The Heyne Verlag is a German publisher based in Munich, founded in Dresden in 1934 and sold to Axel Springer in 2000. In 2004 it became part of Random House. Heyne was one of the largest publishing houses in Germany in 1999. Wilhelm Heyne founded the publisher, named after him, on 15 February 1934 in Dresden; the first authors included Reinhold Conrad Muschler, Werner Bergengruen, Ernst Moritz Mungenast, Arthur-Heinz Lehmann, as well as the US-American writer Gwen Bristow with "Tiefer Süden". In 1940, Franz Schneekluth acquired minority shares in the Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, after he became director of the publishing house in 1935. During the air raids on Dresden the publishing house in Reichsstrasse was destroyed. After the war, the activities in Munich were resumed in 1948, with Wilhelm Heyne holding only 40 percent of the shares in the publishing house. In 1951, Rolf Heyne joined the Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, where he took over the management at the beginning of the 1960s. Under his leadership, the publisher's paperback program was created.
It was expanded in 1966 by the works of Georges Simenon, given to the Wilhelm Heyne Verlag by Kiepenheuer & Witsch. In addition, the paperbacks of the Kindler Verlag were taken over; the 1950s and'60s were characterized by the introduction of various series in addition to the regular program. These included Heyne Paperbacks for world literary works as well as Heyne Science Fiction and Heyne Trade books; the latter started with "Profiles in Courage" by John F. Kennedy, for which the author received the Pulitzer Prize. In 1970, the Moewig Verlag, which the Heyne family had bought before the Second World War, was sold to Bauer Media Group. In 1974, Wilhelm Heyne Verlag co-operated with the publishing group Bertelsmann, with the intentions to better cover the market for paperbacks. At the same time, Heyne should be facilitated access to youth and specialist titles, they worked with Hestia Verlag from Bayreuth. At the end of the 1970s, a number of licenses from the publisher Fritz Molden was purchased to expand Heyne's program.
At that time, the Heyne paperbacks had a total circulation of over 100 million copies. The Karl May series began with "Winnetou I" in 1976, other specialized programs such as Heyne Geschichte and Heyne LyrikIn 1982 the Wilhelm Heyne Verlag was transformed into a GmbH & Co. KG under the direction of Hans-Joachim Brede and Friedhelm Koch. Rolf Heyne was a limited partner with a contribution of eight million Deutsche Mark. In the early 1990s, the publisher bought the majority of Zabert Sandmann and worked together with publishers Haffmans and Beltz-Quadriga in the areas of various Imprints. By the end of 1993, Heyne Verlag had published a total of 16,000 titles in an edition of 500 million copies. At the end of the 1990s, the media reported about interests from several major publishers wanting to takeover Wilhelm Heyne, including Bertelsmann and the publishing group Holtzbrinck. According to media reports, Bertelsmann was given the best chances, but Axel Springer stepped up in December 2000. Rolf Heyne was to join the supervisory board of the new publishing group Heyne Ullstein, but died shortly after the acquisition.
In February 2003 the publishing group Random House wanted to take over the publishers Ullstein Heyne List from Axel Springer. The Federal Cartel Office, did not approve the acquisition, as a dominant market position of German-language paperbacks was feared; the acquisition was limited to the Wilhelm Heyne Verlag, while the remaining publishers including the Heyne programs for esoterism and fantasy were distributed to the Swedish Bonnier Group. The guidebooks and audiobook publishers were part of the transaction, to which the Federal Cartel Office agreed to in November of that year. Wilhelm Heyne was merged with Random House during the takeover. Since the Heyne Verlag has been a part of the Random House publishing group, but is treated as a separate publisher in bookstores; the Heyne Verlag organized its program in so-called series, of which a total of more than 50 pieces existed. The subject of a series were either certain events. In 2014, all available works were divided into the following categories: Suspense, Entertainment for Women, Historical Programs, Young Program, Fantasy & Science Fiction, Hardcover and Guidebooks.
