Shankar Dayal Sharma
Shankar Dayal Sharma pronunciation was the ninth President of India, serving from 1992 to 1997. Prior to his presidency, Sharma had been the eighth Vice President of India, serving under R. Venkataraman, he was the Chief Minister of Bhopal, Cabinet Minister, holding the portfolios of Education, Public Works and Commerce, National Resources and Separate Revenue. He was the President of the Indian National Congress in 1972–1974 and returned to the Government as Union Minister for Communications from 1974 to 1977; the International Bar Association presented Sharma with the'Living Legends of Law Award of Recognition' for his outstanding contribution to the legal profession internationally and for commitment to the rule of law. Sharma was born in Bhopal the capital of the princely state of Bhopal. Sharma was born in the city of Madhya Pradesh, he was educated at Agra College, Punjab University and Lucknow University. Sharma famously taught Oman's current Ruler; as Professor, Law at Lucknow University and at the University of Cambridge.
While at Cambridge, he was Treasurer of the Cambridge Majlis. He was Honored as "Proud Past Alumnus" in the list of 42 members, from Allahabad University Alumni Association, Ghaziabad. Called to the Bar from Lincoln's Inn, he was a Fellow at Harvard Law School, he was elected Honorary Bencher and Master of Lincoln's Inn and Honorary Fellow, Fitzwilliam College, Cambridge. The University of Cambridge awarded him with degree of LL. D.. He is known to be one of the most educated politician of his times. During the 1940s he was involved in the struggle for Indian independence from the British, joined the Indian National Congress, a party which he would remain loyal to for the rest of his life. After India's independence, the Nawab of Bhopal expressed his wish to retain the Bhopal princely state as a separate unit. Sharma led public agitations against the Nawab in December 1948. On 23 January 1949, Sharma was sentenced to eight months imprisonment for violating restrictions on public meetings. Under public pressure, the Nawab released him, signed the agreement for merger with the Indian Union on 30 April 1949.
In 1952, Sharma became the chief minister of the Bhopal state and was the youngest chief minister then. He served in that position until the state reorganization of 1956, when Bhopal state merged with several other states to form the state of Madhya Pradesh. During the 1960s Sharma supported Indira Gandhi's quest for leadership of the Congress Party, he presided over the AICC session in Calcutta. From 1974, he served in the union cabinet as the minister for Communication from 1974–77. In 1971 and 1980 he won a Lok Sabha seat from Bhopal. On, he was given a variety of ceremonial posts. In 1984 he began serving as a governor of Indian states, first in Andhra Pradesh. During this time, his daughter Geetanjali Maken and son-in-law Lalit Maken, a young member of parliament and a promising political leader, were killed by Sikh militants. In 1985, he left Andhra Pradesh and became governor of Punjab during a time of violence between the Indian government and Sikh militants, many of whom lived in Punjab.
He took up his final governorship in Maharashtra. He remained governor of Maharashtra until 1987 when he was elected for a 5-year term as the eighth Vice-President of India and chairman of the Rajya Sabha. Sharma was known to be a stickler for parliamentary norms, he is known to have broken down in the Rajya Sabha while witnessing the members of the house create a din on a political issue. His grief brought back some order into the proceedings of the house. Sharma served as Vice-President until 1992, he received 66 % of the votes in the electoral college. During his last year as President, it was his responsibility to swear in three prime ministers, he didn't run for a second term as President. Dr. Shankar Dayal Sharma Gold Medal is awarded in all prestigious Indian universities; this award was constituted, by endowments received from Shankar Dayal Sharma. This medal is awarded to a graduating student adjudged to be the best in terms of general proficiency including character and excellence in academic performance, extra-curricular activities and social service.
