Funk rock is a fusion genre that mixes elements of funk and rock. James Brown and others declared that Little Richard and his mid-1950s road band, The Upsetters, were the first to put the funk in the rock and roll beat, with a biographer stating that their music "spark the musical transition from fifties rock and roll to sixties funk". Funk rock's earliest incarnation on record was heard in the late 1960s through the mid-1970s by acts such as the Jimi Hendrix Experience, Eric Burdon and War, Rick Derringer, David Bowie, Wild Cherry, Average White Band, Gary Wright, The Bar-Kays, Black Merda, Parliament-Funkadelic, Betty Davis and Mother's Finest. During the 1980s and 1990s funk rock music experienced a surge in popularity, with bands such as Tom Tom Club, Pigbag, INXS, Talking Heads, the Fine Young Cannibals and Cameo dabbling in the sound. Groups including Red Hot Chili Peppers, Rage Against the Machine, Incubus, Mr. Bungle and Faith No More notably combined funk rock with metal, hip hop and experimental music, leading to the emergence of the genre known as funk metal or "punk-funk".
Funk rock is a fusion of rock. Many instruments may be incorporated into the music, but the overall sound is defined by a definitive bass or drum beat and electric guitars; the bass and drum rhythms are influenced by funk music but with more sonic intensity, while the guitar can be funk- or rock-influenced with distortion, similar to overdrive or fuzz. Jimi Hendrix was the first well-known recording artist to combine the rhythms and riffs of early funk with his rock sound; the earliest example is his "Little Miss Lover". The live album Band of Gypsys features funky riffs and rhythms throughout and his unfinished album included a couple of funk rock songs such as "Freedom", "Izabella" and "Straight Ahead". George Clinton has been considered the godfather of this genre since 1970. Clinton created the name "P-Funk" for the innovative new concepts of funk that he culled from former members of James Brown's band and new young players such as Eddie Hazel, his groups and Parliament defined funk since the release of the influential funk rock Funkadelic classic Maggot Brain.
Funk rock albums by the group include Cosmic Slop, Standing on the Verge of Getting It On, Hardcore Jollies and Let's Take It to the Stage. Albums such as One Nation Under a Groove and Electric Spanking of War Babies had a bit more radio-friendly sound but still preserved much of group's funk rock approach; this work served as the primary influence on an entire generation of funk and hip hop artists from the Red Hot Chili Peppers to Snoop Dogg. Other pioneers evolved in the 1970s in the form of British rock band Trapeze and post-punk act A Certain Ratio, American artists Rick Derringer, The Bar-Kays, Black Nasty and Mother's Finest. "We called ourselves funk rock," recalled Mother's Finest singer Glenn "Doc" Murdock. "I think. We had a house where we all lived and we named it'Funk Rock, Georgia'. We felt. We played with Lynyrd Skynyrd and AC/DC; those bands had a lot of funk in their music. The real problem for us was, they told us we were too loud."Grand Funk Railroad pioneered the bass driven hard rock funk style in 1970 so well portrayed in their song "Inside Looking Out" and picked up by Rage Against the Machine.
Singer-model Betty Davis recorded important funk rock albums. The iconoclast composer and guitarist Frank Zappa demonstrated the merge of styles in albums like Overnite Sensation, in themes such as "I'm the Slime", covered decades by Funkadelic. Funk rock acts were not favored by R&B recording companies. For example, guitarists of Chic wanted to be a glam funk rock band like Kiss, but they became a disco act after being turned down by recording companies. Despite its considerable influence on popular music, funk rock was not a visible phenomenon during the 1970s. Only a few funk rock acts could be seen on record charts, notably David Bowie, The Rolling Stones, Gary Wright and Wild Cherry; when Glenn Hughes left Trapeze and joined Deep Purple along with David Coverdale, Deep Purple's next two albums contained elements of funk and soul. When Ritchie Blackmore left Deep Purple in 1975, the band's next album Come Taste the Band with Tommy Bolin was more funky than its predecessor Stormbringer. However, Deep Purple broke up in 1976 and Tommy Bolin died from a drug overdose.
