Genoa is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy. In 2015, 594,733 people lived within the city's administrative limits; as of the 2011 Italian census, the Province of Genoa, which in 2015 became the Metropolitan City of Genoa, counted 855,834 resident persons. Over 1.5 million people live in the wider metropolitan area stretching along the Italian Riviera. Located on the Gulf of Genoa in the Ligurian Sea, Genoa has been one of the most important ports on the Mediterranean: it is the busiest in Italy and in the Mediterranean Sea and twelfth-busiest in the European Union. Genoa has been nicknamed la Superba due to its glorious impressive landmarks. Part of the old town of Genoa was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 2006 as Genoa: Le Strade Nuove and the system of the Palazzi dei Rolli; the city's rich cultural history in art and cuisine allowed it to become the 2004 European Capital of Culture. It is the birthplace of Christopher Columbus, Andrea Doria, Niccolò Paganini, Giuseppe Mazzini, Renzo Piano and Grimaldo Canella, founder of the House of Grimaldi, among others.
Genoa, which forms the southern corner of the Milan-Turin-Genoa industrial triangle of Northwest Italy, is one of the country's major economic centers. The city has hosted massive shipyards and steelworks since the 19th century, its solid financial sector dates back to the Middle Ages; the Bank of Saint George, founded in 1407, is among the oldest in the world and has played an important role in the city's prosperity since the middle of the 15th century. Today a number of leading Italian companies are based in the city, including Fincantieri, Selex ES, Ansaldo Energia, Ansaldo STS, Edoardo Raffinerie Garrone, Piaggio Aerospace, Mediterranean Shipping Company and Costa Cruises; the flag of Genoa is a red cross on a white field. The English Monarch paid an annual tribute to the Doge of Genoa for this privilege." The patron saint of Genoa was Saint Lawrence until at least 958, but the Genoese transferred their allegiance to Saint George at some point during the 11th or 12th century, most with the rising popularity of the military saint during the Crusades.
Genoa had a banner displaying a cross since at latest 1218 as early as 1113. But the cross banner was not associated with the saint. A depiction of this flag is shown in the Genoese annals under the year 1227; the Genoese flag with the red cross was used alongside this "Saint George's flag", from at least 1218, known as the insignia cruxata comunis Janue. The saint's flag was the city's main war flag, but the cross flag was used alongside it in the 1240s; the Saint George's flag remained the main flag of Genoa at least until the 1280s. The flag now known as the "St. George's Cross" seems to have replaced it as Genoa's main flag at some point during the 14th century; the Book of Knowledge of All Kingdoms shows it, inscribed with the word iustiçia, described as: And the lord of this place has as his ensign a white pennant with a red cross. At the top it is inscribed in this manner; the city of Genoa covers an area of 243 square kilometres between the Ligurian Sea and the Apennine Mountains. The city stretches along the coast for about 30 kilometres from the neighbourhood of Voltri to Nervi, for 10 kilometres from the coast to the north along the valleys Polcevera and Bisagno.
The territory of Genoa is popularly divided into 5 main zones: the centre, the west, the east, the Polcevera and the Bisagno Valley. Genoa is adjacent to two popular Ligurian vacation spots: Portofino. In the metropolitan area of Genoa lies Aveto Natural Regional Park. Genoa has a humid subtropical climate in the Köppen climate classification, since only one summer month has less than 40 millimetres of rainfall, preventing it from being classified as oceanic or Mediterranean; the average yearly temperature is around 19 °C during 13 °C at night. In the coldest months: December and February, the average temperature is 12 °C during the day and 6 °C at night. In the warmest months – July and August – the average temperature is 27.5 °C during the day and 21 °C at night. The daily temperature range is limited, with an average range of about 6 °C between high and low temperatures. Genoa sees significant moderation from the sea, in stark contrast to areas behind the Ligurian mountains such as Parma, where summers are hotter and winters are quite cold.
