Great Western Railway
The Great Western Railway was a British railway company that linked London with the south-west and west of England, the Midlands, most of Wales. It was founded in 1833, received its enabling Act of Parliament on 31 August 1835 and ran its first trains in 1838, it was engineered by Isambard Kingdom Brunel, who chose a broad gauge of 7 ft —later widened to 7 ft 1⁄4 in —but, from 1854, a series of amalgamations saw it operate 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard-gauge trains. The GWR was the only company to keep its identity through the Railways Act 1921, which amalgamated it with the remaining independent railways within its territory, it was merged at the end of 1947 when it was nationalised and became the Western Region of British Railways; the GWR was called by some "God's Wonderful Railway" and by others the "Great Way Round" but it was famed as the "Holiday Line", taking many people to English and Bristol Channel resorts in the West Country as well as the far south-west of England such as Torquay in Devon, Minehead in Somerset, Newquay and St Ives in Cornwall.
The company's locomotives, many of which were built in the company's workshops at Swindon, were painted a Brunswick green colour while, for most of its existence, it used a two-tone "chocolate and cream" livery for its passenger coaches. Goods wagons were painted red but this was changed to mid-grey. Great Western trains included long-distance express services such as the Flying Dutchman, the Cornish Riviera Express and the Cheltenham Spa Express, it operated many suburban and rural services, some operated by steam railmotors or autotrains. The company pioneered the use of more economic goods wagons than were usual in Britain, it operated a network of road motor routes, was a part of the Railway Air Services, owned ships and hotels. The Great Western Railway originated from the desire of Bristol merchants to maintain their city as the second port of the country and the chief one for American trade; the increase in the size of ships and the gradual silting of the River Avon had made Liverpool an attractive port, with a Liverpool to London rail line under construction in the 1830s Bristol's status was threatened.
The answer for Bristol was, with the co-operation of London interests. The company was founded at a public meeting in Bristol in 1833 and was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1835. Isambard Kingdom Brunel aged twenty-nine, was appointed engineer; this was by far Brunel's largest contract to date. He made two controversial decisions. Firstly, he chose to use a broad gauge of 7 ft to allow for the possibility of large wheels outside the bodies of the rolling stock which could give smoother running at high speeds. Secondly, he selected a route, north of the Marlborough Downs, which had no significant towns but which offered potential connections to Oxford and Gloucester; this meant. From Reading heading west, the line would curve in a northerly sweep back to Bath. Brunel surveyed the entire length of the route between London and Bristol himself, with the help of many, including his solicitor Jeremiah Osborne of Bristol law firm Osborne Clarke who on one occasion rowed Brunel down the River Avon himself to survey the bank of the river for the route.
George Thomas Clark played an important role as an engineer on the project, reputedly taking the management of two divisions of the route including bridges over the River Thames at Lower Basildon and Moulsford and of Paddington Station. Involvement in major earth-moving works seems to have fed Clark's interest in geology and archaeology and he, authored two guidebooks on the railway: one illustrated with lithographs by John Cooke Bourne; the first 22 1⁄2 miles of line, from Paddington station in London to Maidenhead Bridge station, opened on 4 June 1838. When Maidenhead Railway Bridge was ready the line was extended to Twyford on 1 July 1839 and through the deep Sonning Cutting to Reading on 30 March 1840; the cutting was the scene of a railway disaster two years when a goods train ran into a landslip. This accident prompted Parliament to pass the 1844 Railway Regulation Act requiring railway companies to provide better carriages for passengers; the next section, from Reading to Steventon crossed the Thames twice and opened for traffic on 1 June 1840.
A 7 1⁄4-mile extension took the line to Faringdon Road on 20 July 1840. Meanwhile, work had started at the Bristol end of the line, where the 11 1⁄2-mile section to Bath opened on 31 August 1840. On 17 December 1840, the line from London reached a temporary terminus at Wootton Bassett Road west of Swindon and 80.25 miles from Paddington. The section from Wootton Bassett Road to Chippenham was opened on 31 May 1841, as was Swindon Junction station where the Cheltenham and Great Western Union Railway to Cirencester connected; that was an independent line worked by the GWR, as was the Bristol and Exeter Railway, the first section of which from Bristol to Bridgwater was opened on 14 June 1841. The GWR main line remained incomplete during the construction of the 1-mile-1,452-yard Box Tunnel, ready for trains on 30 June 1841, after which trains ran the 152 miles from Paddington through to Bridgwater. In 1851, the GWR purchased the Kennet and Avon Canal, a competing carrier between London, Reading and Bristol.
