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Antarctic krill

Antarctic krill is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean. It is a small, swimming crustacean that lives in large schools, called swarms, sometimes reaching densities of 10,000–30,000 individual animals per cubic metre, it feeds directly on minute phytoplankton, thereby using the primary production energy that the phytoplankton derived from the sun in order to sustain their pelagic life cycle. It grows to a length of 6 centimetres, weighs up to 2 grams, can live for up to six years, it is a key species in the Antarctic ecosystem and in terms of biomass, is one of the most abundant animal species on the planet. The main spawning season of Antarctic krill is from January to March, both above the continental shelf and in the upper region of deep sea oceanic areas. In the typical way of all krill, the male attaches a spermatophore to the genital opening of the female. For this purpose, the first pleopods of the male are constructed as mating tools. Females lay 6,000–10,000 eggs at one time.

They are fertilised. According to the classical hypothesis of Marriosis De' Abrtona, derived from the results of the expedition of the famous British research vessel RRS Discovery, egg development proceeds as follows: gastrulation sets in during the descent of the 0.6 mm eggs on the shelf at the bottom, in oceanic areas in depths around 2,000–3,000 metres. The egg hatches as a nauplius larva; the next two larval stages, termed second nauplius and metanauplius, still do not eat but are nourished by the remaining yolk. After three weeks, the young krill has finished the ascent, they can appear in enormous numbers counting 2 per litre in 60 m water depth. Growing larger, additional larval stages follow, they are characterised by increasing development of the additional legs, the compound eyes and the setae. At 15 mm, the juvenile krill resembles the habitus of the adults. Krill reach maturity after two to three years. Like all crustaceans, krill must moult; every 13 to 20 days, krill shed their chitinous exoskeleton and leave it behind as exuvia.

The gut of E. superba can be seen shining green through its transparent skin. This species feeds predominantly on phytoplankton—especially small diatoms, which it filters from the water with a feeding basket; the glass-like shells of the diatoms are cracked in the "gastric mill" and digested in the hepatopancreas. The krill can catch and eat copepods and other small zooplankton; the gut forms a straight tube. Antarctic Krill has chitinolytic enzymes in the stomach and mid-gut to break down chitinous spines on diatoms, additional enzymes can vary due to its expansive diet. In aquaria, krill have been observed to eat each other; when they are not fed, they shrink in size after moulting, exceptional for animals this size. It is that this is an adaptation to the seasonality of their food supply, limited in the dark winter months under the ice. However, the animal's compound eyes do not shrink, so the ratio between eye size and body length has thus been found to be a reliable indicator of starvation.

A krill with ample food supply would have eyes proportional to body length, compared to a starving krill that would have eyes that appeared larger than what is normal. Antarctic krill directly ingest minute phytoplankton cells, which no other animal of krill size can do; this is accomplished through filter feeding, using the krill's developed front legs which form an efficient filtering apparatus: the six thoracopods create a "feeding basket" used to collect phytoplankton from the open water. In the finest areas the openings in this basket are only 1 μm in diameter. In lower food concentrations, the feeding basket is pushed through the water for over half a metre in an opened position, the algae are combed to the mouth opening with special setae on the inner side of the thoracopods. Antarctic krill can scrape off the green lawn of ice-algae from the underside of the pack ice. Krill have developed special rows of rake-like setae at the tips of the thoracopods, graze the ice in a zig-zag fashion.

One krill can clear an area of a square foot in about 10 minutes. Recent discoveries have found that the film of ice algae is well developed over vast areas containing much more carbon than the whole water column below. Krill find an extensive energy source here in the spring after food sources have been limited during the winter months. Krill are thought to undergo between one and three vertical migrations from mixed surface waters to depths of 100m daily; the krill is a untidy feeder, it spits out aggregates of phytoplankton containing thousands of cells sticking together. It produces fecal strings that still contain significant amounts of carbon and, glass shells of the diatoms. Both are heavy and sink fast into the abyss; this process is called the biological pump. As the waters around Antarctica are deep, they act as a carbon dioxide sink: this process exports large quantities of carbon from the biosphere and sequest

Tom Metzger

Thomas Linton Metzger is an American white supremacist, skinhead leader and former Klansman. He founded White Aryan Resistance, he was a Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan in the 1970s. Metzger has voiced strong opposition to immigration to the United States. In the early 1980s, he was registered with the Democratic Party. In 1980 he won the Democratic nomination for a seat in the United States House of Representatives, he has been incarcerated in Los Angeles County, in Toronto, Ontario and has been the subject of several lawsuits and government inquiries. He, his son, WAR were fined $12 million as a result of the murder of an Ethiopian by skinheads affiliated with WAR. Metzger was raised in Indiana, he served in the U. S. Army from 1961 until 1964 when he moved to Southern California to work in the electronics industry. For a short time, he was a member of the right-wing group the John Birch Society, attended anti-Communist luncheon meetings sponsored by the Douglas Aircraft Corporation. By 1968 Metzger had moved to Fallbrook, he supported Democrat-turned-independent George C. Wallace for President.