Annually, the average 2.9 of nights recorded temperatures of ≤0 °C. The coldest temperature recorded was −8 °C on the night of February 2012. Average annual number of days with temperatures of ≥30 °C is about 8, average four days in July and August. Average annual temperature of the sea is 17.5 °C, from 13 °C in the period January–March to 25 °C in August. In the period from June to October, the average sea temperature exceeds
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December, with an epicentre off the west coast of northern Sumatra. It was an undersea megathrust earthquake that registered a magnitude of 9.1–9.3 Mw, reaching a Mercalli intensity up to IX in certain areas. The earthquake was caused by a rupture along the fault between the Indian Plate. A series of large tsunamis up to 30 metres high were created by the underwater seismic activity that became known collectively as the Boxing Day tsunamis. Communities along the surrounding coasts of the Indian Ocean were affected, the tsunamis killed an estimated 227,898 people in 14 countries; the Indonesian city of Banda Aceh reported the largest number of victims. The earthquake was one of the deadliest natural disasters in recorded history; the direct results caused major disruptions to living conditions and commerce in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Thailand. The earthquake was the third largest recorded and had the longest duration of faulting observed.
It caused the planet to vibrate as much as 1 centimetre, it remotely triggered earthquakes as far away as Alaska. Its epicentre was between mainland Sumatra; the plight of the affected people and countries prompted a worldwide humanitarian response, with donations totaling more than US$14 billion. The event is known by the scientific community as the Sumatra–Andaman earthquake; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was documented as having a moment magnitude of 8.8. In February 2005, scientists revised the estimate of the magnitude to 9.0. Although the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has accepted these new numbers, the United States Geological Survey has so far not changed its estimate of 9.1. A 2006 study estimated a magnitude of Mw 9.1–9.3. The hypocentre of the main earthquake was 160 km off the western coast of northern Sumatra, in the Indian Ocean just north of Simeulue island at a depth of 30 km below mean sea level; the northern section of the Sunda megathrust ruptured over a length of 1,300 km.
The earthquake was felt in Bangladesh, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Splay faults, or secondary "pop up faults", caused long, narrow parts of the sea floor to pop up in seconds; this elevated the height and increased the speed of waves, destroying the nearby Indonesian town of Lhoknga. Indonesia lies between the Pacific Ring of Fire along the north-eastern islands adjacent to New Guinea, the Alpide belt that runs along the south and west from Sumatra, Bali, Flores to Timor; the 2002 Sumatra earthquake is believed to have been a foreshock, preceding the main event by over two years. Great earthquakes, such as the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, are associated with megathrust events in subduction zones, their seismic moments can account for a significant fraction of the global seismic moment across century-scale time periods. Of all the moment released by earthquakes in the 100 years from 1906 through 2005 one-eighth was due to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake; this quake, together with the Good Friday earthquake and the Great Chilean earthquake, account for half of the total moment.
Since 1900, the only earthquakes recorded with a greater magnitude were the 1960 Great Chilean earthquake and the 1964 Good Friday earthquake in Prince William Sound. The only other recorded earthquakes of magnitude 9.0 or greater were off Kamchatka, Russia, on 4 November 1952 and Tōhoku, Japan in March 2011. Each of these megathrust earthquakes spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean. However, in comparison to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, the death toll from these earthquakes was lower because of the lower population density along the coasts near affected areas, the much greater distances to more populated coasts, the superior infrastructure and warning systems in MEDCs such as Japan. Other large megathrust earthquakes occurred in 1868. All of them are believed to be greater than magnitude 9, but no accurate measurements were available at the time; the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was unusually large in geological extent. An estimated 1,600 kilometres of fault surface slipped about 15 metres along the subduction zone where the Indian Plate slides under the overriding Burma Plate.
The slip did not happen instantaneously but took place in two phases over several minutes: Seismographic and acoustic data indicate that the first phase involved a rupture about 400 kilometres long and 100 kilometres wide, 30 kilometres beneath the sea bed—the largest rupture known to have been caused by an earthquake. The rupture proceeded at about 2.8 kilometres per second, beginning off the coast of Aceh and proceeding north-westerly over about 100 seconds. After a pause of about another 100 seconds, the rupture continued northwards towards the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. However, the northern rupture occurred more than in the south, at about 2.1 km/s, continuing north for another five minutes to a plate boundary where the fault t
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Greenpeace was founded in 1971 by Irving Stowe, Dorothy Stowe, Canadian and US ex-pat environmental activists. Greenpeace states its goal is to "ensure the ability of the Earth to nurture life in all its diversity" and focuses its campaigning on worldwide issues such as climate change, overfishing, commercial whaling, genetic engineering, anti-nuclear issues, it uses direct action, lobbying and ecotage to achieve its goals. The global organization does not accept funding from governments, corporations, or political parties, relying on three million individual supporters and foundation grants. Greenpeace has a general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council and is a founding member of the INGO Accountability Charter, an international non-governmental organization that intends to foster accountability and transparency of non-governmental organizations.
