Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails known as tracks. It is commonly referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a prepared flat surface, rail vehicles are directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Tracks consist of steel rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock fitted with metal wheels, moves. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a rail transport system encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger and freight cars can be coupled into longer trains; the operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power by diesel engines.
Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system. Railway transport is capable of high levels of passenger and cargo utilization and energy efficiency, but is less flexible and more capital-intensive than road transport, when lower traffic levels are considered; the oldest known, man/animal-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC in Greece. Rail transport commenced in mid 16th century in Germany in the form of horse-powered funiculars and wagonways. Modern rail transport commenced with the British development of the steam locomotives in the early 19th century, thus the railway system in Great Britain is the oldest in the world. Built by George Stephenson and his son Robert's company Robert Stephenson and Company, the Locomotion No. 1 is the first steam locomotive to carry passengers on a public rail line, the Stockton and Darlington Railway in 1825. George Stephenson built the first public inter-city railway line in the world to use only the steam locomotives all the time, the Liverpool and Manchester Railway which opened in 1830.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution. Railways reduced the costs of shipping, allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships; the change from canals to railways allowed for "national markets" in which prices varied little from city to city. The spread of the railway network and the use of railway timetables, led to the standardisation of time in Britain based on Greenwich Mean Time. Prior to this, major towns and cities varied their local time relative to GMT; the invention and development of the railway in the United Kingdom was one of the most important technological inventions of the 19th century. The world's first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened in 1863. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, leading to electrification of tramways and rapid transit systems. Starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being complete by the 2000s.
During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan and in some other countries. Many countries are in the process of replacing diesel locomotives with electric locomotives due to environmental concerns, a notable example being Switzerland, which has electrified its network. Other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. Following a decline after World War II due to competition from cars, rail transport has had a revival in recent decades due to road congestion and rising fuel prices, as well as governments investing in rail as a means of reducing CO2 emissions in the context of concerns about global warming; the history of rail transport began in the 6th century BC in Ancient Greece. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of track material and motive power used. Evidence indicates that there was 6 to 8.5 km long Diolkos paved trackway, which transported boats across the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece from around 600 BC.
Wheeled vehicles pulled by men and animals ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element, preventing the wagons from leaving the intended route. The Diolkos was in use for over 650 years, until at least the 1st century AD; the paved trackways were later built in Roman Egypt. In 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang wrote a description of the Reisszug, a funicular railway at the Hohensalzburg Fortress in Austria; the line used wooden rails and a hemp haulage rope and was operated by human or animal power, through a treadwheel. The line still exists and is operational, although in updated form and is the oldest operational railway. Wagonways using wooden rails, hauled by horses, started appearing in the 1550s to facilitate the transport of ore tubs to and from mines, soon became popular in Europe; such an operation was illustrated in Germany in 1556 by Georgius Agricola in his work De re metallica. This line used "Hund" carts with unflanged wheels running on wooden planks and a vertical pin on the truck fitting into the gap between the planks to keep it going the right way.
The miners called the wagons Hunde from the noise. There are many references to their use in central Europe in the 16th century; such a transport system was used by German miners at Cal
News is information about current events. This may be provided through many different media: word of mouth, postal systems, electronic communication, or through the testimony of observers and witnesses to events. Common topics for news reports include war, politics, health, the environment, business and entertainment, as well as athletic events, quirky or unusual events. Government proclamations, concerning royal ceremonies, taxes, public health, criminals, have been dubbed news since ancient times. Humans exhibit a nearly universal desire to learn and share news, which they satisfy by talking to each other and sharing information. Technological and social developments driven by government communication and espionage networks, have increased the speed with which news can spread, as well as influenced its content; the genre of news as we know it today is associated with the newspaper, which originated in China as a court bulletin and spread, with paper and printing press, to Europe. The English word "news" developed in the 14th century as a special use of the plural form of "new".
