Unterschneidheim is a municipality in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, in Ostalbkreis district. In 1810 Unterschneidheim had 735 inhabitants, Oberschneidheim had 301 inhabitants. In 1974 the municipalities Geislingen, Nordhausen and Walxheim were incorporated, in 1975 Zipplingen and Zöbingen were incorporated. Unterschneidheim is twinned with: Volvic, France Franz Bühler, composer Karl Hahn, born in Zipplingen, political scientist Paul Nagler, born in Unterschneidheim, architect
Aalen is a former Free Imperial City located in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg, about 70 kilometres east of Stuttgart and 48 kilometres north of Ulm. It is its largest town, it is the largest town in the Ostwürttemberg region. Since 1956, Aalen has had the status of Große Kreisstadt, it is noted for its many half-timbered houses constructed from the 16th century through the 18th century. With an area of 146.63 km2, Aalen is ranked 7th in Baden-Württemberg and 2nd within the Government Region of Stuttgart, after Stuttgart. With a population of about 66,000, Aalen is the 15th most-populated settlement in Baden-Württemberg. Aalen is situated on the upper reaches of the river Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Jura which lies to the south and south-east, close to the hilly landscapes of the Ellwangen Hills to the north and the Welland to the north-west; the west of Aalen's territory is on the foreland of the eastern Swabian Jura, the north and north-west is on the Swabian-Franconian Forest, both being part of the Swabian Keuper-Lias Plains.
The south-west is part of the Albuch, the east is part of the Härtsfeld, these two both being parts of the Swabian Jura. The Kocher enters the town's territory from Oberkochen to the south, crosses the district of Unterkochen enters the town centre, where the Aal flows into it; the Aal is a small river located only within the town's territory. Next, the Kocher crosses the district of Wasseralfingen leaves the town for Hüttlingen. Rivers originating near Aalen are the Rems and the Jagst, both being tributaries of the Neckar, just like the Kocher; the elevation in the centre of the market square is 430 metres relative to Normalhöhennull. The territory's lowest point is at the Lein river near Rodamsdörfle, the highest point is the Grünberg's peak near Unterkochen at 733 metres. Aalen's territory ranges over all lithostratigraphic groups of the South German Jurassic: Aalen's south and the Flexner massif are on top of the White Jurassic, the town centre is on the Brown Jurassic, a part of Wasseralfingen is on the Black Jurassic.
As a result, the town advertises itself as a "Geologist's Mecca". Most parts of the territory are on the Opalinuston-Formation of the Aalenian subdivision of the Jurassic Period, named after Aalen. On the Sandberg, the Schnaitberg and the Schradenberg hills, all in the west of Aalen, the Eisensandstein formation emerges to the surface. On the other hills of the city, sands and residual rubble prevail; the historic centre of Aalen and the other areas in the Kocher valley are founded on holocenic floodplain loam and riverbed gravel that have filled in the valley. Most parts of Dewangen and Fachsenfeld are founded on formations of Jurensismergel, Posidonienschiefer, Amaltheenton and Obtususton moving from south to north, all belonging to the Jurassic and being rich in fossils, they are at last followed by the Trossingen Formation belonging to the Late Triassic. Until 1939 iron ore was mined on the Braunenberg hill.. The maximum extent of the town's territory amounts to 18 kilometres in a north-south dimension and 25 kilometres in an east-west dimension.
The area is 14,662.8 hectares, which includes 42.2% 6,186.2 hectares agriculturally used area and 37.7% 5,534.9 hectares of forest. 11.5% 1,692.3 hectares are built up or vacant, 6.4% 932.8 hectares is used by traffic infrastructure. Sporting and recreation grounds and parks comprise 1% 152.7 hectares, other areas 1.1% 163.9 hectares. The following municipalities border on Aalen, they are listed clockwise, beginning south, with their respective linear distances to Aalen town centre given in brackets: Oberkochen, Heuchlingen, Abtsgmünd, Neuler, Hüttlingen, Westhausen, Lauchheim and Neresheim, all in the Ostalbkreis district, furthermore Heidenheim an der Brenz and Königsbronn, both in Heidenheim district. Aalen's territory consists of the town centre and the municipalities merged from between 1938 and 1975; the municipalities merged in the course of the latest municipal reform of the 1970s are called Stadtbezirke, are Ortschaften in terms of Baden-Württemberg's Gemeindeordnung, which means, each of them has its own council elected by its respective residents and is presided by a spokesperson.
The town centre itself and the merged former municipalities consist of numerous villages separated by open ground from each other and having their own independent and long-standing history. Some however have been created as planned communities, which were given proper names, but no well-defined borders. List of villages: Aalen forms a Mittelzentrum within the Ostwürttemberg region, its designated catchment area includes the following municipalities of the central and eastern Ostalbkreis district: Abtsgmünd, Essingen, Hüttlingen, Kirchheim am Ries, Neresheim, Oberkochen, R
Abtsgmünd is a municipality in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, in Ostalbkreis district. Abtsgmünd is located at the confluence of the Lein and the Kocher. Famous locals include Patrick Benedict Zimmer, born in the town; until 2006, Abtsgmünd was host to the Summer Breeze Open Air metal festival. Karl Allmendinger, General of the Wehrmacht Albert Schnez, General of the Bundeswehr
Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or executive of a city or town. The name in English was derived from the Dutch burgemeester. In some cases, Burgomaster was the title of the head of state and head of government of a sovereign city-state, sometimes combined with other titles, such as Hamburg's First Mayor and President of the Senate). Contemporary titles are translated into English as mayor. In history in many free imperial cities the function of burgomaster was held by three persons, serving as an executive college. One of the three being burgomaster in chief for a year, the second being the prior burgomaster in chief, the third being the upcoming one. Präsidierender Bürgermeister is now an obsolete formulation sometimes found in historic texts. In an important city in a city state, where one of the Bürgermeister has a rank equivalent to that of a minister-president, there can be several posts called Bürgermeister in the city's executive college, justifying the use of a compound title for the actual highest magistrate, such as: Regierender Bürgermeister in West Berlin and reunited Berlin, while in Berlin the term Bürgermeister without attribute – English Mayor – refers to his deputies, while the heads of the 12 boroughs of Berlin are called Bezirksbürgermeister, English borough mayor.