Sharma had written a poem on the Quran during the 1970s, regarded among the Hindi/Urdu-speaking Muslims of India and Pakistan. During the last five years of his life, Sharma suffered from ill health. On 26 December 1999, he suffered a massive heart attack and was admitted to a hospital in New Delhi, where he died, he was cremated at Karma Bhumi. Sharma is survived by his son Satish Dayal Sharma from his first wife and a son Ashutosh Dayal Sharma, from his second wife, Smt. Vimala Sharma, his daughter Gitanjali was shot dead along with her husband Congress MP Lalit Maken by Khalistani Militants Harjinder Singh Jinda, Sukhdev Singh Sukha and Ranjit Singh Gill alias Kukki outside Maken's Kirti Nagar residence in West Delhi on 31 July 1985. Shankar Dayal Sharma at Encyclopaedia Britannica
Sport in Delhi
Sport in Delhi have a long and distinguished history. Delhi is the capital territory of India. Delhi has hosted many international sports championships and multi-sports events: 1951 Asian Games — New Delhi hosted the first Asian Games 1982 Asian Games — In 1982, New Delhi hosted the ninth edition of the Asian Games 2010 Commonwealth Games — New Delhi became the second Asian city, after Kuala Lumpur, to host the Commonwealth Games 1989 Asian Athletics Championships — New Delhi hosted the Eighth Asian Athletics Chancellorships The Delhi Half Marathon is an annual half marathon foot-race held in New Delhi. Established in 2005, it is both mass participation event, it is an AIMS-certified course and is listed as a Gold Label Road Race by the IAAF. The 2009 event attracted around 29,000 runners who competed in one of the four races: the half marathon, the 7 km Great Delhi Run, a 4.3 km run for senior citizens, a 3.5 km wheelchair race. The 2010 Hockey World Cup was the twelfth installment of the Men's Hockey World Cup.
New Delhi became first Indian city to host this major event, taking place over two weeks from 28 February – 13 March 2010 at New Delhi's Dhyan Chand National Stadium. The Nehru Cup due to the competition's sponsorship by ONGC is an international association football tournament organised by the, it was launched in 1982, but was not held from 1998 to 2006. After the trophy was won by Iraq in 1997, it was reinstated only in 2007. Delhi had been one of the host cities of Cricket world cup's three terms held in Indian sub-continent. Cricket, as in whole nation has special place in Delhi also. Cricket is well organised and established within Delhi and most popular spectator sport. Delhi has several of India's leading cricket clubs. Not only at professional level, cricket is popular among the people of Delhi. Delhi cricket team is the first-class cricket team of Delhi, that plays in India's domestic competition, the Ranji Trophy, they have been runners-up seven. In the Duleep and Deodhar Trophy, Delhi comes under the North Zone team.
Delhi is the home of Indian Premier League franchise Delhi Capitals, owned by the GMR Group and JSW Group. Delhi District Cricket Association is the governing body of cricket in Delhi region, it manages the Feroz Shah Kotla Ground and Rajat Sharma is the current president of DDCA Executive Committee. DDCA affiliates many cricket clubs in Delhi. Football is a popular sport in Delhi second to cricket; the only football stadium in Delhi is the Ambedkar Stadium which has a total capacity of 20,000 people, can be expanded up to 50,000 people. Delhi hosts the Nehru Cup, international football tournament organised by the All India Football Federation. Delhi is the home of many amateur and professional football club: Delhi Dynamos FC, this professional football club competes in the Indian Super League. Hindustan Football Club, the club plays in the Delhi Senior Division league. In the 2004/05 season, the club played in the 2nd division of National Football League; the club is trying to qualify for the 2nd round of I-league qualification.
New Delhi Heroes FC, the club plays in the Second Division of the I-League. Tennis in Delhi has been played since British Raj. Delhi Lawn Tennis Association is the governing body of tennis in Delhi, its headquarters are located at African Avenue. R. K. Khanna Tennis Complex is the main tennis stadium in Delhi-NCR for the international tournaments, it hosts the headquarters of the All India Tennis Association, the national governing body of tennis in India. Delhi is home to the Delhi Capitals, 2016 Champion of India's top professional basketball division, the UBA Pro Basketball League. Swimming is a popular activity in Delhi due to the hot weather. A 2014 news report said that people were willing to queue for seven hours for an opportunity to join a "government-run sports complex, featuring an Olympic-sized swimming pool." Ambedkar Stadium Bharat Nagar Sports Complex Central Secretariat Ground Chhatrasal Stadium Dayanand Anglo Vedic College Ground Delhi University Stadium Dussehra Ground Dr. Karni Singh Shooting Range Feroz Shah Kotla Ground Feroz Shah Kotla Ground No 2 Feroz Shah Kotla Ground No 3 Gargi College Ground Guru Gobind Singh College of Commerce Ground Harbax Singh Stadium Indira Gandhi Arena Indira Gandhi Indoor Stadium Jamia Millia Islamia University Ground Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Delhi Karnail Singh Stadium Major Dhyan Chand National Stadium Najafgarh Stadium, Najafgarh Palam A Stadium Palam B Stadium Rajiv Gandhi Stadium, Bawana R.
