Madonna singles discography
American singer Madonna has released 83 singles and 17 promotional singles and charted with 10 other songs. In 1982, she signed a contract with Warner Bros.. Records, released her first two singles before launching her eponymous debut album, her first entry on the US Billboard Hot 100 was "Holiday", which peaked at number 16. The following year, Madonna released "Like a Virgin", which reached number one in Australia and the US; the album Like a Virgin spawned three other top five singles: "Material Girl", "Angel", "Dress You Up", with "Angel" peaking at number one in Australia. In 1985, Madonna released her second US number-one single, "Crazy for You", her first UK number-one single, "Into the Groove", both from feature film soundtracks. "Into the Groove" topped the charts in Italy and Australia. The following year, her third studio album True Blue gave her three number-one singles: "Live to Tell", "Papa Don't Preach", "Open Your Heart". Two other singles from the album, "True Blue" and "La Isla Bonita", were top-five hits.
In 1987, she scored another number-one single with "Who's That Girl". The title track from Madonna's fourth studio album, Like a Prayer, was her seventh single to top the Hot 100 chart, making her the female artist with the most number-one singles in the 1980s. In 1990, Madonna released "Vogue" from the album I'm Breathless, which topped the charts in all major music markets. "Vogue" was followed by "Justify My Love" and soundtrack single, "This Used to Be My Playground", becoming her subsequent chart topping songs. Her fifth studio album, was released in 1992. Only its title track and "Deeper and Deeper" reached the US top ten. In 1994, Madonna returned into the Hot 100 top-ten with the soundtrack single "I'll Remember", which peaked at number two, her subsequent album Bedtime Stories featured two US top-five hits, "Secret" and "Take a Bow", the latter stayed on the top of Hot 100 chart for seven weeks, making it her longest run at number one. "Frozen", from the 1998 studio album Ray of Light became her eighth single to debut at number-one in the United Kingdom.
It was her first chart topper there since 1990, marked a major commercial comeback for her. In 2000, Madonna scored her 12th US number-one single, "Music", from the album of the same name; the title track her ninth studio album American Life topped the charts in Canada and Switzerland while its songs "Nothing Fails" and "Love Profusion" went number one in Spain. In 2005, Madonna released "Hung Up" from her tenth studio album Confessions on a Dance Floor, it became her most commercially successful song to date, peaking at number one in 41 countries and earned a place in the 2007 Guinness Book of World Records for topping the charts in more countries than any other song. With "Hung Up" going platinum, Madonna surpassed The Beatles for having most gold certified singles in the United States; the album's second single, "Sorry", became Madonna's 12th number-one single on the UK charts. "4 Minutes", the lead single from her 11th studio album, Hard Candy, scored Madonna her 37th Billboard Hot 100 top-ten, surpassing Elvis Presley as the artist with the most top-ten singles.
She extended the record with the number ten reaching "Give Me All Your Luvin'", from her 2012 studio album, MDNA, which topped the charts in Canada. With "Ghosttown", from Madonna's 2015 studio album Rebel Heart, topping the Billboard Dance Club Songs, she became the artist with the most number-one songs on an active Billboard chart. Madonna ended the 2000s as the best-selling physical singles artist of the decade in the United States, she was announced as the highest ranking solo artist on the "Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists" as well as having most number-one singles in the United Kingdom among female artists. Madonna has a record 157 number-one singles across all formats of the Billboard charts, the most for any artist; as of February 2008, she has sold more than 115 million singles worldwide. List of best-selling singles List of best-selling music artists in the United Kingdom in singles sales List of artists by number of UK Singles Chart number ones List of artists who reached number one in the United States List of artists who reached number one on the U.