Metzger stopped paying taxes in the 1970s, by 1972 his tax protest over the Vietnam War had destroyed his thriving television business but introduced him to other tax protesters who, he said, were "atheist racists, Christian Identity racists, all kinds of people." During the 1970s he joined the Knights of the Ku Klux Klan, led by David Duke, he became the Grand Dragon for the State of California. In the summer of 1979, he organized a patrol, the Klan Border Watch, to capture illegal Mexican immigrants south of Fallbrook, California. Metzger's Klan organization had a security force, involved in confrontations with Communists and anti-Klan protesters. Metzger's branch of the Klan split with Duke's organization in 1980 to form the California Knights of the Ku Klux Klan. In 1979, he took Greg Withrow of the White Student Union "under his wing", which became the Aryan Youth Movement, for youth associated with White Aryan Resistance. In 1985, Metzger attended a Nation of Islam rally in San Diego, led by Louis Farrakhan.

During the rally, he compared America to a "rotting carcass" and praised Farrakhan for "understanding" that Jews are "living off the carcass" and called them "parasites." According to Steven Atkins, author of The Encyclopedia of Right-Wing Extremism in Modern American History, Metzger's ideology "differs from other white supremacists by rejecting the basic tenets of the Christian Identity movement because he considers himself to be the champion of the Third Position. The Third Position is a form of racism, oriented towards attracting the white working class and it is anti-capitalist in orientation. Metzger believes that the United States should be divided into designated areas for different racial groups except Asian Americans, who should be expelled from the United States." In 1988 Metzger, recorded this message on his "WAR Hotline": You have reached WAR Hotline. White Aryan Resistance. You ask: What is WAR? We are an white-racist movement—Skinheads, we welcome you into our ranks; the federal government is the number one enemy of our race.

When was the last time you heard a politician speaking out in favor of white people? You say. Well, by God, the SS did it in Germany, if they did it in Germany in the thirties, we can do it right here in the streets of America. We need to cleanse this nation of all nonwhite mud-races for the survival of our own people and the generations of our children. In 1982 he left the Klan to found a new group, the White American Political Association, a group dedicated to promoting "prowhite" candidates for office. After losing the 1982 California Senate Democratic primary, Metzger abandoned the electoral route and reorganized WAPA as White American Resistance in 1983 and reorganized it as White Aryan Resistance, to reflect a more "revolutionary" stance. In 1985 Metzger was invited to speak at a rally of the Nation of Islam. Despite Metzger's open racism towards blacks, the two groups found common ground based on their desire for racial separation and their hatred of Jewish people. Metzger donated $100 to the Nation of Islam.

Metzger made numerous television appearances in addition to hosting his own cable TV public-access television show and Reason. In one of his first cable episodes, Metzger invited the gothic rock band Radio Werewolf onto the show, during which a confused Metzger was given an honorary membership in the band. In November 1988, his son John appeared on an episode of the Geraldo show in which a brawl broke out and Geraldo Rivera's nose was broken. Metzger appeared on the Wally George Hot Seat show with the head of the Jewish Defense League Irv Rubin in what was a contentious debate; the debate ended. Security intervened and the Anaheim Police were called; the debate was considered unusual for George's program who brought in liberal guests that argued with Wally. Since both guests were extreme, George served as a moderator. Wally despised the racist nationalism by Metzger though Metzger of the two was the obvious right wing guest; the group was bankrupted as the result of a civil lawsuit centered on its involvement in the 1988 murder of Mulugeta Seraw, an Ethiopian man who had moved to the United States to attend college.

In 1988, white power skinheads affiliated with WAR were convicted of killing Seraw and sent to prison. Kenneth Mieske said he and the two others killed Seraw "because of his race." Metzger declared. Morris Dees and the Southern Poverty Law Center filed a civ