Greenpeace is known for its direct actions and has been described as the most visible environmental organization in the world. Greenpeace has raised environmental issues to public knowledge, influenced both the private and the public sector. Greenpeace has been a source of controversy; the organization's direct actions have sparked legal actions against Greenpeace activists, such as fines and suspended sentences for destroying a test plot of genetically modified wheat and damaging the Nazca Lines, a UN World Heritage site in Peru. In the late 1960s, the U. S. had plans for an underground nuclear weapon test in the tectonically unstable island of Amchitka in Alaska. Because of the 1964 Alaska earthquake, the plans raised some concerns of the test triggering earthquakes and causing a tsunami. A 1969 demonstration of 7,000 people blocked the Peace Arch Border Crossing between British Columbia and Washington, carrying signs reading "Don't Make A Wave. It's Your Fault If Our Fault Goes"; the protests did not stop the U.
S. from detonating the bomb. While no earthquake or tsunami followed the test, the opposition grew when the U. S. announced. Among the opposers were Jim Bohlen, a veteran who had served in the U. S. Navy, Irving Stowe and Dorothy Stowe, who had become Quakers; as members of the Sierra Club Canada, they were frustrated by the lack of action by the organization. From Irving Stowe, Jim Bohlen learned of a form of passive resistance, "bearing witness", where objectionable activity is protested by mere presence. Jim Bohlen's wife Marie came up with the idea to sail to Amchitka, inspired by the anti-nuclear voyages of Albert Bigelow in 1958; the idea was linked to The Sierra Club. The Sierra Club did not like this connection and in 1970 The Don't Make a Wave Committee was established for the protest. Early meetings were held in the Shaughnessy home of his wife Bobbi Hunter. Subsequently, the Stowe home at 2775 Courtenay Street became the headquarters; as Rex Weyler put it in his chronology, Greenpeace, in 1969, Irving and Dorothy Stowe's "quiet home on Courtenay Street would soon become a hub of monumental, global significance".
Some of the first Greenpeace meetings were held there. The first office was opened in a backroom, storefront on Cypress and West Broadway SE corner in Kitsilano, Vancouver. Within half a year Greenpeace would move in to share the upstairs office space with The Society Promoting Environmental Conservation at 4th and Maple in Kitsilano. Irving Stowe arranged a benefit concert that took place on October 16, 1970 at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver; the concert created the financial basis for the first Greenpeace campaign. Amchitka, the 1970 concert that launched Greenpeace was published by Greenpeace in November 2009 on CD and is available as an mp3 download via the Amchitka concert website. Using the money raised with the concert, the Don't Make a Wave Committee chartered a ship, the Phyllis Cormack owned and sailed by John Cormack; the ship was renamed Greenpeace for the protest after a term coined by activist Bill Darnell. In the autumn of 1971, the ship sailed towards Amchitka and faced the U.
S. Coast Guard ship Confidence; because of this and the bad weather the crew decided to return to Canada only to find out that the news about their journey and reported support from the crew of the Confidence had generated sympathy for their protest. After this Greenpeace tried to navigate to the test site with other vessels, until the U. S. detonated the bomb. The nuclear test was criticized and the U. S. decided not to continue with their test plans at Amchitka. Environmental historian Frank Zelko dates the formation of the "Don't Make a Wave Committee" to 1969 and according to Jim Bohlen the group adopted the name "Don't Make a Wave Committee" on 28 November 1969. According to the Greenpeace web site, The Don't Make a Wave Committee was established in 1970. Certificate of incorporation of The Don't Make a Wave Committee dates the incorporation to the fifth of October, 1970. Researcher Vanessa Timmer dates the official incorporation to 1971. Greenpeace itself calls the protest voyage of 1971 as "the beginning".