K. Khanna Tennis Complex Roshanara Club Ground Rohini Sports Complex Saket Sports Complex Siri Fort Sports Complex SPM Swimming Pool Complex Talkatora Stadium Thyagaraj Sports Complex Yamuna Sports Complex Sport in India 2011 Cricket World Cup Indian Grand Prix DDCA Official Website DLTA Official Website
Ghat, a term used in the Indian subcontinent, depending on the context could refer either to a range of stepped-hills with valleys, such as the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats. Roads passing through ghats are called Ghat Roads; the word'Ghat' has been derived from Dravidian etymons such as Tamil/Kannada words Kaatu/Kaadu or Telugu katta and gattu The word ghati means valley. In Marathi, Hindi and Kannada, ghat is a term used to identify a difficult passage over a mountain. One such passage is the Bhor Ghat that connects the towns Khopoli and Khandala, on NH 4 about 80 kilometres north of Mumbai. Charmadi Ghat of Karnataka is notable. In many cases, the term is used to refer to a mountain range itself, as in the Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.'Ghattam' in Malayalam refers to mountain ranges when used with the name of the ranges being addressed, while the passage road would be called a'churam'. Eastern Ghats on the east coast of India and Western Ghats on the west coast of India are the largest ghats in pensular India.
Western Ghats known as Sahyadri, is a mountain range covers an area of 140,000 km² in a stretch of 1,600 km parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, traverse the States of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa and Gujarat. It is a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the eight "hottest hot-spots" of biological diversity in the world, it is sometimes called the Great Escarpment of India.. It is a biodiversity hotspot that contains a large proportion of the country's fauna. According to UNESCO, Western Ghats are older than Himalayan mountains, it influences Indian monsoon weather patterns by intercepting the rain-laden monsoon winds that sweep in from the south-west during late summer. The range runs north to south along the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, separates the plateau from a narrow coastal plain, called Konkan, along the Arabian Sea. A total of thirty-nine properties including national parks, wildlife sanctuaries and reserve forests were designated as world heritage sites - twenty in Kerala, ten in Karnataka, five in Tamil Nadu and four in Maharashtra.
Ghati people means the people of hills or ghats, is an exonym used for the marathi people specially those from the villages in Western Ghats in pejorative terms. Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast; the Eastern Ghats run from the northern Odisha through Andhra Pradesh to Tamil Nadu in the south passing some parts of Karnataka and in the Wayanad region of Kerala. They are eroded and cut through by four major rivers of peninsular India, viz. Godavari, Mahanadi and Kaveri; the mountain ranges run parallel to the Bay of Bengal. The Deccan Plateau lies to the west between the Eastern Ghats and Western Ghats; the coastal plains, including the Coromandel Coast region, lie between the Eastern Ghats and the Bay of Bengal. The Eastern Ghats are not as high as the Western Ghats; the Eastern Ghats are older than the Western Ghats, have a complex geologic history related to the assembly and breakup of the ancient supercontinent of Rodinia and the assembly of the Gondwana supercontinent.
The Eastern Ghats are made up of charnockites, granite gneiss, metamorphic gneisses and quartzite rock formations. The structure of the Eastern Ghats includes strike-slip faults all along its range. Limestone and iron ore are found in the Eastern Ghats hill ranges; the numerous significant ghats along the Ganges are the Varanasi ghats and generically the "ghats of the Ganges". Most of these were constructed under the patronage of various Maratha rulers such as Ahilyabai Holkar in the 18th century. In Madhya Pradesh in central India there are further significant ghats along the Narmada River. People who live on the steps are called ghats. Ghats such as these are useful for religious rites. "Ghat" and "Ghata" is a suffix used in several place names across the subcontinent. This is an incomplete list: Balaghat, Madhya Pradesh, India Balurghat, West Bengal, India Batiaghata, Bangladesh Charghat, Bangladesh Chunarughat, Bangladesh Gaighat, Nepal Ghatail, Bangladesh Ghoraghat, Bangladesh Goalandaghat, Bangladesh Golaghat, India Gowainghat, Bangladesh Haluaghat, Bangladesh Kanaighat, Bangladesh Pasighat, Arunachal Pradesh, India Patharghata, Bangladesh Saghata, Bangladesh The word is used in some places outside the Indian subcontinent where there are Indian communities.