Exonumia are numismatic items other than coins and paper money. This includes "Good For" tokens, counterstamped coins, elongated coins, encased coins, souvenir medallions, wooden nickels and other similar items, it is related to numismatics, many coin collectors are exonumists. Besides the above strict definition, others extend it to include non-coins which may or may not be legal tenders such as cheques, credit cards and similar paper; these can be considered notaphily or scripophily. The noun exonumia is derived from two classical roots: exo, meaning "out-of" in Greek, nummus, meaning "coin" in Latin; the term "exonumia" is applied to these objects in the United States, while the equivalent British term is paranumismatica. The words exonumist and exonumia were coined in July 1960 by Russell Rulau, a recognized authority and author on the subject, accepted by Webster's dictionary in 1965. Many exonumia items were used as currency in the United States when actual money was not available in the economy.
A notable exception to this definition are medals, which were not used as currency or exchange. See the "for clarification" section below for distinctions between various branches of exonumia. Tokens were used both to facilitate commerce. Token authority Russell Rulau offers a broad definition for exonumia, lines between categories can be fuzzy. For example, an advertising token may be considered a medal. Good For tokens may advertise. Counter-stamped coins have been called "little billboards." Exonumia is anything not a governmental issue coin. This could mean anything coin-like; the English term "Para-numismatica", or alongside currency, appears more limiting, hinting that tokens must have some sort of “value” or monetary usage. One definition of Para-numismatica is anything coin-like but not a coin. In America this is not the accepted usage. Rulau's 1040 page tome, UNITED STATES TOKENS: 1700-1900 includes many tokens without any monetary value depicted on the token. While he included many items, some types of exonumia were not included just so the book would not get any bigger.
The following groupings of categories are continually expanding. One way of parsing tokens is into these three general categories: Has a "value," facilitating commerce, such as Good for. Commemoration, dedication, or the like, for some person, idea or event. Of a personal nature. Catalogs of tokens are organized by location, time period, and/or type of item; the need for tokens grew out of the need for currency. In America, some tokens circulated alongside or instead of currency up until recently. Hard Times Tokens and Civil War Tokens each were the size of the contemporary cent. Afterwards, value based items, such as Good for, Good for One Quart of Milk, Good for One Beer, Good for One Ride… and others were linked to commerce of the store or place of issue. For clarity, exonumia are actual numismatic items which can be collected. Numismatic = coins, paper money, exonumia Exonumia = tokens, badges, etc. Notaphily = paper money. Scripophily = stock certificates Medals have a clear distinction from tokens in that there is no monetary value on the item, nor any intent to be used as money.
Exonumists are attentive to not only the history behind the items but their shapes and what types of items they are. The following categories are typical; this is not all inclusive but is a sampling of the wide variety of Exonumia: TokensModified/Augmented: Love Token: A coin with hand engraving on one side Hobo nickels Indian Head/Buffalo nickel: Engraved by hand in the era 1913-38 a modification of the Indian head Carved Potty coins Trade Dollars, to show lady Liberty sitting on a chamber pot Counterstamped / countermarked coins Elongated coins Rolled out with advertising, commemorative, or souvenir designs on one side Encased Coin: Generally in a ring with advertising Encased Postage: Actual postage stamps mounted into a round frame with advertising on the other side Colored or Painted Circulation or Bullion Issues Play-Game money / Arcade Amusement / Novelty Arcade tokens Amusement Game Counter Play money Novelty money Peep Show Casino/Slot tokens/Casino chips Geocoins used in geocachingGovernment Services & Non-National tools to Facilitate Commerce Car wash tokens Jeton tokens: Used as counters when verifying totals or weights of coins for commerce and exchange Evasion tokens: 18th century semi-counterfeit were made to look like kind of but not like actual currency Sales tax tokens: Issued by states and merchants Parking tokens: for meters or gates Dog license tags Post office tags Food stamps Slave tags - slave hire badges Transportation Tokens Ferries and watercraft Buses Subway Trains Trams TrolleysClosed Community / Membership Company Store Ingle Credit System script Lumber Mining Plantation Civilian Conservation Corps College Currency Military Challenge Military Store and Entertainment Picker tokens for crops Prison and Correctional/Asylums Fraternal Masonic Elks Moose Eagles Woodmen of the World Communion tokens Unique material / shapes Wooden nickels Cardboard or paper Hard rubber or vulcanite Advertising pocket mirrorsMovements and ideals Temperance Anti-slavery Religious World's Fair Locations Cit
North Eastern Railway (United Kingdom)
The North Eastern Railway was an English railway company. It was incorporated in 1854 by the combination of several existing railway companies, it was amalgamated with other railways to form the London and North Eastern Railway at the Grouping in 1923. Its main line survives to the present day as part of the East Coast Main Line between London and Edinburgh. Unlike many other pre-Grouping companies the NER had a compact territory, in which it had a near monopoly; that district extended through Yorkshire, County Durham and Northumberland, with outposts in Westmorland and Cumberland. The only company penetrating its territory was the Hull & Barnsley, which it absorbed shortly before the main grouping; the NER's main line formed the middle link on the Anglo-Scottish "East Coast Main Line" between London and Edinburgh, joining the Great Northern Railway near Doncaster and the North British Railway at Berwick-upon-Tweed. Although a Northern English railway, the NER had a short length of line in Scotland, in Roxburghshire, with stations at Carham and Sprouston on the Tweedmouth-Kelso route, was a joint owner of the Forth railway bridge and its approach lines.
