History of Baton Rouge, Louisiana
The foundation of Baton Rouge, dates to 1721, at the site of a bâton rouge or "red stick" Muscogee boundary marker. It became the state capital of Louisiana in 1849. Human habitation in the Baton Rouge area has been dated to about 8000 BC based on evidence found along the Mississippi and Amite rivers. Earthwork mounds were built by hunter-gathererHistory of Baton Rouge, Louisiana societies in the Middle Archaic period, from the 4th millennium BC. Proto-Muskogean divided into its daughter languages by about 1000 BC. Eastern Muskogean began to diversify internally in the first half of the 1st millennium AD; the early Muskogean nations were the bearers of the Mississippian culture which formed around AD 800. By the time the Spanish made their first forays inland from the shores of the Gulf of Mexico in the early 16th century, many political centers of the Mississippians were in decline, or abandoned, the region at the time presenting as a collection of moderately-sized native chiefdoms interspersed with autonomous villages and tribal groups.
French explorer Sieur d'Iberville led an exploration party up the Mississippi River in 1699. The explorers saw a red pole marking the boundary between the Houma and Bayogoula tribal hunting grounds; the French name le bâton rouge is the translation of a native term rendered as Istrouma a corruption of the Choctaw iti humma "red pole". According to Pénicaut, From there we went five leagues higher and found high banks called écorts in that region, in savage called Istrouma which means red stick, as at this place there is a post painted red that the savages have sunk there to mark the land line between the two nations, namely: the land of the Bayagoulas which they were leaving and the land of another nation—thirty leagues upstream from the baton rouge—named the Oumas. See Red Sticks for the ceremonial use of red sticks among the Muscogee; the location of the red pole was at Scott's Bluff, on what is now the campus of Southern University. It was a thirty-foot-high painted pole adorned with fish bones.
The settlement of Baton Rouge by Europeans began in 1721 when a military post was established by French colonists. In 1755, when French-speaking settlers of Acadia in Canada's Maritime provinces were driven into exile by British forces, many took up residence in rural Louisiana. Popularly known as Cajuns, the descendants of the Acadians maintained a separate culture. On February 10, 1763, the Treaty of Paris was signed following France's defeat by Great Britain in the Seven Years' War. France ceded its territory in North America to Spain. During the Great Expulsion concurrent with the French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, British colonial officers expelled about 11,000 Acadians from Acadia from eastern Canada. Many were subsequently resettled in southern Louisiana; the first group of Acadian settlers arrived with Joseph Broussard. The settlers began calling themselves Cajuns, a name derived from Acadians They maintained a separate culture from that of Anglo-American Protestant settlers, continuing their traditions of distinct clothing, music and Catholic faith.
Today their descendants are part of the rich cultural "stew" of the Baton Rouge area. Baton Rouge, now part of the newly established British province of West Florida had strategic significance as the southwestern-most corner of British North America. Spain for a period had rule of New Orleans and all of the former French lands on the west side of the Mississippi River, they administered numerous historically-French colonial towns, such as St. Louis and Ste. Genevieve in present-day Missouri. Baton Rouge developed as a town under British rule; the authorities, headquartered in Pensacola, awarded land grants and were successful in attracting European-American settlers. When the older British colonies on the Atlantic coast of North America rebelled, beginning in 1775, the newer colony of West Florida — lacking a history of local government and distrustful of the hostile Spanish nearby — remained loyal to the British Crown. In 1778 during the American Revolutionary War, France declared war on Britain, in 1779 Spain followed suit.