S. dance chart List of artists who reached number one on the U. S. dance airplay chart List of number-one dance hits Fred. The Billboard Book of Number 1 Hits. Billboard books. ISBN 0-8230-7677-6. Cross, Mary. Madonna: A Biography. ISBN 0-313-33811-6. Glenday, Craig. Guinness Book of World Records 2007. Bantam Press. ISBN 0-553-58992-X. Metz, Andrew; the Madonna Companion: Two Decades of Commentary. Music Sales Group. ISBN 0-8256-7194-9. Morton, Andrew. Madonna. Macmillan Publishers. ISBN 0-312-98310-7. Rooksby, Rikky; the Complete Guide to the Music of Madonna. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-9883-3. Taraborrelli, Randy J.. Madonna: An Intimate Biography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-2880-4. Voller, Debbi. Madonna: The Style Book. Omnibus Press. ISBN 0-7119-7511-6. Madonna singles discography at AllMusic "Madonna singles discography". Billboard. Retrieved December 3, 2009. Madonna discography at MusicBrainz
Malawi the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa, known as Nyasaland. It is bordered by Zambia to the northwest, Tanzania to the northeast, Mozambique on the east and west. Malawi is over 118,000 km2 with an estimated population of 18,091,575. Lake Malawi takes up about a third of Malawi's area, its capital is Lilongwe, Malawi's largest city. The name Malawi comes from an old name of the Nyanja people that inhabit the area; the country is nicknamed "The Warm Heart of Africa" because of the friendliness of the people. The part of Africa now known as Malawi was settled by migrating Bantu groups around the 10th century. Centuries in 1891 the area was colonised by the British. In 1953 Malawi known as Nyasaland, a protectorate of the United Kingdom, became a protectorate within the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland; the Federation was dissolved in 1963. In 1964 the protectorate over Nyasaland was ended and Nyasaland became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II with the new name Malawi.
Two years it became a republic. Upon gaining independence it became a totalitarian one-party state under the presidency of Hastings Banda, who remained president until 1994. Malawi has a democratic, multi-party government headed by an elected president Arthur Peter Mutharika; the country has a Malawian Defence Force that includes a navy and an air wing. Malawi's foreign policy is pro-Western and includes positive diplomatic relations with most countries and participation in several international organisations, including the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, the African Union. Malawi is among the world's least-developed countries; the economy is based in agriculture, with a rural population. The Malawian government depends on outside aid to meet development needs, although this need has decreased since 2000; the Malawian government faces challenges in building and expanding the economy, improving education, environmental protection, becoming financially independent amidst widespread unemployment.
Since 2005, Malawi has developed several programs that focus on these issues, the country's outlook appears to be improving, with a rise in the economy and healthcare seen in 2007 and 2008. Malawi has a low life expectancy and high infant mortality. There is a high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, a drain on the labour force and government expenditures. There is a diverse population of native peoples and Europeans, with several languages spoken and an array of religious beliefs. Although there was periodic regional conflict fuelled in part by ethnic divisions in the past, by 2008 it had diminished and the concept of a Malawian nationality had reemerged; the area of Africa now known as Malawi had a small population of hunter-gatherers before waves of Bantu peoples began emigrating from the north around the 10th century. Although most of the Bantu peoples continued south, some remained permanently and founded ethnic groups based on common ancestry. By 1500 AD, the tribes had established the Kingdom of Maravi that reached from north of what is now Nkhotakota to the Zambezi River and from Lake Malawi to the Luangwa River in what is now Zambia.
Soon after 1600, with the area united under one native ruler, native tribesmen began encountering, trading with and making alliances with Portuguese traders and members of the military. By 1700, the empire had broken up into areas controlled by many individual ethnic groups; the Arab slave trade reached its height in the mid- 1800s, when 20,000 people were enslaved and considered to be carried yearly from Nkhotakota to Kilwa where they were sold. Missionary and explorer David Livingstone reached Lake Malawi in 1859 and identified the Shire Highlands south of the lake as an area suitable for European settlement; as the result of Livingstone's visit, several Anglican and Presbyterian missions were established in the area in the 1860s and 1870s, the African Lakes Company Limited was established in 1878 to set up a trade and transport concern working with the missions, a small mission and trading settlement was established at Blantyre in 1876 and a British Consul took up residence there in 1883.
The Portuguese government was interested in the area so, to prevent Portuguese occupation, the British government sent Harry Johnston as British consul with instructions to make treaties with local rulers beyond Portuguese jurisdiction. In 1889, a British protectorate was proclaimed over the Shire Highlands, extended in 1891 to include the whole of present-day Malawi as the British Central Africa Protectorate. In 1907, the protectorate was renamed Nyasaland, a name it retained for the remainder of its time under British rule. In a prime example of what is sometimes called the "Thin White Line" of colonial authority in Africa, the colonial government of Nyasaland was formed in 1891; the administrators were given a budget of £10,000 per year, enough to employ ten European civilians, two military officers, seventy Punjab Sikhs and eighty-five Zanzibar porters. These few employees were expected to administer and police a territory of around 94,000 square kilometres with between one and two million people.
