Web conferencing may be used as an umbrella term for various types of online collaborative services including web seminars and peer-level web meetings. It may be used in a more narrow sense to refer only to the peer-level web meeting context, in an attempt to disambiguate it from the other types of collaborative sessions. Terminology related to these technologies is inexact, no agreed upon source or standards organization exists to provide an established usage reference. In general, web conferencing is made possible by Internet technologies on TCP/IP connections. Services may allow real-time point-to-point communications as well as multicast communications from one sender to many receivers, it offers data streams of text-based messages and video chat to be shared across geographically dispersed locations. Applications for web conferencing include meetings, training events, lectures, or presentations from a web-connected computer to other web-connected computers. Web conferencing software is invoked by all participants in a web meeting.
Some technologies include functionality that differs for presenters and attendees. Software may run as a web browser application. Other web conferencing technologies require download and installation of software on each participant's computer, invoked as a local application. Many web conferencing vendors provide the central connectivity and provisioning of meeting "ports" or "seats" as a hosted web service, while others allow the web conference host to install and run the software on its own local servers. Another installation option from certain vendors allows for use of a proprietary computer appliance, installed at the hosting company's physical location. Depending on the technology being used, participants may speak and listen to audio over standard telephone lines or via computer microphones and speakers; some products allow for use of a webcam to display participants, while others may require their own proprietary encoding or externally provided encoding of a video feed, displayed in the session.
Vendor-hosted web conferencing is licensed as a service based on one of three pricing models: a fixed cost per user per minute, a monthly or annual flat fee allowing unlimited use with a fixed maximum capacity per session, or a sliding rate fee based on the number of allowed meeting hosts and per-session participants. Presentation of visual materials most is accomplished through one of two primary methodologies; the web conferencing software may show participants an image of the presenter's computer screen. Again, depending upon the product, the software may show the entire visible desktop area or may allow selection of a physical area or application running on the presenter's computer; the second method relies on an conversion process. The term "webinar" is a portmanteau of web and seminar, meaning a presentation, lecture, or workshop, transmitted over the web; the coined term has been attacked for improper construction. Webinar was included on the Lake Superior University 2008 List of Banished Words, but was included in the Merriam-Webster dictionary that same year.
The term "webcast" derives from its original similarity to a television broadcast. Early usage referred purely to transmission and consumption of streaming audio and video via the World Wide Web. Over time, webcast software vendors have added many of the same functional capabilities found in webinar software, blurring the distinction between the two terms. Webcasts are now to allow audience response to polls, text communication with presenters or other audience members, other two-way communications that complement the consumption of the streamed audio/video content. Other typical features of a web conference include: Slideshow presentations - where images are presented to the audience and markup tools and a remote mouse pointer are used to engage the audience while the presenter discusses slide content. Live or streaming video - where full motion webcam, digital video camera or multi-media files are pushed to the audience. VoIP - Real time audio communication through the computer via use of headphones and speakers.
Web tours - where URLs, data from forms, cookies and session data can be pushed to other participants enabling them to be pushed through web-based logons, etc. This type of feature works well when demonstrating websites where users themselves can participate. Meeting Recording - where presentation activity is recorded on the client side or server side for viewing and/or distribution. Whiteboard with annotation Text chat - For live question and answer sessions, limited to the people connected to the meeting. Text chat may be private. Polls and surveys Screen sharing/desktop sharing/application sharing Web conferencing technologies are not standardized, which has reduced interoperability and t
Louisville is a home rule municipality in Boulder County, United States. The city population was 18,376 at the 2010 United States Census. Louisville began as a rough mining community in 1877, suffered through a period of extraordinary labor violence early in the 20th century, when the mines closed in the 1950s, made a transition to a suburban residential community. CNN/Money and Money magazine have listed Louisville as one of the 100 best places to live in the United States, ranking it among the top 100 in 2007, 2009 2011, 2013, 2015, 2017; the town of Louisville dates back to the start of the Welch Mine in 1877, the first coal mine in an area of Boulder and Weld counties known as the Northern Coalfield. The town was named for Louis Nawatny, a local landowner who platted his land and named it for himself. Incorporation came several years in 1882; the Northern Coalfield proved to be productive, some 30 different mines operated within the current boundaries of Louisville, though not all at the same time.
During the years of peak production twelve mines were in operation in Louisville, including the Acme Mine whose two million tons of coal came from directly beneath the center of town. The presence of many independent mining companies in Louisville saved the town from becoming a "company town", wholly owned and dominated by a single mining company. Coal from the Northern Coalfield was sub-bituminous and could not be transported long distances because of problems with self-combustion. Mining took place in winter months since, the period that demanded fuel for heating. During the summers the miners played in local baseball leagues, with the home field named "Miners Field". A great deal of mythology has arisen around the stories of tunnels that connected saloons throughout the city, but these have proven to be unfounded and undocumented. Instead, during labor conflicts many citizens found refuge in dirt basements to avoid errant bullets being fired from mine compounds into the city. From 1910–14 the Northern Colorado Coalfields were in the midst of a strike by the United Mine Workers and the Rocky Mountain Fuel Company based on working conditions and working hours.
When miners walked out on the Hecla Mine northeast of Louisville the company hired the Baldwin–Felts Detective Agency to guard the mine compound. A machine gun and spotlight were placed in a tower on the Hecla property, when miners took out their frustration by shooting their guns at the compound, the detectives responded by returning their fire by randomly firing at the town; the coal remaining in the Northern Coalfield became uneconomical to mine, the last coal mines operating in Louisville closed in the 1950s. In 2001, the city became a home rule city; the home rule debate came about when Xcel Energy announced plans to replace old power line poles with much larger steel towers. While the city wanted the power lines to be buried, it discovered it lacked the authority to force Xcel to do this, or to create a taxing district to fund such. In recent years, Louisville has been recognized in several publications as one of the best places to live and raise a family in the United States: In July 2005, CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Louisville fifth on their list of the 100 best places to live in the United States.