That year, the Spanish Governor Don Bernardo de Gálvez led a militia of nearly 1,400 soldiers and a small contingent of rebellious English-speaking colonials from New Orleans toward Baton Rouge. They were victorious in the Battle of Fort Bute and the naval Battle of Lake Pontchartrain, before capturing the constructed Fort New Richmond in the Battle of Baton Rouge. Spanish officials took control of Baton Rouge. At the conclusion of the Revolutionary War, Great Britain turned West Florida over to Spain. A colony of Pennsylvania German farmers migrated north from Bayou Manchac, after a series of floods in the 1780s, settled to the south of Baton Rouge. Known locally as "Dutch Highlanders", they
T-Mobile Arena is a multi-purpose indoor arena on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, is the home venue for the National Hockey League's Vegas Golden Knights, who began play in 2017. Opened on April 6, 2016, the arena was built as a joint venture between MGM Resorts International and the Anschutz Entertainment Group. Aside from the Golden Knights, T-Mobile Arena has been used for entertainment events such as concerts, has been booked for mixed martial arts and professional boxing events, well as other annual sporting events; the arena is accessed by a new development project known as The Park, with retail and dining space between New York-New York and the Park MGM casino hotels. The Anschutz Entertainment Group first tried to build an arena in Las Vegas in association with Harrah's Entertainment. In 2007, the joint venture announced they would build a 20,000 seat stadium behind the Bally's and Paris casino-hotels. Caesars Entertainment, Inc. had envisioned using the location to build a baseball park, but the company's buyout by Harrah's cancelled the plans.
Through the following year, Harrah's became uncertain on continuing with the project, not knowing if AEG would split the costs, whether building a major league-ready stadium without a guaranteed franchise to play on it would be feasible given the enduring financial crisis. The original plans were to break ground in June 2008 and finish the arena in 2010, but by 2009, it was revealed the stalled project had not done a traffic study despite being located near a busy intersection. In 2010, the plans were changed to use an area behind the Imperial Palace. However, given the financing would require a special taxation district, opposition from Clark County regarding using public money in the project stalled it further. AEG backed out by 2012, once MGM Resorts International came up with their own project using a terrain behind the New York-New York and Monte Carlo resorts; this attracted AEG for not relying on public funding. MGM and AEG announced their joint arena plan on March 1, 2013. Plans were further fleshed out over the following months with the announcement of a $100-million pedestrian shopping area, The Park, to serve as a gateway to the arena, the retention of prominent sports architecture firm Populous to design the project.
Other firms on the project include: the ICON Venue Group, Thornton Tomasetti, ME Engineers, Penta Building Group and Hunt Construction Group. The project broke ground on May 1, 2014, followed by the demolition of existing buildings, excavation of an oval area for the arena; the final steel beam of the structure was placed on May 27, 2015. In January 2016, T-Mobile US announced it had acquired the naming rights to the new arena in a multi-year contract; the arena held its grand opening on April 6, 2016 with a concert by Las Vegas natives The Killers and Wayne Newton. Country music artists Martina McBride and Cam performed at a soft opening on March 31, 2016. In 2016, the National Hockey League awarded a Las Vegas expansion team to an ownership group led by Bill Foley, with T-Mobile Arena as its home venue; as part of the team's lease, Foley negotiated an option to buy a stake in the arena from MGM and AEG. He exercised that option in September 2016. During its construction, T-Mobile Arena was pointed to as the home arena for a possible National Hockey League expansion team in Las Vegas.
The expansion bid was approved and announced by the NHL on June 22, 2016. The Ultimate Fighting Championship's first event at the venue was UFC 200, held on July 9, 2016. In March 2017, the UFC signed a seven-year agreement to become an official tenant of T-Mobile Arena; the promotion agreed to host at least four events per-year at the facility, in exchange for receiving permanent retail space and signage. The Professional Bull Riders World Finals moved to T-Mobile Arena in 2016, moving from the Thomas & Mack Center, followed by the Pac-12 Conference Men's Basketball Tournament, which moved from the MGM Grand Garden Arena; the UNLV basketball team plays at least one game each season at T-Mobile Arena. One game against Duke was played in December 2016 and two games were played in November 2017, against Rice and Utah. In December 2018, UNLV will face BYU. In addition to Golden Knights games and UFC events, a number of major sporting events have been held at the arena, including boxing matches such as Canelo Álvarez vs. Gennady Golovkin and Floyd Mayweather Jr. vs. Conor McGregor.