British guitarist Robin Trower's albums In City Dreams and Caravan to Midnight, produced by veteran R&B producer Don Davis and featuring former Sly & The Family Stone bassist Rustee Allen, are pioneering funk rock albums. In the late 1970s Iggy Pop released Bowie-produced LP The Idiot. From the start of the 1980's, funk musicians Rick James and Cameo as well as new wave band Blondie and post-punk band Talking Heads each created their own brand of funk rock. One famous disco & rock song of the period was "Another One Bites the Dust" by British rock icons Queen. In the 1980s, some synth-funk and synthpop bands such as Thomas Dolby, Scritti Politti, Howard Jones made the basic funk beats along with elements of new wave which makes this a basic synth-funk song; the funk rock genre's representatives from the 1980s to present day include INXS, the Fine Young Cannibals, Jane's Addiction, Faith No
A remix is a piece of media, altered from its original state by adding, and/or changing pieces of the item. A song, piece of artwork, video, or photograph can all be remixes; the only characteristic of a remix is that it appropriates and changes other materials to create something new. Most remixes are a subset of audio mixing in music and song recordings. Songs may be remixed for a variety of reasons: to adapt or revise a song for radio or nightclub play to create a stereo or surround sound version of a song where none was available to improve the fidelity of an older song for which the original master has been lost or degraded to alter a song to suit a specific music genre or radio format to use some of the same materials, allowing the song to reach a different audience to alter a song for artistic purposes. To provide additional versions of a song for use as bonus tracks or for a B-side, for example, in times when a CD single might carry a total of 4 tracks to create a connection between a smaller artist and a more successful one, as was the case with Fatboy Slim's remix of "Brimful of Asha" by Cornershop to improve the first or demo mix of the song to ensure a professional product.
To provide an alternative version of a song to improve a song from its original stateRemixes should not be confused with edits, which involve shortening a final stereo master for marketing or broadcasting purposes. Another distinction should be made between a remix, which recombines audio pieces from a recording to create an altered version of a song, a cover: a re-recording of someone else's song like Mike D's remix of Moby's "Natural Blues". While audio mixing is one of the most popular and recognized forms of remixing, this is not the only media form, remixed in numerous examples. Literature, film and social systems can all be argued as a form of remix Since the beginnings of recorded sound in the late 19th century, technology has enabled people to rearrange the normal listening experience. With the advent of editable magnetic tape in the 1940s and 1950s and the subsequent development of multitrack recording, such alterations became more common. In those decades the experimental genre of musique concrète used tape manipulation to create sound compositions.
Less artistically lofty edits produced medleys or novelty recordings of various types. Modern remixing had its roots in the dance hall culture of late-1960s/early-1970s Jamaica; the fluid evolution of music that encompassed ska, rocksteady and dub was embraced by local music mixers who deconstructed and rebuilt tracks to suit the tastes of their audience. Producers and engineers like Ruddy Redwood, King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry popularized stripped-down instrumental mixes of reggae tunes. At first they dropped the vocal tracks, but soon more sophisticated effects were created, dropping separate instrumental tracks in and out of the mix and repeating hooks, adding various effects like echo and delay; the German krautrock band Neu! used other effects on side two of their album Neu! 2 by manipulating their released single Super/Neuschnee multiple ways, utilizing playback at different turntable speeds or mangling by using of a cassette recorder. From the mid-1970s, DJs in early discothèques were performing similar tricks with disco songs to get dancers on the floor and keep them there.