In 1944, the Nyasaland African Congress was formed by the Africans of Nyasaland to promote local interests to the British g
I Am Because We Are
I Am Because We Are is a 2008 British-American-Malawian documentary film about AIDS orphans in Malawi. It was directed by Nathan Rissman and written and produced by Madonna through her production company Semtex Films; the film premiered at the 7th annual Tribeca Film Festival in New York City, on April 24, 2008 and at the 61st annual Cannes Film Festival in Cannes, France on May 21, 2008. The film headlined the 2008 Traverse City Film Festival. On December 1, 2008, it premiered in the U. S. on the Sundance Channel for World AIDS Day. On March 26, 2009, the film was uploaded by Madonna's team onto Hulu for free viewing; the film won the VH1 Do Something Docu Style Award in 2010. The film documents the lives of orphans in Malawi, where an estimated 500,000 children have lost parents to HIV and AIDS. Many of these children live on the streets; the film shows the efforts with Madonna's charitable organisation Raising Malawi in helping with improving their lives and conditions. Madonna said about the film: "To say that this film is a labor of love is trivial.
It's the journey of a lifetime. I hope you all are as inspired watching it as I was making it."The film, released in 2008, was described by long-time friend Rosie O'Donnell as "devastating and amazing." Both Madonna and O'Donnell attended a private screening on October 11, 2007. A companion book containing 180 pages with 106 duotone and 44 four-color photographs taken during the visit, as well as stills from the video was released in January 2009. Author proceeds from the sale of the book were to be donated to the charitable organization Raising Malawi for their extensive work with orphans throughout Malawi. Released: January 2009 Photographer: Kristen Ashburn, with foreword by Madonna Publisher: PowerHouse The title is derived from former Archbishop of Cape Town and anti-apartheid activist Desmond Tutu's speech regarding the African philosophy of Ubuntu. Ubuntu is an idea present in African spirituality that says "I am because we are", or we are all connected, we cannot be ourselves without community and faith are always lived out among others, an individual's well being is caught up in the well being of others.
In Malawi, this African philosophy is known as "uMunthu". In Chichewa, it is kali kokha nkanyama, tili awiri ntiwanthu.” The film received positive reviews in the media. The Times, giving it 4 out of 5 stars, wrote: "This rich material makes for a absorbing film. Certain scenes, such as women and children dying of AIDS in front of the camera, drew gasps from the shocked audience in the screening room at Cannes. It's impossible to tear your eyes away from the screen. Not that the film portrays Malawian people as innocent victims of circumstances beyond their control. Rissman doesn't shy away from the culture of drinking and violence, prevalent in the country. Together, he and Madonna have made a shocking and moving film, much more than an extended Comic Relief appeal."A news article in The Guardian said, "Madonna the documentary-maker came and conquered the world's biggest film festival yesterday with a powerful polemic on the effects of disease and poverty on Malawi... The queen of reinvention presented her film, I Am Because We Are, which she wrote and produced, to general acclaim.
Alongside her was her former gardener Nathan Rissman, who directed."The film was shown at the 2008 Traverse City Film Festival, held from July 29 to August 3. Michael Moore, who founded the festival, said in May 2008 about the film: "I saw her film a month ago and was so moved in a way that happens with movies these days. I asked her if she would come to our festival and she said, "yes." I have known her for years and she is one of the most caring and generous people I have met. Her presence here in Traverse City will have a profound impact on people." In the fall of 2008, Madonna released a video message announcing plans to build a school in Malawi, the Raising Malawi Academy for Girls. Official website I Am Because We Are at AllMovie I Am Because We Are on IMDb
Cannes Film Festival
The Cannes Festival, until 2002 called the International Film Festival and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world. Founded in 1946, the invitation-only festival is held annually at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, it is one of the "Big Three" alongside the Venice Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival. On 1 July 2014, co-founder and former head of French pay-TV operator Canal+, Pierre Lescure, took over as President of the Festival, while Thierry Fremaux became the General Delegate; the board of directors appointed Gilles Jacob as Honorary President of the Festival. The 2018 Cannes Film Festival took place between 8 and 19 May 2018; the jury president was Australian actress Cate Blanchett, Shoplifters, directed by Hirokazu Kore-eda, won the Palme d'Or. The Cannes Film Festival has its origins in 1932 when Jean Zay, the French Minister of National Education, on the proposal of historian Philippe Erlanger and with the support of the British and Americans, set up an international cinematographic festival.