By virtue of the Golden Knights winning the 2017-18 Western Conference finals, it played host to three games of the 2018 Stanley Cup Finals, between the Golden Knights and the Washington Capitals, including the cup-clinching fifth game which awarded the Capitals their first Stanley Cup in franchise history. The arena has hosted nationally televised entertainment events such as the Academy of Country Music Awards, the Billboard Music Awards, the iHeartRadio Music Festival, the Latin Grammys, the Miss USA beauty pageant, WWE professional wrestling events. Las Vegas Stadium Orleans Arena Official website
Zappos Theater is a mid-sized auditorium located at Planet Hollywood Las Vegas on the Las Vegas Strip. The venue hosts a variety of events from charity benefits and award shows, it is used for the beauty pageants: Miss Universe, Miss USA and Miss Teen USA. From 2013 to 2017, the auditorium was the home to Britney Spears's concert residency'Piece of Me' and Justin Timberlake's annual concert to benefit the Shriners Hospitals for Children. In 2011, it was voted as one of the "Best Concert Halls & Theaters In Las Vegas", it was the secondary home of Jimmy Kimmel Live! on April 1–5, 2019. While this location was known as the Aladdin Hotel, the owners decided to create a performing arts center to replace the mildly used golf course. Planning began with concepts showing the venue as a separate building. In 1972, the hotel was sold to Peter Wevve, Sorkis Wevve and Richard Daly; the center opened on July 2, 1976 with Neil Diamond, paid $750,000 for five sold-out shows. During the 1970s and 1980s, the auditorium became a staple on the Strip for many roll acts.
During the hotel's financial troubles in the 1990s, the center became its main revenue stream. In 1998, the venue closed. During the renovation, the center's original structure was removed, incorporating the venue into the casino area of the hotel. In 2000, the venue reopened with a performance by Enrique Iglesias, with a capacity decrease to 7,000. Due to the additions of the MGM Grand Garden Arena and Mandalay Bay Events Center, the venue was used infrequently by music acts. In 2004, the venue made international news when spectators walked out of a Linda Ronstadt concert while expressing support for filmmaker, Michael Moore. In 2010, the center saw a resurgence in use; the theater was the host of the Miss Universe 1991, 1996, 2012, 2015 and 2017 pageants, several Miss USA pageants and several Miss America pageants. On June 28, 2012, the auditorium was renamed to the "PH Live at Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino". On December 19, 2013, the venue was renamed "The AXIS at Planet Hollywood Resort & Casino".
It was announced American entertainment company, Live Nation Entertainment will take over operations and management of the venue from BASE Entertainment. The AXIS theatre has been home to headlining concert residencies such as Justin Timberlake & Friends, Paris By Night and Britney: Piece of Me, Jennifer Lopez: All I Have and Backstreet Boys: Larger Than Life; the venue's name was changed to Zappos Theater in February 2018, as part of a five-year marketing deal with online shoe retailer Zappos. Official website Media related to Zappos Theater at Wikimedia Commons
Baton Rouge Magnet High School
Baton Rouge Magnet High School is a public magnet school in Baton Rouge, founded in 1880. It is part of the East Baton Rouge Parish School System with a student body of 1500 students; the current building was built in 1926, and, as Baton Rouge High School, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The campus underwent a two-year renovation and expansion starting in 2010, resulting in the addition of two new wings to the main building; this renovation was completed and the school reopened in fall 2012. Baton Rouge High is one of the highest-ranked schools in the state, wins state-level academic competitions; the school requires students to exceed graduation standards. As a result, nearly all graduating students attend college. In 1903, T. H. Harris was named principal of Baton Rouge High School. Five years he became the state education superintendent and held that post until 1940; the present campus was put into use in 1925. Additional buildings were added and renovations made during the 1950s.
By 1972, the present facilities were completed and air conditioning was installed. In the fall of 1976, the school began operating under the new Magnet School Curriculum, the Class of 1980 became the first graduating class to attend all four full years under the Magnet Program. Numerous district and state championships have been won as is attested by the vast collection of trophies on view in the lobby. Though the major sports of football and baseball were discontinued in 1976, the individual and life-time sports have continued a tradition of winning district and state championships. State and district rally honors have increased, as have the number of National Merit Students among the student body; the main three to four story neo-Gothic brick and terra cotta building, along with a 8.5 acres portion of the campus, was added to the National Register of Historic Places on November 06, 1986. The 4th floor of the school used to be home to the band and orchestra, but is now closed off to the student body.