For example, in George Town, Penang in Malaysia, the label "Ghaut" is used to identify the extensions of those streets which ended in ghats before reclamation of the quayside (e.g. Church St Ghaut - in Malay Gat Lebuh Gereja - is the name of the extension of Church St beyond where the street u
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was a freedom fighter, the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence, he emerged as an eminent leader of the Indian independence movement under the tutelage of Mahatma Gandhi and served India as Prime Minister from its establishment as an independent nation in 1947 until his death in 1964. He has been described by the Amar Chitra Katha as the architect of India, he was known as Pandit Nehru due to his roots with the Kashmiri Pandit community while Indian children knew him as Chacha Nehru. The son of Motilal Nehru, a prominent lawyer and nationalist statesman and Swaroop Rani, Nehru was a graduate of Trinity College and the Inner Temple, where he trained to be a barrister. Upon his return to India, he enrolled at the Allahabad High Court and took an interest in national politics, which replaced his legal practice. A committed nationalist since his teenage years, he became a rising figure in Indian politics during the upheavals of the 1910s.
He became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s, of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi. As Congress President in 1929, Nehru called for complete independence from the British Raj and instigated the Congress's decisive shift towards the left. Nehru and the Congress dominated Indian politics during the 1930s as the country moved towards independence, his idea of a secular nation-state was validated when the Congress, under his leadership, swept the 1937 provincial elections and formed the government in several provinces. But these achievements were compromised in the aftermath of the Quit India Movement in 1942, which saw the British crush the Congress as a political organisation. Nehru, who had reluctantly heeded Gandhi's call for immediate independence, for he had desired to support the Allied war effort during World War II, came out of a lengthy prison term to a much altered political landscape; the Muslim League under his old Congress colleague and now opponent, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, had come to dominate Muslim politics in India.
Negotiations between Congress and Muslim League for power sharing failed and gave way to the independence and bloody partition of India in 1947. Nehru was elected by the Congress to assume office as independent India's first Prime Minister, although the question of leadership had been settled as far back as 1941, when Gandhi acknowledged Nehru as his political heir and successor; as Prime Minister, he set out to realise his vision of India. The Constitution of India was enacted in 1950, after which he embarked on an ambitious program of economic and political reforms. Chiefly, he oversaw India's transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party system. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the Non-Aligned Movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in South Asia. Under Nehru's leadership, the Congress emerged as a catch-all party, dominating national and state-level politics and winning consecutive elections in 1951, 1957, 1962, he remained popular with the people of India in spite of political troubles in his final years and failure of leadership during the 1962 Sino-Indian War.
In India, his birthday is celebrated as Bal Diwas. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India, his father, Motilal Nehru, a self-made wealthy barrister who belonged to the Kashmiri Pandit community, served twice as President of the Indian National Congress, in 1919 and 1928. His mother, Swaruprani Thussu, who came from a well-known Kashmiri Brahmin family settled in Lahore, was Motilal's second wife, the first having died in child birth. Jawaharlal was the eldest of three children; the elder sister, Vijaya Lakshmi became the first female president of the United Nations General Assembly. The youngest sister, Krishna Hutheesing, became a noted writer and authored several books on her brother. Nehru described his childhood as a "sheltered and uneventful one", he grew up in an atmosphere of privilege at wealthy homes including a palatial estate called the Anand Bhavan. His father had him educated at home by private tutors. Under the influence of a tutor, Ferdinand T. Brooks, he became interested in theosophy.