One noteworthy figure was Tom Moulton. Though not a DJ, Moulton had begun his career by making a homemade mix tape for a Fire Island dance club in the late 1960s, his tapes became popular and he came to the attention of the music industry in New York City. At first Moulton was called upon to improve the aesthetics of dance-oriented recordings before release, he moved from being a "fix it" man on pop records to specializing in remixes for the dance floor. Along the way, he invented the 12-inch single vinyl format. Walter Gibbons provided the dance version of the first commercial 12-inch single. Contrary to popular belief, Gibbons did not mix the record. In fact his version was a re-edit of the original mix. Moulton and their contemporaries at Salsoul Records proved to be the most influential group of remixers for the disco era; the Salsoul catalog is seen as being the "canon" for the disco mixer's art form. Pettibone is among a small number of remixers whose work transitioned from the disco to the House era.
His contemporaries included François Kevorkian. Contemporaneously to disco in the mid-1970s, the dub and disco remix cultures met through Jamaican immigrants to the Bronx, energizing both and helping to create hip-hop music. Key figures included Grandmaster Flash. Cutting and scratching became part of the culture, creating what Slate magazine called "real-time, live-action collage." One of the first mainstream successes of this style of remix was the 1983 track Rockit by Herbie Hancock, as remixed by Grand Mixer D. ST. Malcolm McLaren and the creative team behind ZTT Records would feature the "cut up" style of hip hop on such records as "Duck Rock". Early pop remixes were simple.
A phonograph record is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove. The groove starts near the periphery and ends near the center of the disc. At first, the discs were made from shellac. In recent decades, records have sometimes been called vinyl records, or vinyl; the phonograph disc record was the primary medium used for music reproduction throughout the 20th century. It had co-existed with the phonograph cylinder from the late 1880s and had superseded it by around 1912. Records retained the largest market share when new formats such as the compact cassette were mass-marketed. By the 1980s, digital media, in the form of the compact disc, had gained a larger market share, the vinyl record left the mainstream in 1991. Since the 1990s, records continue to be manufactured and sold on a smaller scale, are used by disc jockeys and released by artists in dance music genres, listened to by a growing niche market of audiophiles; the phonograph record has made a notable niche resurgence in the early 21st century – 9.2 million records were sold in the U.
S. in 2014, a 260% increase since 2009. In the UK sales have increased five-fold from 2009 to 2014; as of 2017, 48 record pressing facilities remain worldwide, 18 in the United States and 30 in other countries. The increased popularity of vinyl has led to the investment in new and modern record-pressing machines. Only two producers of lacquers remain: Apollo Masters in California, MDC in Japan. Phonograph records are described by their diameter in inches, the rotational speed in revolutions per minute at which they are played, their time capacity, determined by their diameter and speed. Vinyl records may be scratched or warped if stored incorrectly but if they are not exposed to high heat, carelessly handled or broken, a vinyl record has the potential to last for centuries; the large cover are valued by collectors and artists for the space given for visual expression when it comes to the long play vinyl LP. The phonautograph, patented by Léon Scott in 1857, used a vibrating diaphragm and stylus to graphically record sound waves as tracings on sheets of paper, purely for visual analysis and without any intent of playing them back.
In the 2000s, these tracings were first scanned by audio engineers and digitally converted into audible sound. Phonautograms of singing and speech made by Scott in 1860 were played back as sound for the first time in 2008. Along with a tuning fork tone and unintelligible snippets recorded as early as 1857, these are the earliest known recordings of sound. In 1877, Thomas Edison invented the phonograph. Unlike the phonautograph, it could both record and reproduce sound. Despite the similarity of name, there is no documentary evidence that Edison's phonograph was based on Scott's phonautograph. Edison first tried recording sound on a wax-impregnated paper tape, with the idea of creating a "telephone repeater" analogous to the telegraph repeater he had been working on. Although the visible results made him confident that sound could be physically recorded and reproduced, his notes do not indicate that he reproduced sound before his first experiment in which he used tinfoil as a recording medium several months later.