In Middle English, the equivalent word was newes, like the German Neues. Similar developments are found in the Slavic languages the Czech and Slovak noviny, the cognate Polish nowiny, the Bulgarian novini, Russian novosti – and in the Celtic languages: the Welsh newyddion and the Cornish nowodhow. Jessica Garretson Finch is credited with coining the phrase "current events" while teaching at Barnard College in the 1890s; as its name implies, "news" connotes the presentation of new information. The newness of news gives it an uncertain quality which distinguishes it from the more careful investigations of history or other scholarly disciplines. Whereas historians tend to view events as causally related manifestations of underlying processes, news stories tend to describe events in isolation, to exclude discussion of the relationships between them. News conspicuously describes the world in the present or immediate past when the most important aspects of a news story have occurred long in the past—or are expected to occur in the future.
To make the news, an ongoing process must have some "peg", an event in time which anchors it to the present moment. Relatedly, news addresses aspects of reality which seem unusual, deviant, or out of the ordinary. Hence the famous dictum that "Dog Bites Man" is not news. Another corollary of the newness of news is that, as new technology enables new media to disseminate news more quickly,'slower' forms of communication may move away from'news' towards'analysis'. According to some theories, "news" is. Journalism, broadly understood along the same lines, is the act or occupation of collecting and providing news. From a commercial perspective, news is one input, along with paper necessary to prepare a final product for distribution. A news agency supplies this resource "wholesale" and publishers enhance it for retail. Most purveyors of news value impartiality and objectivity, despite the inherent difficulty of reporting without political bias. Perception of these values has changed over time as sensationalized'tabloid journalism' has risen in popularity.
Michael Schudson has argued that before the era of World War I and the concomitant rise of propaganda, journalists were not aware of the concept of bias in reporting, let alone correcting for it. News is sometimes said to portray the truth, but this relationship is elusive and qualified. Paradoxically, another property attributed to news is sensationalism, the disproportionate focus on, exaggeration of, emotive stories for public consumption; this news is not unrelated to gossip, the human practice of sharing information about other humans of mutual interest. A common sensational topic is violence. Newsworthiness is defined as a subject having sufficient relevance to the public or a special audience to warrant press attention or coverage. Journalists apply news values to identify a news story. News values determine how much attention a news story is given by a media outlet, the attention it is given by its audience or readers. In some countries and at some points in history, what news media and the public have considered "newsworthy" has met different definitions, such as the notion of news values.
Many news values seem to be common across cultures. People seem to be interested in news to the extent which it has a big impact, describes conflicts, happens nearby, involves well-known people, deviates from the norms of everyday happenings. War is a common news topic because it involves unknown events that could pose personal danger. Evidence suggests that cultures around the world have found a place for people to share stories about interesting new information. Among Zulus, Mongolians and American Southerners, anthropologists have documented the practice of questioning travelers for news as a matter of priority. Sufficiently important news would be repeated and and could spread by word of mouth over a large geographic area; as printing presses came into use in Europe, news for the general public travelled orally via monks, town criers, etc. The news is transmitted in public gathering places, such as the Greek forum and the Roman baths. Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news after telecommunications became available.
The history of the coffee houses is traced from Arab countries, introduced in England in 16th century. In th
Today's Railways UK and Today's Railways Europe are railway magazines aimed at the enthusiast and semi-professional market and concentrating on current and heritage events in the United Kingdom and mainland Europe. They are published by Platform 5 Publishing Ltd of Sheffield. Today's Railways EUROPE magazine began publication in 1994 as Today's Railways. Today's Railways EUROPE covers the European railway scene and is published on the fourth Monday of each month; the magazine sometimes publishes articles on scenic lines. The magazine consist of several sections: Headlights, Headline news, Light rail news, Mail train, a News round-up, Heritage news, a Railtours diary, book and DVD reviews; the magazine includes up to three feature articles. In recent issues, the magazine has covered Russian and ex-Soviet railway news. Today's Railways UK, covers railways in Ireland, it has carried its current title from issue #49, January 2006, having been published as entrain. The magazine is published on the second Monday of each month.