He was subsequently initiated into the Theosophical Society at age thirteen by family friend Annie Besant. However, his interest in theosophy did not prove to be enduring and he left the society shortly after Brooks departed as his tutor, he wrote: "for nearly three years was with me and in many ways he influenced me greatly". Nehru's theosophical interests had induced him to the study of the Hindu scriptures. According to Bal Ram Nanda, these scriptures were Nehru's "first introduction to the religious and cultural heritage of.... provided Nehru the initial impulse for long intellectual quest which culminated...in The Discovery of India." Nehru became an ardent nationalist during his youth. The Second Boer War and the Russo-Japanese War intensified his feelings. About the latter he wrote, " Japanese victories stirred up my enthusiasm... Nationalistic ideas filled my mind... I mused of Indian freedom and Asiatic freedom from the thraldom of Europe." When he had begun his institutional schooling in 1905 at Harrow, a leading school in England, he was influenced by G. M. Trevelyan's Garibaldi books, which he had received as prizes for academic merit.
He viewed Garibaldi as a revolutionary her
Gyani Zail Singh was the seventh President of India serving from 1982 to 1987. Prior to his presidency, he was a politician with the Indian National Congress party, had held several ministerial posts in the Union Cabinet, including that of Home Minister, he served as the Secretary-General of the Non-Aligned Movement from 1983 to 1986. His presidency was marked by Operation Blue Star, the assassination of Indira Gandhi, the 1984 anti-Sikh riots, he died of injuries in 1994 after a car accident. He was born in Faridkot district on 5 May 1916 to Kishan Singh, he was named Jarnail, meaning “General”, but as a young man, he changed his first name to Zail after being imprisoned several times for opposing the rule of the maharajah of Faridkot. He was a Sikh by religion, was given the title of Gyani, as he was educated and learned about Guru Granth Sahib at Shaheed Sikh Missionary College in Amritsar. In 1947, with the reorganization of India along secular lines, he opposed Harindar Singh Brar, ruler of Faridkot State and was incarcerated and tortured for five years.
He was called on to be the Revenue Minister of the formed Patiala and East Punjab States Union, under Chief Minister Gian Singh Rarewala in 1949 and became Minister of Agriculture in 1951. From 1956 to 1962, he was a member of the Rajya Sabha. Zail Singh was elected as a Congress Chief Minister of Punjab in 1972, he arranged massive religious gatherings, started public functions with a traditional Sikh prayer, inaugurated a highway named after Guru Gobind Singh, named a township after the Guru's son. He created a lifelong pension scheme for the freedom fighters of the state, he repatriated the remains of Udham Singh from London and articles belonging to Guru Gobind Singh. In 1980, Zail Singh was elected to the 7th Lok Sabha, appointed to join Indira Gandhi's cabinet as Minister of Home Affairs. In 1982 he was unanimously nominated to serve as the President. Nonetheless, some in the media felt that the President had been chosen for being an Indira loyalist rather than an eminent person. "If my leader had said I should pick up a broom and be a sweeper, I would have done that.
She chose me to be President," Singh was quoted to have said after his election. He took the oath of office on 25 July 1982, he was the first Sikh to hold the office. He served beside Gandhi, protocol dictated that he should be briefed every week by her on the affairs of the state. On 31 May 1984, The day before Operation Blue Star, he met with Gandhi for more than an hour, but she omitted sharing a word about her plan. Following the operation he was pressured to resign from his post by Sikhs, he decided against resignation fearing to aggravate the situation on advice from Yogi Bhajan. He was subsequently called before the Akal Takhat to apologize and explain his inaction at the desecration of the Harimandir Sahib and killing of innocent Sikhs. Indira Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October in the same year, he appointed her elder son Rajiv Gandhi as Prime Minister. Zail Singh was awarded the Order of St. Thomas by Catholicos of the East Baselios MarThoma Mathews I during the Catholicate Platinum jubilee celebratory meeting held at Kottayam Nehru Stadium on 12 September 1982.