The tinfoil was wrapped around a grooved metal cylinder and a sound-vibrated stylus indented the tinfoil while the cylinder was rotated. The recording could be played back immediately; the Scientific American article that introduced the tinfoil phonograph to the public mentioned Marey and Barlow as well as Scott as creators of devices for recording but not reproducing sound. Edison invented variations of the phonograph that used tape and disc formats. Numerous applications for the phonograph were envisioned, but although it enjoyed a brief vogue as a startling novelty at public demonstrations, the tinfoil phonograph proved too crude to be put to any practical use. A decade Edison developed a improved phonograph that used a hollow wax cylinder instead of a foil sheet; this proved to be both a better-sounding and far more useful and durable device. The wax phonograph cylinder created the recorded sound market at the end of the 1880s and dominated it through the early years of the 20th century. Lateral-cut disc records were developed in the United States by Emile Berliner, who named his system the "gramophone", distinguishing it from Edison's wax cylinder "phonograph" and American Graphophone's wax cylinder "graphophone".
Berliner's earliest discs, first marketed in 1889, only in Europe, were 12.5 cm in diameter, were played with a small hand-propelled machine. Both the records and the machine were adequate only for use as a toy or curiosity, due to the limited sound quality. In the United States in 1894, under the Berliner Gramophone trademark, Berliner started marketing records of 7 inches diameter with somewhat more substantial entertainment value, along with somewhat more substantial gramophones to play them. Berliner's records had poor sound quality compared to wax cylinders, but his manufacturing associate Eldridge R. Johnson improved it. Abandoning Berliner's "Gramophone" tradem
Ricky Fenson is a British rock bass guitarist, who played with an early version of The Rolling Stones before they had a permanent lineup. He appeared with the band in 1962 and 1963 with fellow Screaming Lord Sutch and the Savages and Cyril Davies' All Stars band members Carlo Little and Nicky Hopkins, including a gig at Sidcup Art College, which Keith Richards had attended, he was a member of the bands Brian Auger and the Trinity and Steampacket. 1962 Rolling Stones gigs "Rick Brown's memories of the Cyril Davies All Stars and more..." The Rolling Stone who lives in a council house and claims he was lucky to be dropped
Don Edward Fagenson, known as Don Was, is an American musician, record producer and record executive. A bass player, Was led the 1980s funk-rock band Was. In years he produced songs and albums for a large number of popular recording artists. In 2012, he became president of jazz music label Blue Note Records. Born in Detroit, Was graduated from Oak Park High School in the Detroit suburb of Oak Park attended the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor but dropped out after the first year. A journeyman musician, he grew up listening to the Detroit blues sound and the jazz music of John Coltrane and Miles Davis, amongst many others; as a teenager, Was was further influenced by the Beat Generation, most notably John Sinclair. In high school, Was was the lead guitar player in a Detroit rock band called the Saturns; the first recording project that he engineered and produced was in 1971 with drummer Muruga Booker on a recording called Rama Rama / Endless Path. Using the stage name "Don Was", he formed; the group found commercial success in the 1980s – releasing four albums and logging several hit records.
Their biggest hit was "Walk the Dinosaur", off of their album What up, Dog? A jazz/R&B album of Hank Williams covers, "Forever's A Long, Long Time" was released in 1997, under the name Orquestra Was. In 2008, Was reunited for an acclaimed new album titled Boo! and tour. Was has received four Grammy Awards including the 1994 Grammy Award for Producer of the Year, he produced several albums for Bonnie Raitt including her Nick of Time album that won the 1989 Grammy Award for Album of the Year. Don collaborated with co-producer Ziggy Marley, on Family Time, winner of 2009's Best Musical Album For Children, he produced the Rolling Stones 2016 album Blue and Lonesome, which won the Grammy for Best Traditional Blues album. He served as music director and/or consultant for several motion pictures such as Thelma and Louise, The Rainmaker, Hope Floats, Tin Cup, Honeymoon in Vegas, 8 Seconds, The Freshman, Days of Thunder, Michael, Prêt-à-Porter, Boys on the Side, Toy Story and The Paper. In 1997, he directed and produced a documentary, I Just Wasn't Made for These Times, about former Beach Boy Brian Wilson.