Heyne published both hardcover and paperbacks, including Authors such as Nicholas Sparks, Robert Harris, Amelie Fried, Sabine Thiesler, John Grisham and Stephen King. In the mid-1980s, the publisher launched the Rolf Heyne Collection for the first time to expand the hardcover program; the aim of the imprint was, according to various statements of the publication of high-quality illustrated volumes, to meet the "aesthetic requirements" of the publisher. A central theme of the series was, for example, the French cuisine, but baby photos by Anne Geddes. With the takeover of the Wilhelm Heyne Verlag by Axel Springer in the year 2000, the program of the Rolf Heyne CollectionGmbH was continued as an independent publisher. At the end of 2014, Rolf Heynes' widow Anja closed business of the Rolf Heyne Collection. Günther Fetzer, ed. 30 Jahre Heyne-Taschenbücher. 1958-1988, Munich: Heyne, 1988, ISBN 3-453-03206-3. Günther Fetzer, ed. Wilhelm-Heyne-Bibliographie 1934-1994, Munich: Heyne, 1994, ISBN 3-45307948-5.
University of Cologne
The University of Cologne is a university in Cologne, Germany. It was the sixth university to be established in Central Europe and, although it closed in 1798 before being re-established in 1919, it is now one of the largest universities in Germany with more than 48,000 students; the University of Cologne is a German Excellence University, as of 2017 it ranks 145th globally according to Times Higher Education'.' The University of Cologne was established in 1388 as the fourth university in the Holy Roman Empire, after the Charles University of Prague, the University of Vienna and the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg. The charter was signed by Pope Urban VI; the university began teaching on January 6, 1389. In 1798, the university was abolished by the French, who had invaded Cologne in 1794, because under the new French constitution, many universities were abolished all over France; the last rector Ferdinand Franz Wallraf was able to preserve the university's Great Seal, now once more in use.
In 1919, the Prussian government endorsed a decision by the Cologne City Council to re-establish the university. This was considered to be a replacement for the loss of the University of Strasbourg on the west bank of the Rhine, which contemporaneously reverted to France with the rest of Alsace. On May 29, 1919, the Cologne Mayor Konrad Adenauer signed the charter of the modern university. At that point, the new university was located in Neustadt-Süd, but relocated to its current campus in Lindenthal on 2 November 1934; the old premises are now being used for the Cologne University of Applied Sciences. The university was composed of the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences and the Faculty of Medicine. In 1920, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Arts were added, from which latter the School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences was split off in 1955 to form a separate Faculty. In 1980, the two Cologne departments of the Rhineland School of Education were attached to the university as the Faculties of Education and of Special Education.
In 1988, the university became a founding member of the Community of European Management Schools and International Companies, today's Global Alliance in Management Education. The University is a leader in the area of economics and is placed in top positions for law and business, both for national and international rankings; the University of Cologne is a statutory corporation, operated by the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The university is divided into six faculties; the faculties are those of Management and Social Sciences, Medicine, Arts and Natural Sciences and Human Sciences. On November 24, 2004, the physicist Axel Freimuth was elected as Rector of the University, his term began on April 1, 2005. He succeeded Tassilo Küpper and was the 49th Rector since 1919, he was Dean of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. GeoMuseum: The only natural history museum in Cologne Theatre Collection in Schloss Wahn: images and text from European theater from the 16th century Max Bruch Archive of the Institute of Musicology: autographs and writings from and about Max Bruch The Kathy Acker Reading Room, the personal library of author Kathy Acker.
Musical Instrument Collection of the Musicology Institute Egyptian collection: Papyri and parchments and small sculptures Prehistoric collection artefacts from all periods of prehistoric and early history from foreign sites, from the Neanderthal fist to the bronze sword and iron weapons of the early Middle Ages Papyrus collection of the Institute of Antiquity: Barbarastollen: Under the main building, a mining gallery was built as part of a museum for trade and industry in 1932 In 2005, the University enrolled 47,203 students, including 3,718 graduate students. In 2003, the number of post-doctoral students was 670; the number of international students was 6,157 in the Summer Semester of 2005. This amounts to 13% of the total students; those from developing countries made up about 60 %. The largest contingents came from Bulgaria, Poland and Ukraine. There are 508 professors including 70 women. In addition, the university employs 1,549 research assistants, with an additional 765 at the clinic, 1,462 other assistants.