Its origins may be attributed in part to the French desire to compete with the Venice Film Festival, which at the time was shocking the democratic world by its fascist bias. The first festival was planned for 1939, Cannes was selected as the location for it, but the funding and organization were too slow and the beginning of World War II put an end to this plan. On 20 September 1946, twenty-one countries presented their films at the First Cannes International Film Festival, which took place at the former Casino of Cannes. In 1947, amid serious problems of efficiency, the festival was held as the "Festival du film de Cannes", where films from sixteen countries were presented; the festival was not held in 1950 on account of budgetary problems. In 1949, the Palais des Festivals was expressly constructed for the occasion on the seafront promenade of La Croisette, although its inaugural roof, while still unfinished, blew off during a storm. In 1951, the festival was moved to spring to avoid a direct competition with the Venice Festival, held in autumn.
During the early 1950s, the festival attracted a lot of tourism and press attention, with showbiz scandals and high-profile personalities' love affairs. At the same time, the artistic aspect of the festival started developing; because of controversies over the selection of films, the Critics' Prize was created for the recognition of original films and daring filmmakers. In 1954, the Special Jury Prize was awarded for the first time. In 1955, the Palme d'Or was created, replacing the Grand Prix du Festival, given until that year. In 1957, Dolores del Río was the first female member of the jury for the official selection. In 1959, the Marché du Film was founded, giving the festival a commercial character and facilitating exchanges between sellers and buyers in the film industry. Today it has become the first international platform for film commerce. Still, in the 1950s, some outstanding films, like Night and Fog in 1956 and Hiroshima, My Love in 1959 were excluded from the competition for diplomatic concerns.
Jean Cocteau, three times president of the jury in those years, is quoted to have said: "The Cannes Festival should be a no man's land in which politics has no place. It should be a simple meeting between friends."In 1962, the International Critics' Week was born, created by the French Union of Film Critics as the first parallel section of the Cannes Film Festival. Its goal was to showcase first and second works by directors from all over the world, not succumbing to commercial tendencies. In 1965 Olivia de Havilland was named the first female president of the jury, while the next year Sofia Loren became president; the 1968 festival was halted on 19 May. Some directors, such as Carlos Saura and Miloš Forman, had withdrawn their films from the competition. On 18 May filmmaker Louis Malle along with a group of directors took over the large room of the Palais and interrupted the projections in solidarity with students and labour on strike throughout France, in protest to the eviction of the President of the Cinémathèque Française.
The filmmakers achieved the reinstatement of the President, they founded the Film Directors' Society that same year. In 1969 the SRF, led by Pierre-Henri Deleau created the Directors' Fortnight, a new non-competitive section that programs a selection of films from around the world, distinguished by the independent judgment displayed in the choice of films. During the 1970s, important changes occurred in the Festival. In 1972, Robert Favre Le Bret was named the new President, Maurice Bessy the General Delegate, he introduced important changes in the selection of the participating films, welcoming new techniques, relieving the selection from diplomatic pressures, with films like MASH, Chronicle of the Years of Fire marking this turn. In some cases, these changes helped directors like Tarkovski overcome problems of censorship in their own country; until that time, the different countries chose the films that would represent them in the festival. Yet, in 1972, Bessy created a committee to select French films, another for foreign films.
In 1978, Gilles Jacob assumed the position of General Delegate, introducing the Caméra d'Or award, for the best first film of any of the main events, the Un Certain Regard section, for the non-competitive categories. Other changes were the decrease of length of the festival down to thirteen days, thus reducing the number of selected films.
Cultural impact of Madonna
Since the beginning of her career in the early 1980s, American singer and songwriter Madonna has had a social-cultural impact on the world through her recordings, attitude and lifestyle. Called the "Queen of Pop", Madonna is labeled by international authors as the greatest woman in music, as well as the most influential and iconic female recording artist of all time. Accepted as a global cultural icon, Madonna has built a legacy that goes beyond music and has been studied by sociologists and other social scientists, her impact is compared with that of The Beatles and Elvis Presley. Madonna is a key figure in popular music. Reviews of her work have served as a roadmap for scrutinizing women at each stage in their music career. Madonna is the first multimedia pop icon in history and professionals agree that she has become the world's biggest and most significant pop icon, as well as the most controversial. However, some intellectuals, like the Frenchman Georges Claude Guilbert, felt that she has greater cultural importance, like a myth, that has apparent universality and timelessness.