The film debuted at the Sundance Film Festival and won the San Francisco Film Festival's Golden Gate Award. He received the British Academy Award for Best Original Score in recognition of his compositions for the film Backbeat. Was, a fan of the Rolling Stones and saw them in concert when he was age 12 in 1964, produced their albums Voodoo Lounge, Bridges to Babylon, Forty Licks, Live Licks, A Bigger Bang and Blue & Lonesome, he worked on the Rolling Stones's reissues Exile on Main Street, released in May 2010 and Some Girls released in October 2011. Was scoured old master recordings of the albums for lost gems, remastering some songs while producing new vocals and tracks on others. Was produced the B-52's 1989 album Cosmic Thing, which included their smash hit "Love Shack". Since 2008, Was has hosted the proceedings at the Detroit All-Star Revue, an annual showcase of local acts from the Detroit music scene. From 2009 to 2012, Don hosted a weekly radio show on Sirius XM satellite radio's Outlaw Country channel called The Motor City Hayride.
During the 2011 season of American Idol, Was appeared in several episodes producing contestants Haley Reinhart, Scotty McCreery, Paul McDonald, Lauren Alaina and Casey Abrams. In January 2012, he was appointed president of the jazz record label, Blue Note Records in succession to Bruce Lundvall, he won the 2014 Emmy Award for Outstanding Music Direction for his work on the CBS TV special "The Beatles: The Night That Changed America." On November 18, 2015, at DAR Constitution Hall in Washington DC, he led the house band that performed at a concert celebrating Willie Nelson, recipient of the 2015 Library of Congress Gershwin Prize for Popular Song. In 2018, Was joined former Grateful Dead guitarist Bob Weir and drummer Jay Lane to form Bob Weir & Wolf Bros, a trio which undertook a North American tour in the Fall of 2018, continued with a second tour of twenty more shows in the Spring of 2019. Don Was is the father of three sons who are musicians. Don is married to former Virgin Records A&R executive and video director Gemma Corfield, is the brother of Dr. Nancy Fagenson Potok, Chief Statistician of the United States of America, former Principal Associate Director and Chief Financial Officer of the US Census Bureau and Deputy Undersecretary for Economic Affairs at the US Department of Commerce.
1981: Was – Was 1982: The Beat Goes On – Orbit featuring Carol Hall 1983: Born to Laugh at Tornadoes – Was 1984: Into the Hot – Floy Joy 1985: Spoiled Girl – Carly Simon 1986 Weak in the Presence of Beauty – Floy Joy 1986 Madness of It All – The Ward Brothers 1986 Cross That Bridge – The Ward Brothers 1988: What Up, Dog? – Was 1989: Nick of Time – Bonnie Raitt 1989: Cosmic Thing – The B-52s 1990: Take It to Heart – Michael McDonald 1990: Brick by Brick – Iggy Pop 1990: Under the Red Sky – Bob Dylan 1990: To Be Continued – Elton John 1991: Khaled – Khaled 1991: Are
Ian Stewart (musician)
Ian Andrew Robert Stewart was a Scottish keyboardist and co-founder of the Rolling Stones. He was removed from the line-up in May 1963 at the request of manager Andrew Loog Oldham who felt he did not fit the band's image, he remained as road manager and pianist and was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame along with the rest of the band in 1989. Ian Andrew Robert Stewart was born at Kirklatch Farm, East Neuk, Fife and raised in Sutton, London. Stewart started playing piano, he played with amateur groups on both instruments. Stewart, who loved rhythm & blues, boogie-woogie and big-band jazz, was first to respond to Brian Jones's advertisement in Jazz News of 2 May 1962 seeking musicians to form a rhythm & blues group. Mick Jagger and Keith Richards joined in June, the group, with Dick Taylor on bass and Mick Avory on drums, played their first gig under the name the Rollin' Stones at the Marquee Club on 12 July 1962. Richards described meeting Stewart thus: "He used to play boogie-woogie piano in jazz clubs, apart from his regular job.