According to Patrick Moore, an early member and has since distanced himself from Greenpeace, Rex Weyler, the name of "The Don't Make a Wave Committee" was changed to Greenpeace Foundation in 1972. Vanessa Timmer has
Geothermal energy is thermal energy generated and stored in the Earth. Thermal energy is the energy; the geothermal energy of the Earth's crust originates from the original formation of the planet and from radioactive decay of materials. The geothermal gradient, the difference in temperature between the core of the planet and its surface, drives a continuous conduction of thermal energy in the form of heat from the core to the surface; the adjective geothermal originates from the Greek roots γη, meaning earth, θερμος, meaning hot. Earth's internal heat is thermal energy generated from radioactive decay and continual heat loss from Earth's formation. Temperatures at the core–mantle boundary may reach over 4000 °C; the high temperature and pressure in Earth's interior cause some rock to melt and solid mantle to behave plastically, resulting in portions of the mantle convecting upward since it is lighter than the surrounding rock. Rock and water is heated in the crust, sometimes up to 370 °C. With water from hot springs, geothermal energy has been used for bathing since Paleolithic times and for space heating since ancient Roman times, but it is now better known for electricity generation.
Worldwide, 11,700 megawatts of geothermal power was available in 2013. An additional 28 gigawatts of direct geothermal heating capacity is installed for district heating, space heating, industrial processes and agricultural applications as of 2010. Geothermal power is cost-effective, reliable and environmentally friendly, but has been limited to areas near tectonic plate boundaries. Recent technological advances have expanded the range and size of viable resources for applications such as home heating, opening a potential for widespread exploitation. Geothermal wells release greenhouse gases trapped deep within the earth, but these emissions are much lower per energy unit than those of fossil fuels; the Earth's geothermal resources are theoretically more than adequate to supply humanity's energy needs, but only a small fraction may be profitably exploited. Drilling and exploration for deep resources is expensive. Forecasts for the future of geothermal power depend on assumptions about technology, energy prices, plate boundary movement and interest rates.
Pilot programs like EWEB's customer opt in Green Power Program show that customers would be willing to pay a little more for a renewable energy source like geothermal. But as a result of government assisted research and industry experience, the cost of generating geothermal power has decreased by 25% over the past two decades. In 2001, geothermal energy costs between ten US cents per kWh. Hot springs have been used for bathing at least since Paleolithic times; the oldest known spa is a stone pool on China's Lisan mountain built in the Qin Dynasty in the 3rd century BC, at the same site where the Huaqing Chi palace was built. In the first century AD, Romans conquered Aquae Sulis, now Bath, Somerset and used the hot springs there to feed public baths and underfloor heating; the admission fees for these baths represent the first commercial use of geothermal power. The world's oldest geothermal district heating system in Chaudes-Aigues, has been operating since the 14th century; the earliest industrial exploitation began in 1827 with the use of geyser steam to extract boric acid from volcanic mud in Larderello, Italy.
In 1892, America's first district heating system in Boise, Idaho was powered directly by geothermal energy, was copied in Klamath Falls, Oregon in 1900. The first known building in the world to utilize geothermal energy as its primary heat source was the Hot Lake Hotel in Union County, whose construction was completed in 1907. A deep geothermal well was used to heat greenhouses in Boise in 1926, geysers were used to heat greenhouses in Iceland and Tuscany at about the same time. Charlie Lieb developed the first downhole heat exchanger in 1930 to heat his house. Steam and hot water from geysers began heating homes in Iceland starting in 1943. In the 20th century, demand for electricity led to the consideration of geothermal power as a generating source. Prince Piero Ginori Conti tested the first geothermal power generator on 4 July 1904, at the same Larderello dry steam field where geothermal acid extraction began, it lit four light bulbs. In 1911, the world's first commercial geothermal power plant was built there.
It was the world's only industrial producer of geothermal electricity until New Zealand built a plant in 1958. In 2012, it produced some 594 megawatts. Lord Kelvin invented the heat pump in 1852, Heinrich Zoelly had patented the idea of using it to draw heat from the ground in 1912, but it was not until the late 1940s that the geothermal heat pump was implemented. The earliest one was Robert C. Webber's home-made 2.2 kW direct-exchange system, but sources disagree as to the exact timeline of his invention. J. Donald Kroeker designed the first commercial geothermal heat pump to heat the Commonwealth Building and demonstrated it in 1946. Professor Carl Nielsen of Ohio State University built the first residential open loop version in his home in 1948; the technology became popular in Sweden as a result of the 1973 oil crisis, has been growing in worldwide acceptance since then. The 1979 development of polybutylene pipe augmented the heat pump's economic viability. In 1960, Pacific Gas and Electric began operation of the first successful geothermal electric power plant in the United States at The Geysers in California.