Singh used a pocket veto to refuse assent to the "Post Office Bill" in 1986 to show his opposition to the bill. The bill was withdrawn by the V. P. Singh Government in 1990. On 29 November 1994, Zail Singh suffered multiple injuries following a motor accident near Kiratpur Sahib in Ropar district when a truck driving down the wrong side of the road hit the car he was travelling in. Singh died in Chandigarh where he had been undergoing treatment on Christmas Day in 1994, aged 78; the Government of India announced seven days of official mourning following his death. He was cremated at the Raj Ghat Memorial in Delhi, he is survived by his two daughters. He was survived by his wife, who outlived him for seven years and died on 12 May 2002. A commemorative postage stamp was issued by India's Department of Posts on the occasion of Singh's first death anniversary in 1995. Giani Zail Singh College Of Engineering & Technology Biography of Giani Zail Singh Zail Singh at Encyclopaedia Britannica
President of India
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of India and the legislative assemblies of each of India's states and territories, who themselves are all directly elected. Although the Article 53 of the Constitution of India states that the president can exercise his powers directly or by subordinate authority, with few exceptions, all of the executive powers vested in the president are, in practice, exercised by the prime minister with the help of the Council of Ministers; the president is bound by the constitution to act on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet as long as the advice is not violating the constitution. India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947 as a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as king, represented in the country by a governor-general. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of B.
R. Ambedkar, undertook the process of drafting a new constitution for the country; the Constitution of India was enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, with Rajendra Prasad as its first incumbent; the Indian constitution accords with the president, the responsibility and authority to defend and protect the Constitution of India and its rule of law. Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after the President's assent; the president shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. The president is the foremost, most empowered and prompt defender of the constitution, who has pre-emptive power for ensuring constitutionality in the actions of the executive or legislature; the role of the judiciary in upholding the Constitution of India is the second line of defence in nullifying any unconstitutional actions of the executive and legislative entities of the Indian Union.
Under the draft constitution the President occupies the same position as the King under the English Constitution. He is the head of the state but not of the Executive, he does not rule the Nation. He is the symbol of the Nation, his place in the administration is that of a ceremonial device on a seal by which the nation's decisions are made known. The primary duty of the president is to preserve and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath; the president is the common head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions and supervisory powers over the executive and legislative entities of India shall be used in accordance to uphold the constitution. There is no bar on the actions of the president to contest in the court of law. Legislative power is constitutionally vested by the Parliament of India of which the president is the head, to facilitate the lawmaking process per the constitution; the president prorogues them. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha; the president inaugurates parliament by addressing it after the general elections and at the beginning of the first session every year per Article 87.
The Presidential address on these occasions is meant to outline the new policies of the government. All bills passed by the parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the president per Article 111. After a bill is presented to him, the president shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it; as a third option, he can return a bill to parliament, if it is not a money bill, for reconsideration. President may be of the view that a particular bill passed under the legislative powers of parliament is violating the constitution, he can send back the bill with his recommendation to pass the bill under the constituent powers of parliament following the Article 368 procedure. When, after reconsideration, the bill is passed accordingly and presented to the president, with or without amendments, the president cannot withhold his assent from it; the president can withhold his assent to a bill when it is presented to him thereby exercising a pocket veto on the advice of prime minister or council of ministers per Article 74 if it is inconsistent to the constitution.
Article 143 gave power to the president to consult the supreme court about the constitutional validity of an issue. The president shall assent to constitutional amendment bills without power to withhold the bills per Article 368; when either of the two Houses of the Parliament of India is not in session, if the government feels the need for an immediate procedure, the president can promulgate ordinances which have the same force and effect as an act passed by parliament under its legislative powers. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval. Ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Under Article 123, the president as the upholder of the constitution shall be satisfied that immediate action is mandatory as advised by the union cabinet and he is confident that the government commands majority support in the parliament needed for the passing of the ordin
The Yamuna known as the Jumna or Jamuna, is the second largest tributary river of the Ganges and the longest tributary in India. Originating from the Yamunotri Glacier at a height of 6,387 metres on the southwestern slopes of Banderpooch peaks of the Lower Himalaya in Uttarakhand, it travels a total length of 1,376 kilometres and has a drainage system of 366,223 square kilometres, 40.2% of the entire Ganges Basin. It merges with the Ganges at Triveni Sangam, a site of the Kumbh Mela, a Hindu festival held every 12 years, it crosses several states: Haryana and Uttar Pradesh, passing by Uttarakhand and Delhi, meeting its tributaries on the way, including Tons, its largest tributary, its longest tributary which has its own large basin, followed by Sindh, the Betwa, Ken. From Uttaranchal, the river flows into the state of Himachal Pradesh. After passing Paonta Sahib, Yamuna flows along the boundary of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh and after exiting Haryana it continues to flow till it merges with the river Ganga at Sangam or Prayag in Allahbad.