References to Madonna in popular culture are found in the arts, food and each branch of entertainment. In a general sense, journalist Peter Robinson noted that "Madonna invented contemporary pop fame so there is a little bit of her in the DNA of every modern pop thing."However, she is not only an omnipresent figure, but a polarizing one. During her career, Madonna has attracted contradictory cultural social attention from family organizations, feminist "anti-porn" and religious groups worldwide with boycott and protests. Although this attracted unprecedented world media attention, the reviews have been negative, resulting sometimes in censorships. Madonna has been described as an "omnipresent" character and one of the most recognizable names and faces in the world. Tetzlaff felt that "the power of the omnipresent Madonna has to do with hyperreality, but an infinite accumulation of simulacra, an overabundance of information". Journalist Quico Alsedo from El Mundo in Spain felt that Madonna has build a nation, landless but densely populated.
Music critic T. Cole Rachel, stated in 2015, that "there’s an approximate 100% probability that any living human over the age of, say, 25 has some sort of specific Madonna-related memory... If you aren’t a super fan—or a fan at all—there’s no escaping Madonna, she is everywhere."In his book Madonna As Postmodern Myth, French academic Georges Claude Guilbert explains how Madonna reflects today's society, while William Langley from The Daily Telegraph feels that "Madonna has changed the world's social history, has done more things as more different people than anyone else is likely to." American poet Jane Miller compares her functions as an archetype directly inside contemporary culture with the Black Madonna. Professor John R. May concludes that Madonna is a contemporary "gesamtkunstwerk", academic Sergio Fajardo labels her "a powerful symbol". Scholar Belén González Morales of the Autonomous University of Barcelona comments, "'The infinite dissection' of Madonna is like a body paradigmatic of the global age that emanating a tremendous amount of meanings...
Madonna has been become a cultural artifact. Strawberry Saroyan states that she's a storyteller and a cultural pioneer, emphasizes the important thing is her message: "And all of those things have been brilliantly of a piece. Madonna's ability to take her message beyond music and impact women's lives has been her legacy". Authors note, she is considered "a barometer of culture that directs the attention to cultural shifts and changes." The American Library Association, in a review of music journalist Adam Sexton's book Desperately Seeking Madonna: In Search of the Meaning of the World's Most Famous Woman, remarks: "Love her or hate her, Madonna is an inescapable figure in the contemporary cultural landscape". Musicologist Susan McClary suggests that Madonna is engaged in rewriting some fundamental levels of Western thought. One academic from Lehigh University expressed that she stands behind all people and helps them fight against being ostracized in society. Contribuitor from company Spin Media felt that "Madonna has changed society through her fiery ambition and unwillingness to compromise".
Professor Karlene Faith accerted Madonna's peculiarity is that she has cruised so through so many cultural terrains. She has been a'cult' figure within self-propelling subcultures just as she became a major", she concluded that as fans, moral critics, media journalists, or university scholars, we mediate what Madonna means to our society. In general, academic radicals turned Madonna into the "cottage industry", most notable in the 1990s. Madonna is part of the Culture of an American icon. Authors in American Icons felt that "like Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley or Coca-Cola, Madonna image is recognizable around the world and communicates many of the values of U. S. culture". Rodrigo Fresán commented: "saying that Madonna just is a pop star is as inappropriate as saying that Coca-Cola is just a soda. Madonna is one of the classic symbols of Made in USA", she was included in the book 100 Entertainers Who Changed America: An Encyclopedia of Pop Culture of Greenwood Publishing Group. Historian professor Glen Jeansonne, said that "Madonna freed Americans from their inhibitions and made them fe
Gucci is an Italian luxury brand of fashion and leather goods. Gucci was founded by Guccio Gucci in Florence, Tuscany, in 1921. Gucci generated about €4.2 billion in revenue worldwide in 2008 according to BusinessWeek and climbed to 41st position in the magazine's annual 2009 "Top Global 100 Brands" chart created by Interbrand. Gucci is the highest-selling Italian brand. Gucci operates about 278 directly operated stores worldwide as of September 2009, it wholesales its products through franchisees and upscale department stores. In the year 2013, the brand was valued with sales of US$4.7 billion. In the Forbes World's Most Valuable Brands list, Gucci is ranked the 38th most valuable brand, with a brand value of $12.4 billion as of May 2015. As of January 2015, the creative director is Alessandro Michele. With beginnings at the end of the 19th century, the Gucci company became one of the world’s most successful manufacturers of high-end leather goods and other fashion products; as an immigrant hotel worker in Paris and London, young Guccio Gucci was impressed with the luxurious luggage he saw urbane guests bring with them at the Savoy Hotel.
