Lata Mangeshkar is an Indian playback singer and music director. She is one of the best-known and most respected playback singers in South Asia India, she has recorded songs in over a thousand Hindi films and has sung songs in over thirty-six regional Indian languages and foreign languages, though in Marathi and Bengali. The Dadasaheb Phalke Award was bestowed on her in 1989 by the Government of India. In 2001, in recognition of her contributions to the nation, she was awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour and is only the second vocalist, after M. S. Subbulakshmi, to receive this honour. France conferred on her its highest civilian award in 2007, she is the recipient of three National Film Awards, 15 Bengal Film Journalists' Association Awards, four Filmfare Best Female Playback Awards, two Filmfare Special Awards, Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award and many more. In 1974, she became the first Indian to perform in the Royal Albert Hall, she has four siblings—Meena Khadikar, Asha Bhosle, Usha Mangeshkar, Hridaynath Mangeshkar—of whom she is the eldest.
Lata Mangeshkar was born in 1929, the eldest daughter of Master Deenanath Mangeshkar, a Marathi musician and his Gujarati wife Shevanti in Indore. Her father, Pandit Deenanath Mangeshkar, was a classical theatre actor, her mother, Shevanti, a Gujarati woman from Thalner, Bombay Presidency, was Deenanath's second wife. Mangeshkar's paternal grandfather, Ganesh Bhatt Navathe Hardikar, was a Goan Padye Brahmin priest who performed the abhishekam of the Shiva lingam at the Mangueshi Temple in Goa. Mangeshkar's maternal grandfather was Gujarati businessman, Seth Haridas Ramdas Lad, a prosperous businessman and landlord of Thalner; the family's last name used to be Hardikar. Lata was named "Hema" at her birth, her parents renamed her Lata after a female character, Latika, in one of her father's plays, BhaawBandhan. Mangeshkar the eldest child of the family. Meena, Asha and Hridaynath, in birth order, are her siblings, all accomplished singers and musicians. Mangeshkar received her first music lesson from her father.
At the age of five, she started to work as an actress in her father's musical plays. On the first day in school, she started teaching songs to other children; when the teacher stopped her, she was so angry. Other sources cite that she left school because they would not allow her to bring Asha with her, as she would bring her younger sister with her. In 1942, when Mangeshkar was 13, her father died of heart disease. Master Vinayak, the owner of Navyug Chitrapat movie company and a close friend of the Mangeshkar family, took care of them, he helped Lata get started in a career as a actress. Mangeshkar sang the song "Naachu Yaa Gade, Khelu Saari Mani Haus Bhaari", composed by Sadashivrao Nevrekar for Vasant Joglekar's Marathi movie Kiti Hasaal, but the song was dropped from the final cut. Vinayak gave her a small role in Navyug Chitrapat's Marathi movie Pahili Mangalaa-gaur, in which she sang "Natali Chaitraachi Navalaai", composed by Dada Chandekar, her first Hindi song was "Mata Ek Sapoot Ki Duniya Badal De Tu" for the Marathi film Gajaabhaau.
Mangeshkar moved to Mumbai in 1945. She started taking lessons in Hindustani classical music from Ustad Aman Ali Khan of Bhendibazaar Gharana, she sang "Paa Lagoon Kar Jori" for Vasant Joglekar's Hindi-language movie Aap Ki Seva Mein, composed by Datta Davjekar. The dance in the film was performed by Rohini Bhate who became a famous classical dancer. Mangeshkar and her sister Asha played minor roles in Badi Maa. In that movie, Lata sang a bhajan, "Maata Tere Charnon Mein." She was introduced to music director Vasant Desai during the recording of Vinayak's second Hindi-language movie, Subhadra. After Vinayak's death in 1948, music director Ghulam Haider mentored her as a singer, he introduced Mangeshkar to producer Sashadhar Mukherjee, working on the movie Shaheed, but Mukherjee dismissed Mangeshkar's voice as "too thin". An annoyed Haider responded that in coming years producers and directors would "fall at Lata's feet" and "beg her" to sing in their movies. Haider gave Lata her first major break with the song "Dil Mera Toda, Mujhe Kahin Ka Na Chhora"—lyrics by Nazim Panipati—in the movie Majboor, which became her first big breakthrough film hit.