The NER was the only English railway to run trains into Scotland, over the Berwick-Edinburgh main line as well as on the Tweedmouth-Kelso branch. The total length of line owned was 4,990 miles and the company's share capital was £82 million; the headquarters were at York and the works at Darlington, Gateshead and elsewhere. Befitting the successor to the Stockton & Darlington Railway, the NER had a reputation for innovation, it was a pioneer in electrification. In its final days it began the collection that became the Railway Museum at York, now the National Railway Museum. In 1913 the company achieved a total revenue of £11,315,130 with working expenses of £7,220,784. Constituent companies of the NER are listed in chronological order under the year of amalgamation, their constituent companies are indented under the parent company with the year of amalgamation in parenthesis. If a company changed its name, the earlier names and dates are listed after the name; the information for this section is drawn from Appendix E in Tomlinson.
1854 York and Berwick Railway was York and Newcastle Railway and Newcastle and Darlington Junction Railway Durham Junction Railway Brandling Junction Railway Durham and Sunderland Railway Pontop and South Shields Railway Stanhope and Tyne Railway Newcastle and Berwick Railway Newcastle and North Shields Railway Great North of England Railway York and North Midland Railway Leeds and Selby Railway Whitby and Pickering Railway East and West Yorkshire Junction Railway Leeds Northern Railway was Leeds and Thirsk Railway Malton and Driffield Railway1857 Deerness Valley Railway Hartlepool Dock and Railway1858 North Yorkshire and Cleveland Railway1859 Bedale and Leyburn Railway1862 the "N. E. R. Foss Island BR" railway line, which appears on the 1860 Ordnance Survey map near Elmfield College Hull and Holderness Railway Newcastle and Carlisle Railway Blaydon and Hebburn Railway 1863 Stockton and Darlington Railway Darlington and Barnard Castle Railway Middlesbrough and Guisborough Railway Middlesbrough and Redcar Railway Wear Valley Railway Bishop Auckland and Weardale Railway Eden Valley Railway Frosterley and Stanhope Railway South Durham and Lancashire Union Railway 1865 Cleveland Railway West Hartlepool Harbour and Railway Clarence Railway Stockton and Hartlepool Railway 1866 Hull and Hornsea Railway1870 West Durham Railway1872 Hull and Selby Railway1874 Blyth and Tyne Railway 1876 Hexham and Allendale Railway Leeds and Pontefract Junction Railway1882 Tees Valley Railway1883 Hylton and Monkwearmouth Railway Scotswood and Wylam Railway1889 Whitby and Middlesbrough Union Railway1893 Wear Valley Extension Railway1898 Scarborough & Whitby Railway1900 Cawood and Selby Light Railway1914 Scarborough and West Riding Junction Railway1922 Hull and Barnsley Railway 1853 Hartlepool West Harbour and Dock1857 Hartlepool Dock and Railway1893 Hull Dock Company Having inherited the country's first great barrel-vault roofed station, Newcastle Central, from its constituent the York Newcastle & Berwick railway, the NER during the next half century built a finer set of grand principal stations than any other British railway company, with examples at Alnwick, Gateshead East, Stockton, Darlington Bank Top and Hull Paragon.
The four largest, at Newcastle, Darlington and Hull survive in transport use. Alnwick is still extant but in non-transport use since 1991 as a second-hand book warehouse, the others having been demolished during the 1950s/60s state-owned railway era, two following Second World War blitz damage. York station was the hub of the system, the headquarters of the line was located here; the basis for the present station was opened on 25 June 1877. Until the advent of modern signalling, the 295-lever box was the largest manually worked signal box in Britain. Newcastle station, opened on 29 August 1850, became the largest on the NER. Other principal stations were located at Sunderland and Hull; the station at Leed