Before leaving, he visited the manufacturer, H. J. Cave & Sons. Upon returning to his birthplace of Florence, a city distinguished for high-quality materials and skilled artisans, he established a shop in 1920 that sold fine leather goods with classic styling. Although Gucci organized his workrooms for industrial methods of production, he maintained traditional aspects of fabrication. Gucci employed skilled workers in basic Florentine leather crafts, attentive to finishing. With expansion, machine stitching was a production method. Together with three of his sons, Aldo Gucci, Vasco Gucci, Rodolfo Gucci, Gucci expanded the company to include stores in Milan and Rome as well as additional shops in Florence. Gucci's stores featured such finely crafted leather accessories as handbags and his iconic ornamented loafer as well as silks and knitwear in a signature pattern; the company made handbags of cotton canvas rather than leather during World War II as a result of material shortages. The canvas, was distinguished by a signature double-G symbol combined with prominent red and green bands.
After the war, the Gucci crest, which showed a shield and armored knight surrounded by a ribbon inscribed with the family name, became synonymous with the city of Florence. Aldo and Rodolfo Gucci further expanded the company's horizons in 1953 by establishing offices in New York City. Film stars and jet-set travelers to Italy during the 1950s and 1960s brought their glamour to Florence, turning Gucci's merchandise into international status symbols. Movie stars posed in Gucci's clothing and footwear for lifestyle magazines around the world, contributing to the company’s growing reputation. Gucci's distinctive lines made its products among the most copied in the world in the early 2000s. Pigskin and imported exotic animal skins were subjected to various methods of fabrication. Waterproof canvas and satin were used for evening bags. Bamboo was first used to make handbag handles by a process of heating and molding in 1947, purses made with a shoulder strap and snaffle-bit decoration were introduced in 1960.
In 1964 Gucci’s lush butterfly pattern was custom-created for silk foulards, followed by luxuriant floral patterns. The original Gucci loafer was updated by a distinctive snaffle-bit ornament in 1966, while the "Rolls-Royce" luggage set was introduced in 1970. Watches, jewelry and eyewear were added to the company's product lines. A iconic touch, introduced in 1964, was the use of the double-G logo for belt buckles and other accessory decorations; the company prospered through the 1970s, but the 1980s were marked by internal family disputes that brought Gucci to the brink of disaster. Rodolfo’s son Maurizio Gucci took over the company’s direction after his father’s death in 1983 and dismissed his uncle Aldo—who served a prison term for tax evasion. Maurizio proved to be an unsuccessful president. Maurizio disposed of his remaining stock in 1993. Maurizio was murdered by a hitman in Milan in 1995, his former wife, Patrizia Reggiani, was convicted of hiring his killer. Meanwhile, the new investors promoted the American-educated Domenico De Sole from the position of family attorney to president of Gucci America in 1994 and chief executive in 1995.
The company had brought in Dawn Mello in 1989 as editor and ready-to-wear designer in order to reestablish its reputation. Well aware of Gucci’s tarnished image and the value of its name brand, Mello hired Tom Ford in 1990 to design a ready-to-wear line, he was promoted to the position of creative director in 1994. Before Mello returned to her post as president of the American retailer Bergdorf Goodman, she initiated the return of Gucci’s headquarters from the business center of Milan to Florence, where its craft traditions were rooted. There she and Ford reduced the number of Gucci products from 20,000 to 5,000. Steinunn Sigurdardóttir was the Director and Senior Designer for Gucci from 1995 to 2000. There were seventy-six Gucci stores around the world in 1997, along with numerous licensing agreements. Ford was instrumental in the process of decision-making with De Sole when the Gucci Group acquired Yves Saint Laurent Rive Gauche, Bottega Veneta, Sergio Rossi, and, in part-ownership with Stella McCartney, Alexander McQueen and Balenciaga.
