways.co.uk/jacobite/Jacobite_Details.html# http://guide.visitscotland.com/vs/guide/5,en,SCH1/objectId,SIG48292Svs,curr,GBP,season,at1,selectedEntry,home/home.html http://www.railbrit.co.uk/Mallaig_Extension_Railway/frame.htm
Total Operations Processing System, or TOPS, is a computer system for managing the locomotives and rolling stock owned by and/or operated on a rail system. It was developed by the American-based Southern Pacific Railroad and was sold; the Southern Pacific Railroad was ahead of the pack in its embracing of technology. In the early 1960s, it developed a computer system called'Total Operations Processing System', or'TOPS'; the purpose was to take all the paperwork associated with a locomotive or rolling stock - its maintenance history, its allocation to division and depot and duty, its status, its location, much more - and keep it in computer form updated by terminals at every maintenance facility. On paper, this information was difficult to keep track of, difficult to keep up to date, difficult to query. Computerizing this information enabled a railroad to keep better track of its assets, to use them better. In order to offset the development costs of the system, Southern Pacific sold it to other railroads.
A number of American railroads took to the system. In the mid to late 1960s, British Rail was searching around for ways to increase efficiency, came across the TOPS system in a 1968 presentation by an IBM US Transportation Industry Representative, who shortly after, formed IBM World Trade Corp's Transportation Industry Centre in Brussels, they purchased the system and implemented it, assisted by Southern Pacific data processing experts. At the time, the British Government operated a'Buy British' policy for the nationalised industries, the purchase of an IBM System/360 mainframe to operate TOPS had to be approved by the Cabinet of Prime Minister Edward Heath; the adoption of the TOPS system made for some changes in the way the railway system in Britain worked. Hitherto, locomotives were numbered in three different series. Steam locomotives carried unadorned numbers up to five digits long. Diesel locomotives carried one to four-digit numbers prefixed with a letter'D', electric locomotives with a letter'E'.
Thus, up to three locomotives could carry the same number. TOPS could not handle this, it required similar locomotives to be numbered in a consecutive series in terms of classification, in order that they might be treated together as a group. Sequentiality was all, required, but with the requirement to renumber, it was decided to adopt a logical system for classification, the five- or six-digit TOPS number was divided into two parts. No class of locomotive or multiple unit numbered over 1000 examples, so the last three digits were used for the individual number between 001 and 999 in that class; the first two or three digits were used to denote the class of multiple unit. The numbers were written in two space separated groups, such as "47 401" to highlight that division, but the TOPS system stored and displayed them without the space: "47401". Sub-classifications were indicated in the TOPS system with a slash and a subclass number, e.g. "47/4". It was convention, though not enforced within the TOPS system, that subclass numbers were boundaries in the locomotive numbering system, such that class "47/4" started with number "47 401".
If there were more than 99 numbers in a subclass, the number series extended to the next value of the third digit. However, in some cases, the sequences do not match, e.g. 158/0 numbers start at 158 701. Locomotives are assigned classes 01–98: diesel locomotives 01–79, AC electric locomotives 80–96, departmental locos 97, steam locomotives 98. DC electric locomotives were allocated classes 70–79 but this was modified in 2011. One oddity was the inclusion of British Rail's shipping fleet in the system as Class 99. Diesel multiple units with mechanical or hydraulic transmission are classified 100–199, with electric transmission 200–299. Electric multiple units are given the subsequent classes. Selected numbers in the 900 series have been used for departmental multiple units converted from former passenger units. There are a number of electric and bi-mode units in service, under construction or being planned that use the 700 and 800 series, which include: Class 700 — for the Thameslink Programme, now in service Class 800 and 801 — for the Intercity Express Programme, now in service.
Coaching stock and individual multiple unit cars are allocated five-digit numbers. More recent EMU deliveries have six-figure coach numbers. TOPS has become outdated in recent decades, it is a mainframe-driven system.