Elvis Presley played on the Baton Rouge High stage with Faron Young on May 2, 1955 The school was used in 2009 as a location for the filming of parts of the film Ticking Clock. The school had been temporarily moved to the old Lee High School building, due to renovations being done on the 1925 campus. Students returned to the renovated campus on August 8, 2012; the school was awarded the Blue Ribbon for Academic Excellence for the school years 1982–83 and 2003–04. The school offers 27 Advanced Placement classes, including Science Lab, with an additional American Government course speculated for 2008-2009, it has 20 honors courses, two dual enrollment courses through Baton Rouge Community College, four foreign languages. Due to funds being cut by the East Baton Rouge Parish School Board in the wake of Hurricane Katrina, Japanese is no longer offered. Greek is offered sporadically and was last offered in 2012-2013. Due to faculty shortage, since 2007 Russian is no longer available. Having a college-preparatory Magnet program, the school employs a rigorous curriculum resulting in all of its graduates attending college.
The school has the most National Merit Scholarship Award recipients in the state. The 270 students graduating in 2006 were offered over $8 million in college scholarships, with all going on to enter college. Four graduates have gone on to be named Rhodes Scholars after college. One graduate has gone on to be named a Fulbright Scholar, it received a special award in 2004 from the Kennedy Center in Washington, D. C. distinguishing it as one of five schools in the nation excelling in performing arts. It was one of two high schools to receive this award. On March 21, 2005, the school performed and displayed aspects of its arts and performances programs on one of the Kennedy Center's Millennium Stages; the school is one of the few high schools in the nation to offer two student run radio stations on campus. The original station, WBRH, was joined in 1993 by KBRH, they are both non-profit radio stations and are run with the financial support of the listening community. They publicly broadcast jazz on WBRH 90.3 FM, classic R&B and local music on KBRH 1260 AM.
Awards 1982 Redbook Magazine - Top 100 High Schools in America 1983 Blue Ribbon School - U. S. Dept of Education 2003 Blue Ribbon School - U. S. Dept of Education 2004 Creative School Ticket of Excellence 2004 Louisiana Dept of Education - Five Star School of Academic Excellence 2004 Kennedy Center School of Distinction Creative Ticket Award 2005 Magnet Schools of America - Distinction Award 2005 Louisiana Dept of Education - Five Star School of Academic Excellence 2006 Magnet Schools of America - Distinction Award 2006 Louisiana Dept of Education - Five Star School of Academic Excellence 2006 Siemens Award for Advanced Placement 2006 Magnet Schools of America. Magnet School of Distinction 2007 Louisiana Dept of Education - Five Star School of Academic Excellence 2007 Presidential Award for Excellence in Mathematics & Science Teaching 2008 U. S. News & World Report. Best High Schools, Silver Designation 2008 Magnet Schools of America - Distinction Award 2009 U. S. News & World Report. Best High Schools, Silver Designation 2010 National Magnet Schools of America - Magnet school Principal of the year 2010 National Magnet Schools of America - Excellence Award 2010 U.
S. News & World Report. Best High Schools, Silver Designation 2011 U. S. Presidential Scholar 2011 Newsweek. #122-ranked High School in the US 2012 State Science Olympiad 201
Central business district
A central business district is the commercial and business center of a city. In larger cities, it is synonymous with the city's "financial district". Geographically, it coincides with the "city centre" or "downtown", but the two concepts are separate: many cities have a central business district located away from its commercial or cultural city centre or downtown; the CBD is also the "city centre" or "downtown", but this is often not the case. Midtown Manhattan is the largest central business district in the world. For example, London's "city centre" is regarded as encompassing the historic City of London and the mediaeval City of Westminster, whereas the City of London and the transformed Docklands area are regarded as its two CBDs. Mexico City has a historic city centre, the colonial-era Centro Histórico, along with two CBDs: the mid-late 20th century Paseo de la Reforma - Polanco, the new Santa Fe; the shape and type of a CBD always reflect the city's history. Cities with strong preservation laws and maximum building height restrictions to retain the character of the historic and cultural core will have a CBD quite a distance from the centre of the city.