Each magazine consists of 82 pages. A comprehensive news section covers 20 pages, followed by around 3 or 4 feature articles, one of, a description of a railway line, interspersed with readers' letters, fares news and mail order pages. There is a double page pictorial spread towards the centre of the magazine. Towards the back, there is a comprehensive rolling stock news section, compiled by Robert Pritchard; the paper size is now A4. UK railways interest magazines: Modern Railways RAIL Railways Illustrated List of railroad-related periodicals
British Rail Class 55
The British Rail Class 55 was a class of diesel locomotive built in 1961 and 1962 by English Electric for British Rail. They were designed for the high-speed express passenger services on the East Coast Main Line between Edinburgh and London King's Cross, they gained the name "Deltic" from the prototype locomotive, DP1 Deltic, which in turn was named after its Napier Deltic power units. Twenty-two locomotives were built, which dominated express passenger services on the ECML from London to Leeds and Edinburgh, until 1978 when High Speed Trains were introduced, they were subsequently relegated to semi-fast services on the Kings Cross to York and Hull routes and continued on sleeper services along the ECML. Other occasional destinations, although with no diagrammed work, included Cleethorpes, Liverpool Lime Street and Aberdeen, they worked to Skegness and Scarborough. Other unusual destinations included Bridlington, Leicester and a BR "Merrymaker" trip to Fort William, they could be found on diversionary routes such as Newcastle to Edinburgh via Carlisle and Doncaster to Peterborough via Lincoln and Spalding Cambridge although arriving at Kings Cross via Hertford was not unusual.
During the latter years organised Railtours took them further afield to Worcester, Bognor Regis, Dover and Exeter. All were withdrawn from service between January 1980 and December 1981. Three were retained for a few days, until 2 January 1982, to work the farewell special, all being withdrawn on arrival back at York. Six locomotives entered preservation during 1982 and 1983: one by the National Railway Museum, three by the Deltic Preservation Society and two by the Deltic 9000 Fund. Two cabs were privately purchased. Following trials with the prototype DP1 Deltic locomotive, built at the Dick, Kerr & Co works in Preston, an order was placed with English Electric for a production fleet of 22 units, replacing more than twice that number of Nigel Gresley Pacifics; the locomotives were purchased under a service contract, English Electric agreeing to maintain them, including their engines and generators, for a fixed price. Additional Deltic engines were produced to enable engines to be exchanged for overhaul while keeping the locomotives in service.
The locomotives were assigned to three locomotive depots: Finsbury Park in London, Gateshead in Newcastle, Haymarket in Edinburgh. They arrived from the manufacturer painted in two-tone green, the dark BR green on top, with a narrower strip of a lighter, lime green along the bottom; this helped to disguise the bulk of the locomotive body. The cab window surrounds were picked out in cream-white. Although delivered without it, they all soon sported the bright yellow warning panel at each end common to all British diesel and electric locomotives, to make them more conspicuous. Soon, all were named. By 1966 they began to be painted in corporate Rail Blue with yellow ends, the change coinciding with a works repair and the fitting of air brake equipment, the locomotives having only vacuum braking. In the early 1970s they were fitted with Electric Train Heating equipment to power Mark 2 air-conditioned coaches, while a couple of years with the introduction of BR's TOPS computer system, they were renumbered 55 001 to 55 022.
In 1979, Finsbury Park restored the white cab window surrounds to their remaining six Deltics, making them distinctive, although these were painted over when the locomotives were transferred to York during the rundown of the depot at Finsbury Park. The introduction of the Deltics was a step change in locomotive performance on the East Coast Main Line; the introduced Class 40 diesels had an absolute maximum drawbar horsepower of 1,450 and this could be exceeded by a Pacific steam locomotive if worked hard. On one of O. S. Nock's first Deltic runs he states "once the tail of the train was over the 60 mph restriction the throttle was opened to the full, the surge forward could be felt in the cab. Never had I felt a positive thrust in my back when in the second man's seat!" Nock went on to estimate. As early as 1963 Deltics were recorded exceeding 100 mph, Nock recording 100 mph for 16 miles south of Thirsk with a maximum of 104 mph. By the mid 1960s, the Deltic-hauled Flying Scotsman was achieving a 5-hour 55-minute time from King's Cross to Edinburgh with one stop at Newcastle and this was the fastest timing, beating the pre-war A4-hauled Coronation service's 6 hours, without the priority over other traffic accorded to the earlier LNER train.