In an interview on her 84th birthday, in September 2013, Lata herself declared, "Ghulam Haider is my Godfather. He was the first music director who showed complete faith in my talent."Initially, Mangeshkar is said to have imitated the acclaimed singer Noor Jehan, but she developed her own style of singing. Lyrics of songs in Hindi movies are composed by Urdu poets and contain a higher proportion of Urdu words, including the dialogue. Actor Dilip Kumar once made a mildly disapproving remark about Mangeshkar's Maharashtrian accent while singing Hindi/Urdu songs.
University of Madras
University of Madras is a public state university in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India. Established in 1857, it is one of the oldest universities in India; the university was incorporated by an act of the Legislative Council of India. It is a collegiate research university and has six campuses in the city viz. Chepauk, Guindy, Taramani and Chetpet. At present, there are 233 plus courses offered under 87 academic departments grouped under 19 schools, covering diverse areas such as sciences, social sciences, humanities and medicine along with 109 affiliated colleges and 52 approved research institutions, it is one of the top Universities in India. The National Assessment and Accreditation Council has conferred'five star' accreditation to the university and it has been given the status of'University with Potential for Excellence' by the University Grants Commission. University of Madras is the alma mater of two Indian Physics Nobel Laureates, CV Raman and Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar, five Presidents of India, including A.
P. J. Abdul Kalam, several notable mathematicians including Srinivasa Ramanujan; the first demand for higher education in Madras Presidency was given in a public address to Lord John Elphinstone, Governor of Madras, signed by 70,000 residents when the Governor in Council was contemplating "some effective and liberal measures for the establishment of an improved system of national education." This public petition, presented by the Advocate General Mr. George Norton on 11 November 1839, pressed the need for an English college in the city of Madras. Pursuant to this, Lord Elphinstone evolved a plan for the establishment of a central collegiate institution or a ‘university.’ This university had twin departments – a high school for the cultivation of English literature, regional language and science, a college for instruction in the higher branches of literature and science. The University Board was constituted in January 1840 with Mr. George Norton as its president; this was the precursor of Chennai.
A systematic educational policy for India was formulated 14 years by Wood's despatch, which pointed out the rationale for "creating a properly articulated system of education from the primary school to the University." The Dispatch recommended the establishment in the universities of Professorships "for the purposes of the delivery of lectures in various branches of learning including vernacular as well as classical languages." As a result, the University of Madras, organized on the model of the University of London, was incorporated on 5 September 1857 by an Act of the Legislative Council of India. The university progressed and expanded through the 19th century to span the whole of South India, giving birth to universities like Mysore University, Osmania University, Andhra University, Annamalai University, Travancore University presently University of Kerala, Sri Venkateswara University, Madurai Kamaraj University, Bharathidasan University, Bharathiar University, Manonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Anna University, Tamil University, Mother Teresa Women's University, Dr. M.
G. R. Medical University and Animal Sciences University, Periyar University and Dr. Ambedkar Law University. In 1912 endowments were made to the university to establish departments of Indian History, Comparative Philology and Indian Economics. In that year the university had 17 departments, 30 teachers, 69 research scholars; the research and teaching functions of the university were encouraged by the Sadler Commission and the gains of the University were consolidated by the enactment of the Madras University Act of 1923. About this time, the territorial ambit of the Madras University encompassed from Berhampur of Odisha in the North East, Trivandrum of Kerala in the South West and Mangalore of Karnataka in the West and Hyderabad of Andhra Pradesh in the North. Between 1926 and 1939, the university published the comprehensive Tamil Lexicon dictionary, the first among the dictionaries published in any Indian language; the description of the Coat of Arms of the university, designed in 1857, is: "Argent on a Mount issuant from the basement a Tiger passant proper, on a Chief Sable, a Pale Or, between two Elephants heads couped of the field, a lotus flower leaved and slipped of the third, together with this motto Doctrina Vim Promovet Insitam".