This is quite common for European cities such as Vienna. In cities in the New World that grew after the invention of mechanised modes such as road or rail transport, a single central area or downtown will contain most of the region's tallest buildings and act both as the CBD and the commercial and cultural city center. Increasing urbanisation in the 21st century have developed megacities in Asia, that will have multiple CBDs scattered across the urban area, it has been said. No two CBDs look alike in terms of their spatial shape, however certain geometric patterns in these areas are recurring throughout many cities due to the nature of centralised commercial and industrial activities. In Australia the acronym CBD is used commonly to refer to major city "centres", it is used in particular to refer to the skyscraper districts in state capital cities such as Melbourne, Perth and Sydney. Melbourne is Australia's largest CBD with Sydney second and Brisbane third when judged by area size; the iTowers of Masa Square CBD were built for doing business tasks only.
It is located within Gaborone. In China terms "city centre" are used but a different commercial district outside of the historic core called a "CBD" or "Financial District" may exist. Large Chinese cities have multiple CBDs spread throughout the urban area. Cities traditionally being major cultural centres with many historic structures in the core such as Beijing, Suzhou or Xi'an will have the greenfield CBDs built adjacent to the urban core, similar to European cities. While other cities such as Guangzhou, Shanghai and Wuhan the city centre will house a number of CBDs in addition to greenfield CBDs built in the periphery. In France, the term « quartier d’affaires » may be used to describe the central business district; the main ones business districts in the country are as following: La Défense in Paris, which with 3,300,000 square metres of office space is Europe's leading business district in terms of area. La Part-Dieu in Lyon, is the 2nd largest business district in France and has nearly 1,600,000 square metres.
Euralille in Lille, is the 3rd business district of France with 1,120,000 square metres of offices. Euroméditerranée in Marseille, is the 4th business district in France with 650,000 square metres of offices. In Germany, the terms Innenstadt and Stadtzentrum may be used to describe the central business district. Both terms can be translated to mean "inner city" and "city centre"; some of the larger cities have more than one central business district, like Berlin, which has three. Due to Berlin's history of division during the Cold War, the city contains central business districts both in West and East Berlin, as well as a newly-built business centre near Potsdamer Platz; the city's historic centre — the location of the Reichstag building, as well as the Brandenburg gate and most federal ministries — was abandoned when the Berlin Wall cut through the area. Only after the reunification with the redevelopment of Potsdamer Platz, the construction of numerous shopping centers, government ministries, office buildings and entertainment venues, was the area revived.
In Frankfurt, there is a business district, in the geographical centre of the city and it is called the Bankenviertel. In Düsseldorf, there is a business district, located around the famous High-Street Königsallee with banks and offices. In Hong Kong, Sheung Wan and Causeway Bay are considered as the central business districts of Victoria City; the Yau Tsim Mong District has been considered the city centre of Kowloon before another core emerged in Cheung Sha Wan. As part of the Airport Core Programme, the Union Square project launched by the MTR Corporation has brought it another CBD in West Kowloon. With the latest implementation of "Energising Kowloon East" Scheme by the Hong Kong Government, Kowloon Bay and Kwun Tong Business Area have been redeveloped and transformed into CBDs; the CBDs of new towns and satellite cities such as Tuen Mun, Sha Tin and Tung Chung have been characterised by sky-scraping residential blocks on top of large shopping centres that provide services to local resi
Capitol Park Museum - Baton Rouge
The Capitol Park Museum is a branch of the Louisiana State Museum located at 660 N. 4th Street, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. There are two permanent exhibits on the culture of Louisiana; the building was designed by New Orleans-based design studio Eskew+Dumez+Ripple and exhibits were created by Christopher Chadbourne & Associates. Notable objects include Louis Armstrong's childhood bugle. Louisiana State Museum - Baton Rouge
Louisiana State University
