The Railways Act 1921 known as the Grouping Act, was an Act of Parliament enacted by the British government and intended to stem the losses being made by many of the country's 120 railway companies, move the railways away from internal competition and retain some of the benefits which the country had derived from a government-controlled railway during and after the Great War of 1914–1918. The provisions of the Act took effect from the start of 1923; the British railway system had been built up by more than a hundred railway companies and small, particularly locally, in competition with each other. The parallel railways of the East Midlands and the rivalry between the South Eastern Railway and the London and South Coast Railway at Hastings were two examples of such local competition. During the First World War the railways were under state control, which continued until 1921. Complete nationalisation had been considered, the 1921 Act is sometimes considered as a precursor to that, but the concept was rejected.
The form of the Act was developed by former North Eastern Railway executive, the Minister of Transport, Eric Geddes. Geddes favoured privately-owned regional monopolies through amalgamations, suggested increased worker participation from pre-war levels. Geddes viewed the pre-war competition as wasteful, but was opposed to nationalisation on the grounds that it led to poor management, as well as a mutually corrupting influence between railway and political interests. In his 9 March 1920 Cabinet paper "Future Transport Policy", he proposed five English groups, a London passenger group, separate single groupings for Scotland and Ireland. Geddes' proposals became the 1920 white paper "Outline of Proposals as to the Future Organisation of Transport Undertakings in Great Britain and their Relation to the State"; this suggested the formation of seven regional companies. The white paper was opposed by the Railway Companies' Association and MPs representing railway companies' interests; the move to greater worker participation was opposed by the RCA, but supported by the Labour Party.
Worker-directors were not included in the final act, being replaced by agreed negotiating mechanisms. The regional groups proposed were five in England, a Scottish regional group. Railways serving London were intended to form a separate regional group, but this amalgamation was delayed and took place in 1933.. In 1921 the white paper "Memorandum on Railways Bill", suggested four English regional groups and two Scottish groups. Scottish railway companies wished to be incorporated into British groupings, the RCA proposed five British regional monopolies including the Scottish businesses. After consideration of the Railways Bill it was decided that the Scottish companies destined to be a separate group, would be included with the Midland/North Western and Eastern groups in order that the three main Anglo-Scottish trunk routes should each be owned by one company for its full length: the West Coast Main Line and the Midland Main Line by the former group, the East Coast Main Line by the latter; the opening paragraph of the Railways Act of 1921 states: With a view to the reorganisation and more efficient and economical working of the railway system of Great Britain railways shall be formed into groups in accordance with the provisions of this Act, the principal railway companies in each group shall be amalgamated, other companies absorbed in manner provided by this Act.
Part 1 of the act dealt with the terms and procedure of the amalgamations of railway companies. The constituents and subsidiaries of the four groups were set out in the first schedule of the act. Companies that had not formed an amalgamation scheme by 1923 would be amalgamated under terms decided by a tribunal. Part 2 dealt with powers and regulation of the railway companies by the Railway and Canal Commission, part 3 dealt with railway rates and conditions of carriage with powers given to a Railway Rates Tribunal, part 4 with employee wages and conditions. Parts 5 and 6 dealt with light railways and general clauses with the general clauses of part 6 including the requirement of the railway companies to provide the Minister of Transport with statistic and financial reports; the third reading of the Act in the House of Commons took place on 9 August 1921, was passed with a majority of 237 to 62. The state control of the railways which began under war conditions during World War I were to continue under the Ministry of Transport Act 1919 for a further two years.
The Act took effect on 1 January 1923. On that date most of the mergers took place; the February 1923 issue of The Railway Magazine dubbed the new companies as "The Big Four of the New Railway Era". A number of joint lines remained outside the Big Four, continuing to be operated jointly by the successor companies; these included the Midland and Great Northern Joint Railway, a London and Scottish Railway/London and North Eastern Railway joint line in eastern England, the largest of the joint railways in terms of route mileage.