The original turbine lasted for more t
A hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. The hull may open at the top, or it may be or covered with a deck. Atop the deck may be a deckhouse and other superstructures, such as a funnel, derrick, or mast; the line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline. There is a wide variety of hull types that are chosen for suitability for different usages, the hull shape being dependent upon the needs of the design. Shapes range from a nearly perfect box in the case of scow barges, to a needle-sharp surface of revolution in the case of a racing multihull sailboat; the shape is chosen to strike a balance between cost, hydrostatic considerations and special considerations for the ship's role, such as the rounded bow of an icebreaker or the flat bottom of a landing craft. In a typical modern steel ship, the hull will have watertight decks, major transverse members called bulkheads. There may be intermediate members such as girders and webs, minor members called ordinary transverse frames, frames, or longitudinals, depending on the structural arrangement.
The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck", or "deck". The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the arrangement, or where it sails. In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by transverse frames and bulkheads, which are further tied together by longitudinal stringers or ceiling, but not always there is a centerline longitudinal member called a keel. In fiberglass or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden or steel vessels to some extent, or be of a monocoque arrangement. In many cases, composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material; the earliest proper hulls were built by the Ancient Egyptians, who by 3000 BC knew how to assemble wooden planks into ahull. See also: Hull Hulls come in many varieties and can have composite shape, but are grouped as follows: Chined and Hard-chined.
Examples are the flat-bottom, v-bottom, multi-bottom hull. These types have at least one pronounced knuckle throughout most of their length. Moulded, round soft-chined; these hull shapes all have smooth curves. Examples are the round bilge, semi-round bilge, s-bottom hull. Displacement hull: here the hull is supported or predominantly by buoyancy. Vessels that have this type of hull travel through the water at a limited rate, defined by the waterline length, they are though not always, heavier than planing types. Planing hull: here, the planing hull form is configured to develop positive dynamic pressure so that its draft decreases with increasing speed; the dynamic lift reduces the wetted surface and therefore the drag. They are sometimes flat-bottomed, sometimes V-bottomed and more round-bilged; the most common form is to have at least one chine, which makes for more efficient planing and can throw spray down. Planing hulls are more efficient at higher speeds, although they still require more energy to achieve these speeds.
An effective planing hull must be as light as possible with flat surfaces that are consistent with good sea keeping. Sail boats that plane must sail efficiently in displacement mode in light winds. Semi-displacement, or semi-planing: here the hull form is capable of developing a moderate amount of dynamic lift. At present, the most used form is the round bilge hull. In the inverted bell shape of the hull, with a smaller payload the waterline cross-section is less, hence the resistance is less and the speed is higher. With a higher payload the outward bend provides smoother performance in waves; as such, the inverted bell shape is a popular form used with planing hulls. A chined hull consists of straight, tall, long, or short plates, timbers or sheets of ply, which are set at an angle to each other when viewed in transverse section; the traditional chined hull is a simple hull shape because it works with only straight planks bent into a curve. These boards are bent lengthwise. Plywood chined boats made of 8' x 4' sheets have most bend along the long axis of the sheet.
Only thin ply 3–6 mm can be shaped into a compound bend. Most home-made constructed boats are chined hull boats. Mass-produced chine powerboats are made of sprayed chop strand fibreglass over a wooden mold; the Cajun "pirogue" is an example of a craft with hard chines. Benefits of this type of hull is the low production cost and the flat bottom, making the boat faster at planing. Sail boats with chined hull make use of a dagger keel. Chined hulls may have one of three shapes: Flat-bottom chined hulls Multi-chined hulls V-bottom chined hulls. Sometimes called hard chine; each of these chine hulls use. The flat bottom hull has high initial stability but high drag. To counter the high drag hull forms are narrow and sometimes tapered at bow and stern; this leads to poor stability. This is countered by using heavy interior ballast on sailing versions, they are best suited to sheltered inshore waters. Early racing power boats were flat aft; this produced maximum lift and a smooth,fast ride in flat water but this hull form is unsettled in waves.