Criteria included financial, education, quality of life and culture, weather data. In May 2006, Bert Sperling & Peter Sander, authors of the book Best Places to Raise Your Family: The Top 100 Affordable Communities in the U. S. ranked Louisville first on their list of best places in the U. S. to raise a family. In August 2007, CNN/Money and Money magazine again ranked Louisville third on their list of the 100 best places to live in the United States. In July 2009, CNN/Money and Money magazine named Louisville the Winner and ranked first on their list of 100 best places to live in the United States. In July 2011, CNN/Money and Money magazine again named Louisville the Winner and ranked first on their list of 100 best places to live in the United States, the second time it has graced the top slot of the magazines annual listing. In July 2012, Family Circle magazine placed Louisville among the top ten "Best Towns for Families". Based on a survey of 3,335 municipalities with populations ranging from 11,000 to 150,000, the list does not assign ranks within the top ten.
In 2015, Money Magazine named Louisville fourth in "Best Places to Live in America." In September 2017, the Denver Business Journal reported that Louisville is the second best city in Colorado for raising a family. In 2017, Money Magazine again named Louisville one of the best places to live in America, ranking it 50th; as of 2012, the City of Louisville offers its residents a recreation/senior center, 26 city parks, 1,800 acres of open space buffer zones, 26 miles of trails and bicycle paths, an award-winning $9 million public library with study rooms, teen areas, a fireside reading room. The Louisville Public Library has long had one of the highest circulation rates in the state of Colorado; as of the census of 2000, there were 18,937 people, 7,216 households, 4,950 families residing in the city. As of the census of 2010 there were 18,376 people; the population density was 2,223.6 people per square mile. There were 7,389 housing units at an average density of 867.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 91.17% White, 0.93% African American, 0.54% Native American, 3.55% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 1.83% from other races, 1.90% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.02% of the population. There were 7,216 households out of which 41% had children under the age of 18 living
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or information of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology, it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, optical heliographs. Other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, loud whistles. 20th- and 21st-century technologies for long-distance communication involve electrical and electromagnetic technologies, such as telegraph and teleprinter, radio, microwave transmission, fiber optics, communications satellites.
A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi, who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1909, other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications. These included Charles Wheatstone and Samuel Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, Edwin Armstrong and Lee de Forest, as well as Vladimir K. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth; the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, the Latin communicare, meaning to share. Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its written use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer and novelist Édouard Estaunié. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, it comes from Old French comunicacion, from Latin communicationem, noun of action from past participle stem of communicare "to share, divide out.
Homing pigeons have been used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post had Persian roots, was used by the Romans to aid their military. Frontinus said; the Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons. In the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Sumatra, and in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a pigeon service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. In the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could only pass a single bit of information, so the meaning of the message such as "the enemy has been sighted" had to be agreed upon in advance. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, when a beacon chain relayed a signal from Plymouth to London. In 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris.
However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres. As a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. On 25 July 1837 the first commercial electrical telegraph was demonstrated by English inventor Sir William Fothergill Cooke, English scientist Sir Charles Wheatstone. Both inventors viewed their device as "an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph" not as a new device. Samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837, his code was an important advance over Wheatstone's signaling method. The first transatlantic telegraph cable was completed on 27 July 1866, allowing transatlantic telecommunication for the first time; the conventional telephone was invented independently by Alexander Bell and Elisha Gray in 1876. Antonio Meucci invented the first device that allowed the electrical transmission of voice over a line in 1849.
However Meucci's device was of little practical value because it relied upon the electrophonic effect and thus required users to place the receiver in their mouth to "hear" what was being said. The first commercial telephone services were set-up in 1878 and 1879 on both sides of the Atlantic in the cities of New Haven and London. Starting in 1894, Italian inventor Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless communication using the newly discovered phenomenon of radio waves, showing by 1901 that they could be transmitted across the Atlantic Ocean; this was the start of wireless telegraphy by radio. Voice and music had little early success. World War I accelerated the development of radio for military communications. After the war, commercial radio AM broadcasting began in the 1920s and became an important mass medium for entertainment and news. World War II again accelerated development of radio for the wartime purposes of aircraft and land communication, radio navigation and radar. Development of stereo FM broadcasting of radio
A teleconference or teleseminar is the live exchange and mass articulation of information among several persons and machines remote from one another but linked by a telecommunications system. Terms such as audio conferencing, telephone conferencing and phone conferencing are sometimes used to refer to teleconferencing; the telecommunications system may support the teleconference by providing one or more of the following: audio, and/or data services by one or more means, such as telephone, telegraph, teletypewriter and television. Internet teleconferencing includes internet telephone conferencing, videoconferencing, web conferencing, augmented reality conferencing. Internet telephony involves conducting a teleconference over a Wide Area Network. One key technology in this area is Voice over Internet Protocol. Popular software for personal use includes Skype, Google Talk, Windows Live Messenger and Yahoo! Messenger. A working example of an augmented reality conferencing was demonstrated at the Salone di Mobile in Milano by AR+RFID Lab. is another AR teleconferencing tool.
Notable vendors with articles: ACT Conferencing Adobe Acrobat Connect AT Conference, Inc. Compunetix Elluminate Glance Google Hangouts GoToMeeting InterCall LifeSize Livestorm Meet Microsoft Office Live Meeting Polycom Premiere Global Services Skype TrueConf Voxeet WebEx Conference call Internet telephony List of video telecommunication services and product brands Media space Telecollaboration Telepresence Videoconferencing