Edward F. Caldwell & Co. of New York City, was one of the premier designers and manufacturers of electric light fixtures and decorative metalwork from the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries. Founded in 1895 by Edward F. Caldwell and Victor F. von Lossberg, the firm left a legacy of custom designed and finely-made, metal gates, chandeliers and wall fixtures and table lamps, other decorative objects that can be found today in many metropolitan area churches, public buildings, offices and residences including, the White House, St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York, New York Public Library, Rockefeller Center. Edward F. Caldwell, a portrait painter from Waterville, New York, became part of an active community of designers in New York City during the early 1880s. By the end of that decade and into the 1890s, Caldwell worked for, became chief designer and vice president of, the Archer & Pancoast Manufacturing Company of New York, top designers of gaslighting fixtures. At this time, due to Thomas Edison's advances in developing the electric light bulb, Archer & Pancoast began manufacturing fixtures using this new technology.
Caldwell faced the challenge of mastering an understanding of electric light and adapting electric fixtures to traditional ornamental esthetics that were acceptable to the late 19th century American public. While at Archer & Pancoast, Caldwell oversaw three major commissions for McKim and White, as well as commissions for the New York State Building at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition, The of New York City, the Boston Public Library. Through these projects, Caldwell became a friend of Stanford White, a young architect who saw the importance of electric illumination for designing future interiors and buildings, he understood that technological advances of slender tubing, small electric bulbs, concealed wiring, modern switch units, low voltage current linked to small sockets would allow fixtures to take new and diverse forms, sharing decorative as well as utilitarian functions. White encouraged Caldwell to focus on designing electric light fixtures. In 1895, Caldwell established the firm Edward F.
Caldwell & Co. Inc. of New York with Victor von Lossberg at 31 East 17th Street. Von Lossberg, a designer and draftsman Caldwell had worked with at Archer & Pancoast, was a native of Latvia, raised in Russia and studied design in Germany. Caldwell and von Lossberg brought skilled artisans from Europe to New York to work for the firm, they traveled to Europe studying and importing historic objects for use as inspiration in the production of their electric light fixtures. In 1901, they established their own foundry at 36-40 West 15th Street, along with their showrooms and offices, they became known for producing lighting fixtures and metalwork objects in bronze, silver and copper. The firm attracted commissions from some of the most prominent architects of the period including McKim, Mead & White, Carrere & Hastings, Goodhue & Ferguson, Cass Gilbert. Caldwell & Co. produced a wide variety of objects based on historic styles since many of their wealthy and established clientele preferred traditional designs.
They showed clients photographs and actual historic examples of French and English forms that could be adapted as electric light fixtures and that would fit esthetically into traditional or period interiors. The firm worked with the architects, interior decorators and other subcontractors to coordinate the aesthetic unity of a project, using their extensive photo archive to inspire new designs. A watercolor or colored pencil presentation drawing was created for review by designer and client before the piece was put into production. After production, pieces were photographed to be added to the company's extensive photo archive; the success of the Caldwell firm was due to extensive variety of historic patterns at hand, which could be incorporated into electric fixtures to enhance the beauty of an interior. Under Von Lossberg, the company created more original designs rather than duplicating antiques, a standard for the firm previously. Lighting and desk accessories now contained vitreous enamel work.
In the 1920s, the firm explored more contemporary designs such as Art Deco styles for lights at Radio City Music Hall and the Waldorf-Astoria Hotel. With a staff that numbered more than 1,000 in the early decades of the 20th century, they had the ability to take on large commissions; as a result, they landed many of the biggest jobs of the day, including new churches, train stations, state capitols and other public buildings throughout the country. The firm continued under Victor von Lossberg after Edward Caldwell died in October 1914. Edward T. Caldwell, grandson of the founder, took over the firm when von Lossberg retired in 1938. Caldwell & Co. produced more standardized fixtures and fluorescent lamps until 1956, when it was liquidated by the Internal Revenue Service. The company reorganized as E. T. Caldwell Lighting, but closed permanently due to financial problems in 1959. Much of their work cans still be seen today throughout the country and abroad; the Cooper-Hewitt Museum Library includes an E. F.