He blew my head off too. I never heard a white piano player play like that before." By December 1962 and January 1963, Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts had joined, replacing a series of bassists and drummers. During this period, Stewart had a job at Imperial Chemical Industries. None of the other band members had a telephone. My number was advertised in Jazz News and I handled the Stones' bookings at work." He bought a van to transport the group and their equipment to their gigs. In early May 1963, the band's manager, Andrew Loog Oldham, said Stewart should no longer be onstage, that six members were too many for a popular group and that the older and square-jawed Stewart did not fit the image, he said Stewart could play piano on recordings. Stewart accepted this demotion. Richards said: " might have realised that in the way it was going to have to be marketed, he would be out of sync, but that he could still be a vital part. I'd have said,'Well, fuck you', but he said'OK, I'll just drive you around.'
That takes a big heart, but Stu had one of the largest hearts around."Stewart loaded gear into his van, drove the group to gigs, replaced guitar strings and set up Watts' drums the way he himself would play them. "I never swore at him," Watts says, with rueful amazement. He played piano and organ on most of the band's albums in the first decades, as well as providing criticism. Shortly after Stewart's death Mick Jagger said: "He helped this band swing, on numbers like'Honky Tonk Women' and loads of others. Stu was the one guy. We wanted his approval when we were rehearsing a song. We'd want him to like it."Stewart contributed piano, electric piano and/or percussion to all Rolling Stones albums released between 1964 and 1986, except for Their Satanic Majesties Request, Beggars Banquet, Some Girls. Stewart was not the only keyboard player who worked extensively with the band: Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan all supplemented his work. Stewart played piano on numbers of his choosing throughout tours in 1969, 1972, 1975–76, 1978 and 1981–82.
Stewart favoured blues and country rockers, remained dedicated to boogie-woogie and early rhythm & blues. He refused to play in minor keys, saying: "When I'm on stage with the Stones and a minor chord comes along, I lift my hands in protest." In 1976, Stewart stated, "You can squawk about money, but the money the Stones have made hasn't done them much good. It's gotten them into some trouble, they can't live in their own country now."Stewart remained aloof from the band's lifestyle. "I think he looked upon it as a load of silliness," said guitarist Mick Taylor. "I think it was because he saw what had happened to Brian. I could tell from the expression on his face when things started to get a bit crazy during the making of Exile on Main Street. I think he found it hard. We all did." Stewart played golf, as road manager showed a preference for hotels with courses. Richards recalls: "We'd be playing in some town where there's all these chicks, they want to get laid and we want to lay them, but Stu would have booked us into some hotel about ten miles out of town.
You'd wake up in the morning and there's the links. We're bored to death looking for some action and Stu's playing Gleneagles." Stewart contributed to Led Zeppelin's "Rock and Roll" from Led Zeppelin IV and "Boogie with Stu" from Physical Graffiti, two numbers in traditional rock and roll vein, both featuring his boogie-woogie style. Another was Howlin' Wolf's 1971 The London Howlin' Wolf Sessions album, featuring Eric Clapton, Ringo Starr, Klaus Voormann, Steve Winwood, Bill Wyman and Charlie Watts, he played piano and organ on the 1982 Bad to the Bone album of George Thorogood and the Destroyers. Moreover, he performed with Ronnie Lane in a televised concert. In 1981 Stewart and Charlie Watts contributed to the song "Bad Penny Blues", which appeared on the album, These Kind of Blues by The Blues Band, was a founding member, with Watts, of Rocket 88. Stewart contributed to The Rolling Stones' 1983 Undercover, was present during the 1985 recording for Dirty Work. In early December 1985, Stewart began having respiratory problems.