The University of Cologne maintains twenty official partnerships with universities from ten countries. Of these, the partnerships with Clermont-Ferrand I and Pennsylvania State are the oldest partnerships. In addition, Cologne has further cooperations with more than 260 other universities. Over the centuries, scholars from Cologne have been among the most prominent in their fields, beginning with Albertus Magnus and his pupil Thomas Aquinas. Notable alumni of the 20th century include among others Kurt Alder, Peter Grünberg, Heinrich Böll, Karl Carstens, Gustav Heinemann, Karolos Papoulias, Erich Gutenberg, Axel Ockenfels, Eberhard Voit. List of medieval universities Erich Meuthen: Kölner Universitätsgeschichte, Band I: Die alte Universität, 1988, ISBN 3-412-06287-1 Bernd Heimbüchel und Klaus Pabst: Kölner Universitätsgeschichte, Band II: Das 19
Scorpions are a German rock band formed in 1965 in Hanover by Rudolf Schenker. Since the band's inception, its musical style has ranged from hard rock to heavy metal; the lineup from 1978–1992 was the most successful incarnation of the group, included Klaus Meine, Rudolf Schenker, Matthias Jabs, Francis Buchholz, Herman Rarebell. The band's only constant member has been Schenker, although Meine has been the lead singer for all of Scorpions' studio albums, while Jabs has been a consistent member since 1979, bassist Paweł Mąciwoda and drummer Mikkey Dee have been in the band since 2003 and 2016 respectively. During the mid-1970s, with guitarist Uli Jon Roth part of the line-up, the music of the Scorpions was defined as hard rock. After the departure of Roth in 1978, Matthias Jabs joined and, following the guidance of producer Dieter Dierks, the Scorpions changed their sound towards hard rock/heavy metal, mixed with rock power ballads. Throughout the 1980s the group received positive reviews and critical acclaim from music critics, experienced commercial success with the albums Animal Magnetism, Love at First Sting, the live recording World Wide Live, Savage Amusement and Best of Rockers'n' Ballads, their best-selling compilation album.
Scorpions' eleventh studio album Crazy World was well-received, included the song "Wind of Change", a symbolic anthem of the political changes in Eastern Europe in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the fall of the Berlin Wall. It is one of the best-selling singles in the world with over fourteen million copies sold. Scorpions have sold over 110 million records in total, they have released 27 compilation albums and 74 singles. Six of their singles have reached number one on the charts in different countries, their albums, singles and video releases have reached gold and multi-platinum status 200 times in different countries. Rolling Stone described the Scorpions as "the heroes of heavy metal", MTV called them "Ambassadors of Rock"; the band was ranked number 46 on VH1's Greatest Artists of Hard Rock programme, with "Rock You Like a Hurricane" at number 18 on VH1's list of the 100 Greatest Hard Rock Songs. "Still Loving You" ranked 22nd place among the greatest ballads. The Scorpions have received prestigious awards such as three World Music Awards, a star on the Hollywood Rock wall, a presence in the permanent exhibition of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
In 2015 the group celebrated its 50th anniversary. Rudolf Schenker, the band's rhythm guitarist, launched the band in 1965. At first, the band had beat Schenker himself handled the vocals. Things began to come together in 1970 when Schenker's younger brother Michael and vocalist Klaus Meine joined the band. With this line-up they won a music contest in 1972 and recorded 2 songs for a single, never released on the CCA label, but the songs, early versions of the Sweet cover Action and the original I'm Going Mad were released on different compilation albums including Psychedelic Gems 2. In 1972 the group recorded and released their debut album Lonesome Crow, with Lothar Heimberg on bass and Wolfgang Dziony on drums and re-recorded versions of their CCA songs. During the Lonesome Crow tour, the Scorpions opened for upcoming British band UFO. Near the end of the tour, guitarist Michael Schenker accepted an offer of lead guitar for UFO. Uli Jon Roth, a friend of Michael's, was introduced to the band and he helped them to finish off the tour.
The departure of Michael Schenker led to the breakup of the band. In 1973, Uli Roth, who had helped the Scorpions complete the Lonesome Crow tour, was offered the role as lead guitarist, but turned the band down, preferring instead to remain in the band Dawn Road. Rudolf Schenker decided he wanted to work with Roth, but did not want to resurrect the last Scorpions lineup, he attended some of Dawn Road's rehearsals and decided to join the band, which consisted of Roth, Francis Buchholz, Achim Kirschning and Jürgen Rosenthal. Uli Roth and Buchholz persuaded Rudolf Schenker to invite Klaus Meine to join on vocals, which he soon did. While there were more members of Dawn Road than Scorpions in the band, they decided to use the Scorpions name because it was well known in the German hard rock scene and an album had been released under that name. In 1974, the new line-up released Fly to the Rainbow; the album proved to be more successful than Lonesome Crow and songs such as "Speedy's Coming" and the title track established the band's sound.