The multi chine h
Bastia is a French commune in the Haute-Corse department of France located in the north-east of the island of Corsica at the base of Cap Corse. It has the second-highest population of any commune on the island after Ajaccio and is the capital of the Bagnaja region and of the department. Bastia is the principal port of the island and its principal commercial town and is famous for its wines. 10% of the population are immigrants. The unemployment rate in the commune has persistently been one of the highest in France, standing at over 20% in 2004; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Bastiaises. The commune has been awarded three flowers by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Located in the North-East of Corsica at the base of the Cap Corse, between the sea and the mountain, Bastia is the principal port of the island; the city is located 35 km away from the northern tip of the Cap Corse, 50 km west from Elba, an Italian island, 90 km away from continental Italy which can be seen a few days per year when visibility is excellent.
In terms of geography, Bastia is defined by its position between the mountain. The city is located on a 960 m mountain; this steep mountain and several hills in the city shape a relief typical of the Cap Corse. This pronounced landscape caused the city to develop on a coastal band about 1.5 km wide, a limited part of the 19.38 km2 that the commune has. Above all, Bastia is a port, the sea has of course a significant role in the spatial organization of the city. Bastia possesses nowadays three different ports; the old port, located in a remarkable and narrow cove, offers good natural shelter against the climatic hazards of the Mediterranean Sea. Thus, it was at the core of the initial development of the city. Nowadays, many pleasure and fishing boats are still there, but it is not as economically vital than the other more modern ports, although its touristic and aesthetic charm makes the old port the official emblem of the city. In fact, many cafés, bars and restaurants have moved to its docks to which access is granted by the city for pedestrians only during summer evenings.
A bit more to the North is located the ferry port. As a major economic asset of the city, the "port de commerce" is the pulse of the city, it is more so during the summer when ferry arrivals and departures of thousands of passengers and cars can sometimes cause long traffic jams along the north–south axis, the national road RN193. In front of the commercial port, the large Saint-Nicolas square represents the heart of the city. Just North of the commercial port, the Toga marina, named after a city neighborhood, is a harbor for leisure boating activities like sailing and yachting. There are some bars and night clubs on its docks. Thus, Bastia is logically organized on a narrow north–south axis which can make access to the city centre difficult under particular circumstances. Nowadays, the city centre is composed of the "citadelle", the stronghold called Terra-Nova, with the Genoese Governors' Palace, the old port and its popular quarter and the market plaza, the ensemble of buildings along the "Boulevard Paoli", the main commercial street of the city, which lies from the Justice Court to the Avenue Maréchal Sebastiani.
During the last few decades and its region have experienced a strong demographic growth, which has cause somewhat of a suburban crawl in the South of the city, because of the congestion of the city center. The commune is located in the Alpine Eastern Corsica region, formed from "a succession of Autochthons, para-Autochtons and Allochthons; the first two coincide with the central depression. The Allochtons are in the area of lustrous schists and ophiolites corresponding to the eastern relief", its base rests on a granite bedrock, covered with oceanic layers of: Sedimentary rocks on the east coast, ranging from the mouth of the Ruisseau de Lupino north to the south bank of the mouth of the Travo lustrous schists along the entire eastern side of Cap Corse, ophiolite deposited in eastern Corsica during the Eocene period. Note the presence of copper ore in Cardo, once the subject of a concession. Geographically, Bastia is characterized by its location between the mountains; the commune lies on the eastern flank of the "Serra di Pignu" a mountain which rises to 960 m above sea level.