Louisiana State University is a public research university in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The university was founded in 1853 in what is now known as Pineville, under the name Louisiana State Seminary of Learning & Military Academy; the current LSU main campus was dedicated in 1926, consists of more than 250 buildings constructed in the style of Italian Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio, occupies a 650-acre plateau on the banks of the Mississippi River. LSU is the flagship school of the state of Louisiana, as well the flagship institution of the Louisiana State University System, is the most comprehensive university in Louisiana. In 2017, the university enrolled over 25,000 undergraduate and over 5,000 graduate students in 14 schools and colleges. Several of LSU's graduate schools, such as the E. J. Ourso College of Business and the Paul M. Hebert Law Center, have received national recognition in their respective fields of study. Designated as a land-grant, sea-grant and space-grant institution, LSU is noted for its extensive research facilities, operating some 800 sponsored research projects funded by agencies such as the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
LSU's athletics department fields teams in 21 varsity sports, is a member of the NCAA and the SEC. The university is represented by Mike the Tiger. Louisiana State University Agricultural & Mechanical College had its origin in several land grants made by the United States government in 1806, 1811, 1827 for use as a seminary of learning, it was founded as a military academy and is still today steeped in military tradition, giving rise to the school's nickname "The Ole War Skule." In 1853, the Louisiana General Assembly established the Seminary of Learning of the State of Louisiana near Pineville in Rapides Parish in Central Louisiana. Modeled after Virginia Military Institute, the institution opened with five professors and nineteen cadets on January 2, 1860, with Colonel William Tecumseh Sherman as superintendent; the original location of the Old LSU Site is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. On January 26, 1861, after only a year at the helm, Sherman resigned his position because Louisiana became the sixth state to secede from the Union.
The school closed on June 1861, with the start of the American Civil War. During the course of the war, the university reopened in April 1863, but was closed once again with the invasion of the Red River Valley by the Union Army; the losses sustained by the institution during the Union occupation were heavy, after 1863 the seminary remained closed for the remainder of the Civil War. Following the surrender of the Confederates at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, General Sherman donated two cannons to the institution; these cannons had been captured from Confederate forces after the close of the war and had been used during the initial firing upon Fort Sumter in April 1861. The cannons are still displayed in front of LSU's Military Science/Aerospace Studies Building; the seminary reopened its doors on October 2, 1865, only to be burned October 15, 1869. On November 1, 1869, the institution resumed its exercises in Baton Rouge, where it has since remained. In 1870, the name of the institution was changed to Louisiana State University.
Louisiana State University Agricultural & Mechanical College was established by an act of the legislature, approved April 7, 1874, to carry out the United States Morrill Act of 1862, granting lands for this purpose. It temporarily opened in New Orleans, June 1, 1874, where it remained until it merged with Louisiana State University in 1877; this prompted the final name change for the university to the Louisiana State University and Agricultural & Mechanical College. In 1905, LSU admitted Miss R. O. Davis, she was admitted into a program to pursue a master's degree. The following year, 1906, LSU admitted sixteen female students to its freshman class as part of an experimental program. Prior to this, LSU's student body was all-male. In 1907, LSU's first female graduate, Miss Martha McC. Read, was awarded a Bachelor of Arts degree. After this two year experimental program, the university opened its doors to female applicants in 1908, thus coeducation was born at LSU. On April 30, 1926, the present LSU campus was formally dedicated, following the school's history at the federal garrison grounds where it had been located since 1886.
Prior to this, LSU utilized the quarters of the Institute for the Deaf and Blind. Land for the present campus was purchased in 1918, construction started in 1922, the move began in 1925; the campus was designed for 3000 students, but was cut back due to budget problems. After some years of enrollment fluctuation, student numbers began a steady increase, new programs were added and faculty expanded, a true state university emerged. In 1928, LSU was a small-time country school that generated little interest or attention in the state. Labeled a "third-rate" institution by the Association of State Universities, the school had only 1800 students, 168 faculty members, an annual operating budget of $800,000. In 1930, Huey Pierce Long, Jr. the governor, initiated a massive building program to expand the physical plant and add departments. By 1936, LSU had the finest facilities in the South, a top-notch faculty of 394 professors, a new