Caldwell & Co. Collection with more than 50,000 images, of which 37,000 are black-and-white photographs and 13,000 are original design drawings of lighting fixtures and other metal objects produced by the company from the late 19th to the mid-20th century. Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site|Frederick W. Vanderbilt house, Hyde Park, NY University Club of New York New York, NY Philip Lehman
Duane Elgin is an American author, educator and media activist. Duane Elgin grew up near Idaho, he attended the Sorbonne in Paris for one semester in 1963 and earned a Bachelor of Arts from the College of Idaho in 1966. He received a Master of Business Administration from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1968 and a Master of Arts in economic history from the University of Pennsylvania in 1969. In the early 1970s, Elgin was a senior staff member on a joint Presidential-Congressional Commission on Population Growth and the American Future; the commission's task was to look ahead from 1970 to 2000 and explore challenges of urbanization and population growth. Elgin moved to California, where he worked as a senior social scientist with the "futures group" at the Stanford Research Institute and co-authored studies of the long-range future, his report on Voluntary Simplicity, co-authored with Arnold Mitchell, was published by SRI in June 1976. The report was expanded and republished with a survey in CoEvolution Quarterly in 1977.
More than a thousand pages were received in response to the survey. These first-hand accounts formed the basis for his book Voluntary Simplicity, which appeared in 1981. Elgin left SRI International in 1977. During the 1980s, he co-founded two non-profit non-partisan organizations concerned with media accountability and citizen empowerment; the national one was called "Choosing Our Future" and the San Francisco Bay Area organization was called "Bay Voice". Their mission was to give citizens a greater voice in their community by using the public airwaves for interactive "electronic town meetings". Elgin continues to promote citizen use of mass media for dialogue about the future. In 2012, Elgin and a small team launched Great Transition Stories, a non-profit organization dedicated to helping people understand ongoing societal transitions. Over the past thirty years, Duane Elgin has co-founded two non-profit organizations dedicated to the promotion of media accountability. In 1981, he co-founded "Choosing Our Future", a national organization with members in 26 states.
COF objected to the renewal of licenses of all the major broadcast TV stations in the San Francisco Bay Area on the grounds they were not serving the communication needs of citizens. After the FCC sided with broadcasters and renewed their licenses, Choosing Our Future created an inclusive "community voice" organization called "Bay Voice". In 1987, these organizations put an interactive Electronic Town Meeting on the air in the Bay Area during prime-time, working with the local ABC television station; the "ETM" was seen by over 300,000 people and six votes were taken from a pre-selected, random sample of Bay Area citizens. Elgin has written extensively on themes of media and democracy since the 1980s. In 1999, a group of 30'evolutionary leaders' met with the Dalai Lama in Dharamsala, India over a period of five days to explore "Synthesis Dialogues" and themes of the new paradigm and building a sustainable and a spiritual future for humanity. In 2001 Elgin was awarded an honorary PhD for work in "ecological and spiritual transformation" from the California Institute of Integral Studies in San Francisco.
He is a member of the CIIS "Council of Sages". In 2006 Elgin received the annual Goi International Peace Award in Japan in recognition of his contribution to a global "vision and lifestyle" that fosters a "more sustainable and spiritual culture". Elgin has been a visiting scholar at Denison University in Ohio in May, 2004, he has been a'distinguished scholar' at Rollins College in Winter Park, Florida in 2012 where he spoke to both public and student audiences about our time of "great transition". Duane Elgin was described in April 2009 by the Ecologist Magazine as one of the ten leading visionaries with "big ideas for a better world". Co-author, Alternative Futures for Environmental Policy Planning: 1975 – 2000, prepared by SRI International, Menlo Park, for the Environmental Protection Agency, 1975, Contract NSF/STP 76-02573. Co-author, Assessment of Future National and International Problem Areas, prepared by SRI International, Menlo Park, for the National Science Foundation, 1977, NSF/STP76-02573.