Achim Kirschning decided to leave after the recordings. Soon after, Jürgen Rosenthal had to leave. In 1976, he joined, he was replaced in July 1974 by Jurgen Fechter. In 1975 Rudy Lenners from Belgium became the next drummer; that year the band released In Trance, which marked the beginning of their long collaboration with German producer Dieter Dierks. The album established their heavy metal formula, it garnered a fan base at home and abroad with cuts such as "In Trance", "Dark Lady" and "Robot Man". Meanwhile, as "The Hunters", the band recorded "Fuchs geh' voran" and "Wenn es richtig losgeht", German cover versions of "Action" and "Fox on the Run" by the Sweet for EMI's Electrola label. In 1976, the Scorpions released Virgin Killer, the album cover of which featured a nude prepubescent girl behind a broken pane of glass; the cover art was designed by Stefan Bohle, the product manager for RCA Records, their label at the time. The cover brought the band considerable market exposure but was subsequently pulled o
Düsseldorf is the capital and second-largest city of the most populous German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne, as well as the seventh-largest city in Germany. With a population of 617,280. At the confluence of the Rhine and its tributary Düssel, the city lies in the centre of both the Rhine-Ruhr and the Rhineland Metropolitan Regions with the Cologne Bonn region to its south and the Ruhr to its north. Most of the city lies on the right bank of the Rhine; the city is the largest in the German Low Franconian dialect area. "Dorf" meaning "village" in German, the "-dorf" suffix is unusual in the German-speaking area for a settlement of Düsseldorf's size. Mercer's 2012 Quality of Living survey ranked Düsseldorf the sixth most livable city in the world. Düsseldorf Airport is Germany's third-busiest airport after those of Frankfurt and Munich, serving as the most important international airport for the inhabitants of the densely populated Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs, is headquarters to one Fortune Global 500 and two DAX companies.
Messe Düsseldorf organises nearly one fifth of premier trade shows. As second largest city of the Rhineland, Düsseldorf holds Rhenish Carnival celebrations every year in February/March, the Düsseldorf carnival celebrations being the third most popular in Germany after those held in Cologne and Mainz. There are 22 institutions of higher education in the city including the Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, the university of applied sciences, the academy of arts, the university of music; the city is known for its pioneering influence on electronic/experimental music and its Japanese community. When the Roman Empire was strengthening its position throughout Europe, a few Germanic tribes clung on in marshy territory off the eastern banks of the Rhine. In the 7th and 8th centuries, the odd farming or fishing settlement could be found at the point where the small river Düssel flows into the Rhine, it was from such settlements. The first written mention of Düsseldorf dates back to 1135. Under Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa the small town of Kaiserswerth to the north of Düsseldorf became a well-fortified outpost, where soldiers kept a watchful eye on every movement on the Rhine.
Kaiserswerth became a suburb of Düsseldorf in 1929. In 1186, Düsseldorf came under the rule of the Counts of Berg. 14 August 1288 is one of the most important dates in the history of Düsseldorf. On this day the sovereign Count Adolf VIII of Berg granted the village on the banks of the Düssel town privileges. Before this, a bloody struggle for power had taken place between the Archbishop of Cologne and the count of Berg, culminating in the Battle of Worringen; the Archbishop of Cologne's forces were wiped out by the forces of the count of Berg who were supported by citizens and farmers of Cologne and Düsseldorf, paving the way for Düsseldorf's elevation to city status, commemorated today by a monument on the Burgplatz. The custom of turning cartwheels is credited to the children of Düsseldorf. There are variations of the origin of the cartwheeling children. Today the symbol represents the story and every year the Düsseldorfers celebrate by having a cartwheeling contest. After this battle the relationship between the four cities deteriorated, because they were commercial rivals.
Today, it finds its expression in a humorous form and in sports. A market square sprang up on the banks of the Rhine and the square was protected by city walls on all four sides. In 1380, the dukes of Berg moved their seat to the town and Düsseldorf was made regional capital of the Duchy of Berg. During the following centuries several famous landmarks were built, including the Collegiate Church of St Lambertus. In 1609, the ducal line of the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg died out, after a virulent struggle over succession, Jülich and Berg fell to the Wittelsbach Counts of Palatinate-Neuburg, who made Düsseldorf their main domicile after they inherited the Electorate of the Palatinate, in 1685, becoming now Prince-electors as Electors Palatine. Under the art-loving Johann Wilhelm II, a vast art gallery with a huge selection of paintings and sculptures, were housed in the Stadtschloss. After his death, the city fell on hard times again after Elector Charles Theodore inherited Bavaria and moved the electoral court to Munich.