On 12 December he went to a clinic to have the problem examined, but he suffered a heart attack and died in the waiting room. The Rolling Stones played a tribute gig with Rocket 88 in February 1986 at London's 100 Club, included a 30-second clip of Stewart playing the blues standar
A record producer or music producer oversees and manages the sound recording and production of a band or performer's music, which may range from recording one song to recording a lengthy concept album. A producer has varying roles during the recording process, they may gather musical ideas for the project, collaborate with the artists to select cover tunes or original songs by the artist/group, work with artists and help them to improve their songs, lyrics or arrangements. A producer may also: Select session musicians to play rhythm section accompaniment parts or solos Co-write Propose changes to the song arrangements Coach the singers and musicians in the studioThe producer supervises the entire process from preproduction, through to the sound recording and mixing stages, and, in some cases, all the way to the audio mastering stage; the producer may perform these roles themselves, or help select the engineer, provide suggestions to the engineer. The producer may pay session musicians and engineers and ensure that the entire project is completed within the record label's budget.
A record producer or music producer has a broad role in overseeing and managing the recording and production of a band or performer's music. A producer has many roles that may include, but are not limited to, gathering ideas for the project, composing the music for the project, selecting songs or session musicians, proposing changes to the song arrangements, coaching the artist and musicians in the studio, controlling the recording sessions, supervising the entire process through audio mixing and, in some cases, to the audio mastering stage. Producers often take on a wider entrepreneurial role, with responsibility for the budget, schedules and negotiations. Writer Chris Deville explains it, "Sometimes a producer functions like a creative consultant — someone who helps a band achieve a certain aesthetic, or who comes up with the perfect violin part to complement the vocal melody, or who insists that a chorus should be a bridge. Other times a producer will build a complete piece of music from the ground up and present the finished product to a vocalist, like Metro Boomin supplying Future with readymade beats or Jack Antonoff letting Taylor Swift add lyrics and melody to an otherwise-finished “Out Of The Woods.”The artist of an album may not be a record producer or music producer for his/her album.
While both contribute creatively, the official credit of "record producer" may depend on the record contract. Christina Aguilera, for example, did not receive record producer credits until many albums into her career. In the 2010s, the producer role is sometimes divided among up to three different individuals: executive producer, vocal producer and music producer. An executive producer oversees project finances, a vocal producers oversees the vocal production, a music producer oversees the creative process of recording and mixings; the music producer is often a competent arranger, musician or songwriter who can bring fresh ideas to a project. As well as making any songwriting and arrangement adjustments, the producer selects and/or collaborates with the mixing engineer, who takes the raw recorded tracks and edits and modifies them with hardware and software tools to create a stereo or surround sound "mix" of all the individual voices sounds and instruments, in turn given further adjustment by a mastering engineer for the various distribution media.
The producer oversees the recording engineer who concentrates on the technical aspects of recording. Noted producer Phil Ek described his role as "the person who creatively guides or directs the process of making a record", like a director would a movie. Indeed, in Bollywood music, the designation is music director; the music producer's job is to create and mold a piece of music. The scope of responsibility may be one or two songs or an artist's entire album – in which case the producer will develop an overall vision for the album and how the various songs may interrelate. At the beginning of record industry, the producer role was technically limited to record, in one shot, artists performing live; the immediate predecessors to record producers were the artists and repertoire executives of the late 1920s and 1930s who oversaw the "pop" product and led session orchestras. That was the case of Ben Selvin at Columbia Records, Nathaniel Shilkret at Victor Records and Bob Haring at Brunswick Records.
By the end of the 1930s, the first professional recording studios not owned by the major companies were established separating the roles of A&R man and producer, although it wouldn't be until the late 1940s when the term "producer" became used in the industry. The role of producers changed progressively over the 1960s due to technology; the development of multitrack recording caused a major change in the recording process. Before multitracking, all the elements of a song had to be performed simultaneously. All of these singers and musicians had to be assembled in a large studio where the performance was recorded. With multitrack recording, the "bed tracks" (rhythm section accompaniment parts such as the bassline and rhythm guitar could be recorded first, the vocals and solos could be added using as many "takes" as necessary, it was no longer necessary to get all the players in the studio at the same time. A pop band could record their backing tracks one week, a horn section could be brought in a week to add horn shots and punches, a string section could be brought in a week after that.
Multitrack recording had another pro