Elgin, Limits to the Management of Large, Complex Systems, prepared for the National Science Foundation by SRI International, Menlo Park, California, 1977, Contract NSF/STP76-02573. Elgin, Voluntary Simplicity: Toward a Way of Life That Is Outwardly Simple, Inwardly Rich, January 5, 2010, ISBN 978-0-06-177926-8. Co-author with Arnold Mitchell, Voluntary Simplicity for the Long Range Planning Service and Business Intelligence Program at SRI International, Menlo Park, June 1976, Report No. 1004. Co-author and project director, City Size and the Quality of Life: An Analysis of the Policy Implications of Continued Population Concentration, prepared by the Stanford Research Institute for the National Science Foundation and United States Senate, Washington, D. C. 1974, NSF Contract GI.138462. Elgin has written a number of blogs for Huffington Post on the theme of simplicity and sustainability. Elgin, Awakening Earth: Exploring the Evolution of Human Culture and Consciousness, published by Wm. Morrow, 1993, ISBN 978-0-688-11621-7.
Elgin, Promise Ahead: A Vision of Hope and Action for Humanity’s Future, published by Wm. Morrow, 2000, ISBN 0-688-17191-5
Jan Gruter or Gruytère, Latinized as Janus Gruterus, was a Flemish-born philologist and librarian. Jan Gruter was born in Antwerp, his father was Wouter Gruter, a merchant and city administrator of Antwerp, his mother was Catharina Tishem from Norwich in England. To avoid religious persecution in the early stages of the Eighty Years' War, his parents emigrated to England while he was a child. For some years he studied at Caius College, after which he went to Leiden. In 1584 he obtained the degree of doctor iuris, he left the Netherlands and commenced a period of travel that brought him to France, Italy and to North and East Germany. His neo-Latin poems are published in Heidelberg at this time. In 1590, Gruter was appointed professor of history at the University of Wittenberg; as a Calvinist, he refused to subscribe to the formula concordiae, the authoritative Lutheran statement of faith, lost his position as a result in 1592. From 1589 to 1592, he taught at Rostock, after which he went to Heidelberg, where in 1602 he was appointed librarian to the university.
He died at Heidelberg. Gruter's chief works were: Inscriptiones antiquae totius orbis Romani Lampas, sive fax artium liberalium. Bibliography Baynes, T. S.. R. eds.. "Gruter, Jan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. P. 226. "Gruter, Janus". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge. Fuchs, Peter. "Gruter, Jan". Neue Deutsche Biographie. 7. Pp. 238–240. Attribution: This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Gruter, Jan". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. P. 641
The ancient Mesopotamian incantation series Šurpu begins enūma nēpešē ša šur-pu tušu, “when you perform the rituals for ‘Burning,’” and was compiled in the middle Babylonian period, ca. 1350–1050 BC, from individual incantations of much greater antiquity. It consisted of a long confessional of sins, ritual offences, unwitting breaches of taboos, offences against the moral or social order when the patient was unsure what act of omission he may have committed to offend the gods. Composed in Akkadian, its adjurations extend to nine clay tablets and, at Nineveh, Assurbanipal's scribes had canonized the series, fixing the sequence and providing a codicil at the bottom of each tablet providing the first line of the following tablet. Elsewhere, such as at Assur, the tablet order could vary. In contrast to the Maqlû incantation series, intended to counteract kišpū, black magic, it is a ritual against a māmītu, or curse, entailed the burning of dough, applied to and wiped over the patient, transferring sins to an object, burnt, providing relief from, for example, the consequences of adultery, theft, witchcraft, arrogance against the gods, humans or contamination by accursed people or the objects they had infected.