With him he took the art collection. Destruction and poverty struck Düsseldorf after the Napoleonic Wars. Napoleon made Düsseldorf its capital. Johann Devaranne, a leader of Solingen's resistance to Napoleon's conscription decrees, was executed here in 1813. After Napoleon's defeat, the whole Rhineland including Berg was given to the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815; the Rhine Province's parliament was established in Düsseldorf. By the mid-19th century, Düsseldorf enjoyed a revival thanks to the Industrial Revolution as the city boasted 100,000 inhabitants by 1882.
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Dortmund is, with a population of 586,600, the third largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia after Cologne and Düsseldorf, Germany's eighth largest city. It is the largest city of the Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area with some 5.1 million inhabitants, as well as the largest city of Westphalia. On the Emscher and Ruhr rivers, it lies in the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region and is considered the administrative and cultural centre of the eastern Ruhr. Founded around 882, Dortmund became an Imperial Free City. Throughout the 13th to 14th centuries, it was the "chief city" of the Rhine, the Netherlands Circle of the Hanseatic League. During the Thirty Years' War, the city was destroyed and decreased in significance until the onset of industrialization; the city became one of Germany's most important coal and beer centres. Dortmund was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II; the devastating bombing raids of 12 March 1945 destroyed 98% of buildings in the inner city center.
These bombing raids, with more than 1,110 aircraft, hold the record to a single target in World War II. The region has adapted since the collapse of its century-long steel and coal industries and shifted to high-technology biomedical technology, micro systems technology and services. In 2009, Dortmund was classified as a Node city in the Innovation Cities Index published by 2thinknow and is the most sustainable and digital city in Germany. Dortmund is home to many cultural and educational institutions, including the Technical University of Dortmund and Dortmund University of Applied Sciences and Arts, International School of Management and other educational and administrative facilities with over 49,000 students, many museums, such as Museum Ostwall, Museum of Art and Cultural History, German Football Museum, as well as theatres and music venues like the Konzerthaus or the Opera House of Dortmund; the city is known as Westphalia's "green metropolis". Nearly half the municipal territory consists of waterways, woodland and green spaces with spacious parks such as Westfalenpark and Rombergpark.
This stands in a stark contrast with nearly a hundred years of extensive coal mining and steel milling in the past. Dortmund is home to Ballspielverein Borussia 09 e. V. Dortmund known as Borussia Dortmund, a successful club in German football; the Sigiburg was a Saxon hillfort in the South of present-day Dortmund, overlooking the River Ruhr near its confluence with the River Lenne. The ruins of the Hohensyburg castle now stand on the site of the Sigiburg; the hillfort was raised ca. 700 by Westphalian Saxons. During the Saxon Wars, it was taken by the Franks under Charlemagne in 772, retaken by the Saxons in 774, taken again and refortified by Charlemagne in 775. Archaeological evidence suggests the Sigiburg site was occupied in the Neolithic era; the first time Dortmund was mentioned in official documents was around 882 as Throtmanni – In throtmanni liber homo arnold viii den nob soluit. In 1005 the "Ecclesiastical council" and in 1016 the"Imperial diet" meets in Dortmund. After it was destroyed by a fire, the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I had the town rebuilt in 1152 and resided there for two years.
In 1267 St. Mary's Church and three years in 1270 St. Reinold's Church first mentioned; the combination of crossroad, market place, administrative centre – town hall, made Dortmund an important centre in Westphalia. It became an Imperial Free City and one of the first cities in Europe with an official Brewing right in 1293. Throughout the 13th to 14th centuries, it was the "chief city" of the Rhine, the Netherlands Circle of the Hanseatic League. After 1320, the city appeared in writing as "Dorpmunde". In the years leading up to 1344, the English King borrowed money from well-heeled Dortmund merchant families Berswordt and Klepping, offering the regal crown as security. In 1388, Count von Mark joined forces with the Archbishop of Cologne and issued declarations of a feud against the town. Following a major siege lasting 18 months, peace negotiations took place and Dortmund emerged victorious. In 1400 the seat of the first Vehmic court was in Dortmund, in a square between two linden trees, one of, known as the Femelinde.