This steep mountain with other hills around Bastia forms the typical terrain of Cap Corse. This pronounced relief explains the development of the city on a coastal strip of about 1.5 km in width, a limited proportion of the 19.38 km2 of the whole commune. The river network is sparse. There are three small streams flowing from west to east: in the north the Ruisseau Fiuminale rises in the north-west of the commune 400 m north-east of Monte Muzzone. Along its length of 4.3 kilometres it forms the border between the communes of Bastia and Ville-di-Pietrabugno from its source to the roundabout of the Annunciation. Part of its course is covered in the city from the path of the Annunciation to the port where it empties into the Tyrrhenian Sea, it is fed by the Ruisseau de Cardo. in the centre, the Ruisseau de Lupino is 4.3 ki
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun, harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis. It is an important source of renewable energy and its technologies are broadly characterized as either passive solar or active solar depending on how they capture and distribute solar energy or convert it into solar power. Active solar techniques include the use of photovoltaic systems, concentrated solar power and solar water heating to harness the energy. Passive solar techniques include orienting a building to the Sun, selecting materials with favorable thermal mass or light-dispersing properties, designing spaces that circulate air; the large magnitude of solar energy available makes it a appealing source of electricity. The United Nations Development Programme in its 2000 World Energy Assessment found that the annual potential of solar energy was 1,575–49,837 exajoules.
This is several times larger than the total world energy consumption, 559.8 EJ in 2012. In 2011, the International Energy Agency said that "the development of affordable and clean solar energy technologies will have huge longer-term benefits, it will increase countries’ energy security through reliance on an indigenous and import-independent resource, enhance sustainability, reduce pollution, lower the costs of mitigating global warming, keep fossil fuel prices lower than otherwise. These advantages are global. Hence the additional costs of the incentives for early deployment should be considered learning investments; the Earth receives 174 petawatts of incoming solar radiation at the upper atmosphere. 30% is reflected back to space while the rest is absorbed by clouds and land masses. The spectrum of solar light at the Earth's surface is spread across the visible and near-infrared ranges with a small part in the near-ultraviolet. Most of the world's population live in areas with insolation levels of 150–300 watts/m², or 3.5–7.0 kWh/m² per day.
Solar radiation is absorbed by the Earth's land surface, oceans – which cover about 71% of the globe – and atmosphere. Warm air containing evaporated water from the oceans rises, causing atmospheric circulation or convection; when the air reaches a high altitude, where the temperature is low, water vapor condenses into clouds, which rain onto the Earth's surface, completing the water cycle. The latent heat of water condensation amplifies convection, producing atmospheric phenomena such as wind and anti-cyclones. Sunlight absorbed by the oceans and land masses keeps the surface at an average temperature of 14 °C. By photosynthesis, green plants convert solar energy into chemically stored energy, which produces food and the biomass from which fossil fuels are derived; the total solar energy absorbed by Earth's atmosphere and land masses is 3,850,000 exajoules per year. In 2002, this was more energy in one hour than the world used in one year. Photosynthesis captures 3,000 EJ per year in biomass.
The amount of solar energy reaching the surface of the planet is so vast that in one year it is about twice as much as will be obtained from all of the Earth's non-renewable resources of coal, natural gas, mined uranium combined, The potential solar energy that could be used by humans differs from the amount of solar energy present near the surface of the planet because factors such as geography, time variation, cloud cover, the land available to humans limit the amount of solar energy that we can acquire. Geography affects solar energy potential because areas that are closer to the equator have a greater amount of solar radiation. However, the use of photovoltaics that can follow the position of the sun can increase the solar energy potential in areas that are farther from the equator. Time variation effects the potential of solar energy because during the nighttime there is little solar radiation on the surface of the Earth for solar panels to absorb; this limits the amount of energy. Cloud cover can affect the potential of solar panels because clouds block incoming light from the sun and reduce the light available for solar cells.
In addition, land availability has a large effect on the available solar energy because solar panels can only be set up on land, otherwise unused and suitable for solar panels. Roofs have been found to be a suitable place for solar cells, as many people have discovered that they can collect energy directly from their homes this way. Other areas that are suitable for solar cells are lands that are not being used for businesses where solar plants can be established. Solar technologies are characterized as either passive or active depending on the way they capture and distribute sunlight and enable solar energy to be harnessed at different levels around the world depending on distance from the equator. Although solar energy refers to the use of solar radiation for practical ends, all renewable energies, other than Geothermal power and Tidal power, derive their energy either directly or indirectly from the Sun. Active solar techniques use photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, solar thermal collectors and fans to convert sunlight into useful outputs.
Passive solar techniques include selecting materials with favorable thermal properties, designing spaces that circulate air, referencing the position of a building to the Sun. Active solar technologies increase the supply of energy and are considered supply side technologies, while passive solar technologies reduce