By 2001 Ford and De Sole shared the responsibility
Joyce Hilda Banda is a Malawian politician, the President of Malawi from 7 April 2012 to 31 May 2014. She is the founder and leader of the People's Party, created in 2011. An educator and grassroots women's rights activist, she was Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2009 and Vice-President of Malawi from May 2009 to April 2012. Banda took office as President following the sudden death of President Bingu wa Mutharika, she was its first female president. Before becoming president, she served as the country's first female vice-president, she was a Member of Parliament and Minister for Children's Affairs and Community Services. Before her active career in politics she was the founder of the Joyce Banda Foundation, founder of the National Association of Business Women, Young Women Leaders Network and the Hunger Project. In 2014, Forbes named President Banda as the 40th most powerful woman in the world and the most powerful woman in Africa. In November 2016, Banda announced she that she was willing to stand as a presidential candidate in the 2019 elections.
Joyce Hilda Ntila Banda was born on 12 April 1951 in Malemia, a village in the Zomba District of Nyasaland. Her father was a police brass band musician, she began her career as a secretary and became a well-known figure during the rule of dictator Hastings Banda. She has a Cambridge School Certificate, a Bachelor of Arts Degree in Early Childhood Education from Columbus University, a Bachelor of Social Studies in Gender Studies from the Atlantic International University and a Diploma in Management of NGOs from the International Labour Organization Centre in Turin, Italy, she is studying for a Master of Arts Degree in Leadership at Royal Roads University in Canada. She received an honorary doctorate in 2013 from Jeonju University, she married Roy Kachale. At the age 25, she was living in Kenya. In 1975, a growing women's movement in Kenya motivated Banda to take her three children and leave what she has described as an abusive marriage, her marriage to Roy Kachele ended in 1981. She is now married to Richard Banda, retired Chief Justice of Malawi, with whom she has two children.
Between 1985 and 1997 Banda managed and established various businesses and organisations including Ndekani Garments, Akajuwe Enterprises, Kalingidza Bakery. Her success inspired her to help other women achieve financial independence and break the cycles of abuse and poverty, she is sister to Anjimile Oponyo, former CEO of the Raising Malawi Academy for Girls founded by Madonna. Joyce Banda entered politics in 1999, she won a parliamentary seat in Malawi's third democratic election as a member of President Bakili Muluzi's party, the United Democratic Front. She represented the Zomba Malosa constituency. Muluzi appointed her as Minister for Community Services; as minister, she fought to enact the Domestic Violence Bill. She designed the National Platform for Action on Orphans and Vulnerable Children and the Zero Tolerance Campaign Against Child Abuse. In 2004, she was re-elected as a member of Muluzi's Party. Bingu wa Mutharika became President. Though Banda was not a member of his party, Mutharika appointed her as Minister of Foreign Affairs in 2006.
Banda moved to change Malawi's recognition of the legitimate government of China from the Republic of China to the People's Republic of China on the mainland. In 2010, China finished the construction of a new parliament building in Lilongwe. Banda ran as the vice-presidential candidate of the Democratic Progressive Party in the 2009 presidential election, running alongside Mutharika, the DPP presidential candidate, she served as Malawi's first female vice-president. In a surprise move by the DPP, Joyce Banda and second vice-president Khumbo Kachali were fired as the vice-presidents of the DPP on 12 December 2010 for undefined'anti-party' activities. In attempts to ostracise her, the President continued to give roles that were held by her to Callista Mutharika, included in the cabinet in September 2011; the court blocked attempts by Mutharika to fire her as Vice-President on constitutional grounds. This included attempts to seize her official government vehicle and to block her from registering her new party.
On 8 September 2011, the role of Vice-President was left out in a cabinet reshuffle. However, she was still the legal Vice-President, she was urged by DPP spokesman Hetherwick Ntaba to resign as Vice-President. The relationship between Banda and President Bingu wa Mutharika had become tense because of Mutharika's attempts to position his own brother, Peter Mutharika, as his successor. Although she was fired from the position as Vice-President of the DPP together with Second Vice-President Khumbo Kachali, she continued to serve as Vice-President of Malawi as stipulated in the constitution; this move led to mass resignations in the DPP and the formation of networks that supported her candidacy to become President of Malawi in the 2014 general election. The DPP denied that mass resignations had insisted that they were only a few. Joyce Banda is the founder and leader of the People's Party, formed in 2011 after Banda was expelled from the ruling DPP when she refused to endorse President Mutharika's younger brother Peter Mutharika as the successor to the presidency for the 2014 general election.
On 5 April 2012, President Mutharika died. After his death the government failed to notify the public in a timely manner that the president had died; this led to the fe