As the East Coast Main Line was upgraded, times dropped still further and by the mid-1970s the Flying Scotsman was reaching Edinburgh in 5 hours 30 minutes, still with one stop at Newcastle. The ultimate Deltic performance came on 2 February 1978 with a run on the 07:25 from Newcastle to King's Cross. In some respects the run was set up but the speeds were record breaking; the locomotive was 55 008 The Green Howards, it was hauling 10 coaches, on the leg from York to London it achiev
A railfan, rail buff, or train buff, railway enthusiast or railway buff, trainspotter or anorak is a person interested, recreationally, in rail transport. Railfans of many ages can be found worldwide. Railfans combine their interest with other hobbies photography and videography, radio scanning, model railroading, studying railroad history and participating in railway station and rolling stock preservation efforts. Magazines dedicated to railfanning include Railfan & Railroad; the term metrophile is used by some to identify a railfan with a particular interest in metro systems. The study of railways, or a general interest in them as a hobby, is sometimes jokingly known as "ferroequinology". In the United States, the term foamer is used as a derogatory term for railfans. In the United Kingdom, railfans are called trainspotters or anoraks; the term gricer has been used in the UK since at least 1969, is "said to have been current in 1938 amongst members of the Manchester Locomotive Society", according to the Oxford English Dictionary.
There has been speculation that the term derives from "grouser", one who collects dead grouse after a shoot, but other etymologies have been suggested. A rivet counter is someone obsessed with the technical details of railways. In Australia, they are sometimes referred to as "gunzels"; the hobby extends to all aspects of rail transport systems. Railfans may have one or more particular concentrations of interest, such as: Railway locomotives and rolling stock Still-used or disused railroad lines, tunnels and other infrastructure Subways and other local rail transit systems Railway history Railroad photography Railway signalling Playing train simulators Rail transport modelling — V-scale modelling Collection of railway artifacts, in particular: tickets, railway paper, number plates, builders' plates, railway crockery. Many items such as timetables and railway paper are collected for study and not just as collectibles. There are many retailers and auction houses specializing in such material, both those with street premises and those only on-line.
Railway art or architecture Railway operations, economics or commerce Railway preservation/restoration Level junction. This is where the railfan can be interested in the railroad or "grade" crossing signals. Monitoring railroad radio communications with a radio scanner. Indeed, the scope of the subject is so large that fans may additionally concentrate their interest on a particular country, operating company, field of operations, or era in history – or a combination of any of the above. Train photography is a common activity of railfans. Most railfans do their photographing from public property, unless they have permission to use a specific private property owner's land, they run into problems with law enforcement due to post 9/11 paranoia, because they are sometimes viewed as suspicious. In 2004, for example, the New York City Subway attempted to institute a photo ban; this was met with fierce opposition, was scrapped. Some railroad photographers have become well known for their works. Many railfans are familiar with the works of H. Reid, Otto Perry and O.
Winston Link. W. Stewart. In the United Kingdom, photography is allowed at all stations on the National Rail network. Transport for London, does not allow photography without permission and a permit issued by the TfL Film Office; the Tyne and Wear Metro prohibits all photography without written permission from Nexus, the operators of the system. As of 2015, this is the only system in the UK. In Singapore and filming can be taken in all SMRT and SBST stations as long as it does not reproduce for public viewing. However, upskirt photos are illegal and permission must be obtained from the operators to record weddings and movies on the network; the Spanish RENFE railroad company used to ask for a permit. However, photographer may encounter some problems with security guards. In Greece, railway photography is permitted on all networks but railfans are confronted by security guards. In Russia, railway photography is permitted on all networks but railfans are confronted by security guards. In Italy, the Royal Decree n°1161 enacted on July 11, 1941, concerning "military secrets", prohibited all and any photographs and video recordings in and around a number of civilian and military installations, including public railways.