It helps create the fertile alluvial Yamuna-Ganges Doab region between itself and the Ganges in the Indo-Gangetic plain. Nearly 57 million people depend on the Yamuna's waters. With an annual flow of about 10,000 cubic billion metres and usage of 4,400 cbm, the river accounts for more than 70 per cent of Delhi's water supply. Like the Ganges, the Yamuna is venerated in Hinduism and worshipped as the goddess Yamuna. In Hindu mythology she is the daughter of the Sun Deva and the sister of Yama, the Deva of Death, hence known as Yami. According to popular legends, bathing in its sacred waters frees one from the torments of death. At the Hathni Kund Barrage, its waters are diverted into two large canals: the Western Yamuna Canal flowing towards Haryana and the Eastern Yamuna Canal towards Uttar Pradesh. Beyond that point the Yamuna is joined only by the Somb, a seasonal rivulet from Haryana, by the polluted Hindon River near Noida, so that it continues only as a trickling sewage-bearing drain before joining the Chambal at Pachnada in the Etawah District of Uttar Pradesh.
The water of Yamuna is of "reasonably good quality" through its length from Yamunotri in the Himalayas to Wazirabad barrage in Delhi, about 375 kilometres. One official described the river as a "sewage drain" with biochemical oxygen demand values ranging from 14 to 28 mg/l and high coliform content. There are three main sources of pollution in the river: household and municipal disposal sites, soil erosion resulting from deforestation occurring to make way for agriculture, resulting chemical wash-off from fertilizers and pesticides and run-off from commercial activity and industrial sites; the Yamuna from its origin at Yamunotri to Okhla barrage is called the Upper Yamuna. The present Sarsuti river which originates in the Shivalik hills in Himachal and Haryana border and merges with Ghaggar River near Pehowa is the palaeochannel of Yamuna. Yamuna changed its course to the east due to a shift in the slope of the earth's crust caused by plate tectonics; the source of Yamuna lies in the Yamunotri Glacier at an elevation of 6,387 metres, on the south-western slopes of Banderpooch peaks, which lie in the Mussoorie range of the Lower Himalayas, north of Haridwar in Uttarkashi district, Uttarakhand.
Yamunotri temple, a shrine dedicated to the goddess Yamuna, is one of the holiest shrines in Hinduism, part of the Chota Char Dham Yatra circuit. Standing close to the temple, on its 13-kilometre trek route that follows the right bank of the river, lies Markendeya Tirtha, where the sage Markandeya wrote the Markandeya Purana. From Markendeya Tirtha, the river flows southwards for about 200 kilometres, through the Lower Himalayas and the Shivalik Hills Range. Morainic deposits are found along the steep Upper Yamuna, highlighted with geomorphic features such as interlocking spurs, steep rock benches and stream terraces. Large terraces formed over a long period of time can be seen in the lower course of the river, such as those near Naugoan. An important part of its early catchment area, totalling 2,320 square kilometres, lies in Himachal Pradesh; the Tons, Yamana's largest tribuary, drains a large portion of the upper catchment area and holds more water than the main stream. It rises from merges after Kalsi near Dehradun.
The drainage system of the river stretches between Giri-Sutlej catchment in Himachal and Yamuna-Bhilangna catchment in Garhwal draining the ridge of Shimla. Kalanag is the highest point of the Yamuna basin. Other tributaries in the region are the Giri, Rishi Ganga, Hanuman Ganga and Bata, which drain the upper catchment area of the Yamuna basin. From the upper catchment area, the river descends onto the plains of Doon Valley, at Dak Pathar near Dehradun. Flowing through the Dakpathar Barrage, the water is diverted into a canal for power generation. Further downstream, the Assan River joins the Yamuna at the Asan Barrage, which hosts a bird sanctuary. After passing the Sikh pilgrimage town of Paonta Sahib, the Yamuna reaches Tajewala in Yamuna Nagar district of Haryana. A dam built here in 1873 is the origin of two important canals, the Western and Eastern Yamuna Canals, which irrigate the states of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh; the Western Yamuna Canal (W