With the growing influence of Cologne during the 15th century, the seat was moved to Arnsberg in 1437. After Cologne was excluded after the Anglo-Hanseatic War, Dortmund was made capital of the Rhine-Westphalian and Netherlands Circle; this favors the founding of one of the oldest schools in Europe in 1543 - Stadtgymnasium Dortmund. The 1661 earthquake made the Reinoldikirche collapse. With the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss resolution in 1803, Dortmund was added to the Principality of Nassau-Orange-Fulda, with as a result that it was no longer a free imperial city. William V, Prince of Orange-Nassau did not want stolen areas and therefore let his son Prince Willem Frederik take possession of the city and the principality; this prince held its entry on 30 June 1806, as such the County of Dortmund became part of the principality. On 12 July 1806, most of the Nassau principalities were deprived of their sovereign rights by means of the Rhine treaty. In October of the same year, the County of Dortmund was occupied by French troops and was added to the Grand Duchy of Berg on 1 March 1808.
It is the capital of the Ruhr department. In 1808 Dortmund becomes capital of French satellite Ruhr. At the C
The Rheinische Post is a major German regional daily newspaper, published since 1946 by the Rheinische Post Verlagsgesellschaft GmbH company. With its headquarters in Düsseldorf the paper is dominant in the western part of North Rhine-Westphalia. Rheinische Post is one of the allied new foundations in the post-World War II era. NSDAP-opponents Karl Arnold, Anton Betz, Erich Wenderoth and Friedrich Vogel received a British newspaper license; the newspaper was established in 1946 and belongs to the Arnold, Droste and Ebel families. It is part of the Rheinische Post Mediengruppe which owns newspapers like the Saarbrücker Zeitung, the Lausitzer Rundschau or the Trierischer Volksfreund; the core distribution area stretches from the Bergischen Land to the Dutch border. There are 31 local editions, among them other regional newspapers, like the Neuß-Grevenbroicher Zeitung, the Benrather Tageblatt and the Bocholter-Borkener Volksblatt, which have their own regional news pages; the Rheinische Post is available at kiosks as well as through subscriptions.
The paper is published in Rhenish format. The circulation of Rheinische Post was 343,000 copies during the third quarter of 1992. In 2001 the paper had a circulation of 418,000 copies; the circulation of the paper was 411,000 copies in 2004. Its circulation was 399,215 copies in the first quarter of 2006. In 2018, the circulation of the print version of Rheinische Post was about 280,000 copies. Michael Bröcker has been the editor since 2014. Horst Thoren has been vice-editor since 1998, as well as Stefan Weigel, vice-editor since 2014. Eva Quadbeck is part of the editorial staff of Rheinische Post and is in charge of the newspaper's Berlin office. Regional editorial staff give their opinions in news articles. Joachim Sobotta, was editor from 1969 to 1997, he had a large impact on the style of the newspaper. Sven Gösmann's predecessor, Ulrich Reitz, is now editor of the Westdeutsche Allgemeine Zeitung. Sven Gösmann held the office of editor in chief from 2005 until the end of 2013. Romulus Candea created political caricutures in the Eighties.
Nik Ebert assisted him with emphasis on the local politics of Mönchengladbach. Nik Ebert started the comic Düssel-Möwe in the Düsseldorf regional editions; the web edition of Rheinische Post is called RP ONLINE and publishes recent news from Northrhine-Westfalia and the world. In December 2017, RP ONLINE generated about 19,764,115 visits from within Germany to their site; this portal was launched in early 2005. Its readers could publish their own thoughts; the first printed edition of Opinio, which consisted of the best articles by readers, was first published on 16 February 2005. It was distributed as a monthly supplement in the newspaper; this supplement has been discontinued. A page of Opinio articles appeared once a week on an own page in the newspaper. Opinio was awarded a prize for its connection between printed media. Nowadays, Opinio no longer exists. However, readers can write comments on the newspaper's articles. RP ONLINE runs a scene portal called Tonight, it reports on the night-life in Düsseldorf in print and photographs.
Readers are informed of upcoming events. The portal was relaunched in November 2007. List of newspapers in Germany rp-online.de - Rheinische Post online