The patient would throw various items such as garlic or onion peel, or red wool, symbolically representing his transgressions, into the fire while an incantation was recited: My illness, my weariness, my guilt, my crime, my sin, my transgression,The illness, present in my body, my flesh my veins, Be peeled off like this garlic so that The fire-god, the burner, consumes today! May the curse leave so that I may see the light! Apart from these references, Erica Reiner observed that “contrary to what we may expect from its title, burning plays a small roll in the series. With the exception of tablet V-VI, none of the prayers or incantations have anything to do with the magical operation the title suggests” and by tablet VII impure material is disposed of in the wilderness, where desert deities are active; the second tablet provided purification from sins of the mouth such as eating taboo things, evil speech, lying and so on, a long list of offenses for the patient to confess. The reverse continues with an invocation of a list of more than forty gods on behalf of the afflicted.
Tablets III and IV are addressed to the patron god of magic and the bulk of the remainder include invocations of lists of gods. The ninth tablet sanctified the various instruments and paraphernalia of the ritual using what is referred to as Kultmittelbeschwörungen, incantations conveying purification. “Incantation: Your hands are washed…you are holy.
"Lineage" is the 158th episode of the TV series Star Trek: Voyager, the 12th episode of the seventh season. B'Elanna and Tom Paris struggle through an event, the pregnancy of B'Ellanna with Tom's child. B'Elanna Torres is in a good mood, until she arrives at work in Engineering and faints. Icheb states that she has a parasite within her. Seven of Nine scans Torres and comes up with a different diagnosis: B'Elanna is pregnant; the Doctor confirms Seven's diagnosis. The fetus is seven weeks old, healthy, except for a genetic defect that causes abnormal spine curvature in Klingon females. B'Elanna, half Klingon, had surgery as a baby to correct this defect; the Doctor says that nowadays genetic resequencing is the preferred treatment and that he can perform the procedure the following day. He shows Tom Paris and B'Elanna a holographic projection of what their daughter will look like. Tom thinks she is beautiful but B'Elanna is distressed to learn her daughter will have Klingon facial ridges. During the procedure the next day, B'Elanna reminisces back to her childhood as a Klingon girl on the colony in which she grew up.
She blames herself her Klingon half, for her human father leaving her, her teasing and harassment by other children for being half klingon, resolves to not let the same happen to her daughter. She proposes further genetic resequencing to delete various Klingon genes in order to make her daughter human, but the Doctor and B'Elanna's husband Tom Paris disagree. During one of the couple's arguments, Torres mentions, she claims that if her daughter is one quarter klingon, human society will treat her as a "monster". They can't reach a consensus, so they speak to Janeway, who tells them that their problem isn't about ethics, it's about marital affairs; as a friend, she'll offer them advice. They still can't work it out, so Paris ends up staying the night in Harry's quarters; the next day, they have seemed to make up, but just the Doctor calls them. In Sickbay, the Doctor reveals that he has changed his mind and believes that the procedure will be required. Tom seeks a second opinion from Icheb. Icheb disagrees with the Doctor's new assessment and Seven discovers that the EMH's program has been tampered with.
Tom stops the procedure in the nick of time, he and B'Elanna have an argument. She tearfully admits; the Doctor's alterations are removed, B'Elanna apologizes to the Doctor and asks him to be the godfather. The Doctor accepts, B'Elanna feels the baby kick, she sees the holographic projection one more time and admits that she is cute. In 2012, in a review of the series, Den of Geek ranked this the tenth best episode of Star Trek: Voyager. In 2019, they ranked this the 10th best morality play of the Star Trek franchise. Io9's 2014 listing of the top 100 Star Trek episodes placed "Lineage" as the 96th best episode of all series up to that time, out of over 700 episodes. Author, Author The "Torres Trilogy": Day of Honor Extreme Risk Barge of the Dead "Lineage" on IMDb "Lineage" at TV.com Lineage at Memory Alpha Lineage at StarTrek.com