Railway photography was tolerated by tacit agreement. However, it could be prosecuted on legal grounds as a felony; the law was repealed by the Legislative Decree n°66 enacted on March 15, 2010. The Union Pacific railroad corporation makes available to its employees and shareholders a full color calendar each year depicting its trains in different parts of the United States where it maintains its rail lines. In Indonesia, railway photography and filming can be performed in all stations and for all trains, although at times security guards will disallow serious photography using professional cameras or video recorders. Mobile phone cameras, pocket cameras, entry level handycams, are allowed, there is no regulation banning railway photography or filming in stations. For commerc
Key Publishing is a magazine publishing company specialising in aviation titles, based in Stamford, England. Airliner World was launched in 1999. In 2005 it launched Airports of the World, and in the same year it bought PC Pilot. PC Pilot is the world's best selling flight simulation magazine. In December 2006, their offices were burgled, with ten computers being stolen. In October 2009, it bought Spain's leading aviation magazine Avion Revue, its Latin American editions. Owned by Motor Presse - Ibérica; this magazine, along with Piloto, is published by Key Publishing Spain. In March 2010, it bought the title Aviation News. Aviation News is Britain's longest established monthly aviation journal. Airfix Model World launched on 4 November 2010. in partnership with Airfix. In March 2012, Key Publishing acquired several magazines published by Ian Allan. Titles included Modern Railways, Railways Illustrated, Vintage Roadscene, Hornby Magazine, Combat Aircraft, Classic Aircraft, Buses; as well as its core titles, which are some of the best known in the aviation world, it produces one-off titles for organisations such as the Royal Air Force.
It produces the directories for the Society of British Aircraft Companies and the British Aviation Group. It produces the souvenir programme for the Farnborough Airshow; the following are publications of Key Publishing: AIR International Airfix Model World AirForces Monthly Airliner World Airports of the World Aviao Revue Aviation News Avion & Piloto Avion Revue Internacional, España Avion Revue Internacional, Latino America Bowls International Britain at War Buses Classic Land Rover Combat Aircraft Monthly FlyPast Hornby Magazine Military Machines International Modern Locomotives Illustrated Modern Railways PC Pilot Railways Illustrated Steam Days Vintage Roadscene Air Traffic Management Airports International Key. Aero AirForces Daily AirForces Intelligence Key Shop It is sited on the A6121 in the north of Stamford, not far from the former Stamford branch of the Great Northern Railway and the River Gwash. Archant Bourne Publishing Group EMAP Jane's Information Group Official website Special publications Aviation forums AirForces Intelligence Key Aero
Rail is a British magazine on the subject of current rail transport in Great Britain. It is published every two weeks by Bauer Consumer Media and is available in the transport sections of many British newsagents, it is targeted at the enthusiast market, but covers business issues in depth. Rail is more than three decades old, was known as Rail Enthusiast from its launch in 1981 until 1988, it is one of only two railway magazines that increased its circulation in 2012. It has had the same cover design for at least a decade, with a capitalised italic red RAIL along the top of the front cover. Rail is customarily critical of railway institutions, including the Rail Delivery Group, the Office of Rail and Road, as well as, since it assumed greater railway powers, the Department for Transport. Rail's' continuing campaigns include one against advertising and media images showing celebrities and others walking between the rails and another against weeds on railways; the magazine's readership peaked in the late 1980s at around 45,000.
Since the market for railway magazines has declined, although more titles have appeared. To meet the change in the market, the magazine has repositioned itself from being purely enthusiast-based to being more business-oriented; this has met with some success. Rail organises conferences, including the annual National Rail Conference, the National Rail Awards and the Rail 100 Breakfast Club. Rail publishes a mix of news and features written by its own editorial staff and freelance contributors; the magazine takes a broadly supportive stance on High Speed 2 and began running a regular column dedicated to it in 2013. The magazine's Managing Editor is Nigel Harris. Other staff include Richard Clinnick. Other regular contributors include transport commentator Christian Wolmar, one of the most vociferous critics of the privatisation of railways in Britain. Many of Rail's' editorial staff appear on television and radio when a rail expert is needed to comment on a story. Comment Industry Insider Christian Wolmar The Fare Dealer Stop & Examine List of rail transport-related periodicals Modern Railways Railways Illustrated The Railway Magazine Today's Railways Official website