Erster Bürgermeister in Hamburg Bürgermeister und Präsident des Senats in Bremen Amtsbürgermeister can be used for the chief magistrate of a Swiss constitutive canton, as in Aargau 1815–1831 Bürgermeister, in German: in Germany, South Tyrol, in Switzerland. In Switzerland, the title was abolished mid-19th century. Oberbürgermeister is the most common version for a mayor in a big city in Germany; the Ober- prefix is used in many ranking systems for the next level up including military designations. The mayors of cities, which comprise one of Germany's 112 urban districts bear this title. Urban districts are comparable to independent cities in the English-speaking world; however the mayors of some cities, which do not comprise an urban district, but used to comprise one until the territorial reforms in the 1970s, bear the title Oberbürgermeister. Borgmester Borgarstjóri Borgermester Börgermester Burgomaestre Purkmistr Burgumaisu Borgomastro or Sindaco-Borgomastro: in few communes of Lombardy Burgemeester in Dutch: in Belgium a party-political post, though formally nominated by the regional government and answerable to it, the federal state and the province.
Mayor. In the Netherlands nominated by the municipal council but appointed by the crown. In theory above the parties, in practice a high-profile party-political post. Bourgmestre in Belgium and the Democratic Republic of the Congo Bürgermeister Burmistras, derived from German. Buergermeeschter Polgármester, derived from German. Burmistrz, a mayoral title, derived from German; the German form Oberbürgermeister is translated as Nadburmistrz. The German-derived terminology reflects the involvement of German settlers in the early history of many Polish towns. Borgmästare, kommunalborgmästare. Boargemaster Pormestari In the Netherlands and Belgium, the mayor is an appointed government position, whose main responsibility is chairing the executive and legislative councils of a municipality. In the Netherlands, mayors chair both the council of the municipal council, they are members of the council of mayor and aldermen and have their own portfolios, always including safety and public order. They have a representative role for the municipal government, both to its civilians and to other authorities on the local and national level.
A large majority of mayors are members of a political party. This can be the majority party in the municipal council. However, the mayors are expected to exercise their office in a non-partisan way; the mayor is appointed by the national government for a renewable six-year term. In the past, mayors for important cities were chosen after negotiations between the national parties; this appointment procedure has been criticised. The party D66 had a direct election of the mayor as one of the main objectives in its platform. In the early 2000s, proposals for change were discussed in the national parliament. However
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany's third-largest state, with an area of 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and sovereign, federated state, formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heilbronn, Pforzheim and Ulm; the sobriquet Ländle is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg. Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, Württemberg, parts of Swabia. In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.
The Holy Roman Empire was established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this rural area to the United States for economic reasons. After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger. Baden-Württemberg became a state in West Germany on 25 April 1952. Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate and Bavaria, Switzerland.
Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream through the state past Tübingen, Heilbronn and Mannheim. The Rhine forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border; the Black Forest, the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance with Switzerland and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being defined, it shares the foothills of the Alps with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land. The Danube River has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts and nine independent cities, both grouped into the four Administrative Districts of Freiburg, Stuttgart, Tübingen.
Map Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district: The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag. The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany, who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament. From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag; the Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices. Although Baden-Württemberg has few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, the state is among the most prosperous and wealthiest regions in Europe with a low unemployment rate historically.
A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, Carl Zeiss AG, SAP SE and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen. In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources and still rural in many areas, the region is industrialised. In 2003, there were 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500; the latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 e
Böbingen an der Rems
Böbingen an der Rems is a municipality in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, in Ostalbkreis district. It lies on the river Rems; the Roman Limes passes through Böbingen, the historical name of the locality "Bürgle" indicates that the presence of a Roman fort in Unterböbingen had never been forgotten. In 1885/86 first archeological excavations were conducted by the retired Chief of Staff of the Württemberg Army, Major-General Eduard von Kallee. Based on military strategic considerations he identified Unterböbingen as a Roman castrum. In 1892 Major Heinrich Steimle examined this in more detail by excavations on behalf of the Empire-Limes-Commission; the Roman military thermal bath, open to the civilian inhabitants of the village was placed outside of the fort and excavated in 1978 north of the fort on a high terrace on the ridge above Remstal. The fort and surrounding remains of the Unterböbingen castrum are since 2005 part of the UNESCO World Heritage, as they are a section of the Upper-Rhaetian Limes.
Many historical artefacts have been found in excavations, such as Alemannic graves. These and the old Michael Church in Oberböbingen are references to subsequent settlements, after the Romans had given up this military out-post; the first written reference about the municipality Böbingen is from 1281. In a document of 30 November 1291 is mentioned that the Gotteszell monastery had bought a farm in "Bebingen". In the 19th century the inhabitants of Böbingen lived from agriculture; the area belonged since 1818 to Oberamt Gmünd to district Schwäbisch Gmünd. Through the construction of the Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt–Aalen railway Böbingen got a connection towards Aalen und Stuttgart. In the 20th century the 4,4 kilometers long Böbingen-Heubach railway was built and opened in 1920. In 1938, the two communities Unterböbingen and Oberböbingen merged to form a community. After the Second World War many refugees settled in Böbingen. In 1973 the place came to the newly formed Ostalbkreis
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well