The coat of arms colours are: the base is light green, the tiger is yellow on a white background, the elephant is grey on a black background, the lotus is a white flower with olive green leaves, on a gold background. The motto scroll is edged red, with black lettering; the English translation of the motto of the University of Madras is: "Learning promotes natural talent." The university is made up of over 20 schools and 85 departments. The twenty schools are: Schools are further divided into departments; the departments are: The university is spread over six campuses, viz. Chepauk, Guindy, Taramani and Maduravoyal; the Chepauk campus of the university houses the VC's secretariat, central library, centenary auditorium and the historic Senate House. The oriental and Indian languages departments are located in the Marina Campus; the Guindy campus incorporates the natural sciences departments while the campus at Taramani houses the school of basic medical sciences. The sports union and the botanical
Gangubai Hangal was an Indian singer of the khyal genre of Hindustani classical music, known for her deep and powerful voice. Hangal belonged to the Kirana gharana. Gangubai Hangal was born in Dharwad to Chikkurao Nadiger, an agriculturist and Ambabai, a vocalist of Carnatic music. Hangal received only elementary education and her family shifted to Hubli in 1928 so that Gangubai could study Hindustani music, she began to train formally aged 13 with Krishnacharya Hulgur, a kinnari player, studying Hindustani classical music. From Hulgur, Gangubai learned sixty compositions in one year before he stopped teaching her after an argument about his fees, she learned from Dattopant Desai before studying under Sawai Gandharva, a respected guru. Hangal could only study sporadically under Gandharva when he returned to his home, but she received an intensive training of three years after he relocated permanently to Hubli. Hangal's mother's family was considered to be of low social status and for women of her generation singing was not considered appropriate employment.
She performed all over India and for All India Radio stations until 1945. Hangal had performed light classical genres, including bhajan and thumri, but concentrated on khyal. However, she refused to sing light classical, saying she sang only ragas. Hangal served as honorary music professor of the Karnataka University, she gave her last concert in March 2006 to mark her 75th career year. She had overcome bone marrow cancer in 2003, died of cardiac arrest at the age of 96, on 21 July 2009, in Hubli, where she resided, she had her eyes donated to increase awareness for organ donation. Hangal married at age 16 to a Brahmin lawyer, they had two sons, Narayan Rao and Babu Rao, one daughter, who died from cancer in 2004, aged 75. Gangubai Hangal received a number of awards, which include: Karnataka Sangeet Nritya Academy Award, 1962 Padma Bhushan, 1971 Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, 1973 Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, 1996 Padma Vibhushan, 2002The Karnataka state government declared two days of mourning for Hangal.
A state funeral was announced for 22 July in Hubli by the district commissioner of the Dharwad district. In 2008, The State Government of Karnataka decided to name the proposed Karnataka State Music University, Mysore after Gangubhai Hangal. Subsequently, the Karnataka State Dr. Gangubai Hangal Music and Performing Arts University Act, 2009 has been passed by the State Legislature. Presently the Karnataka State Dr. Gangubhai Hangal Music and Performing Arts University operates from Mysore, Karnataka. Gangothri — the birthplace of Gangubai Hangal — has been converted into a museum by the Government of Karnataka. Dr Gangubai Hangal Gurukul in Hubli trains artists in traditional Guru-Shishya parampara to become performing artists. Nanna Badukina Haadu, as told to Mr. N. K. Kulkarni, translated into English by G. N. Hangal, published by Hubli. Bhimsen Joshi Kundgol Hubli Dharwad Karnataka Gangubai Hangal at AllMusic Gangubai Hangal page at Vijaya Parrikar Library of Indian Classical Music Gangubai Hangal Detailed Biography Gangubai Hangal feted on her 94th birthday Gangubai Hangal auf culturebase.net
Kelucharan Mohapatra was a legendary Indian classical dancer and exponent of Odissi dance, credited with the revival and popularizing of this classical dance form in the 20th century. He is the first person to receive the Padma Vibhushan from Odisha. A noted Sanskrit poet of India writes on this Guru: Saango-paanga-subhangi-laasya-madhuram samteerna-nrutyaarnavam, which translates as - "Each fraction of his dancing body leads to paramount sweetness, through miraculous poses and postures. In fact, Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra crossed the ocean of styles." In his youth, Kelucharan Mohapatra performed Gotipua - a traditional dance form of Odisha where young boys dress up as woman to praise Lord Jagannath. In his life he did extensive research on Gotipua and Mahari dance, which lead him to restructure Odissi dance. Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra was a master in Percussion instruments - Mridangam and Tabla, which resonates in his dance compositions, he was skilled in the traditional Pattachitra painting. Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra along with his wife, herself a dancer, their son Ratikant Mohapatra built Srjan in 1993.
Sangeet Natak Akademi Award, 1966 Padma Shri, 1974 Padma Bhushan, 1988 Sangeet Natak Akademi Fellowship, 1991 Padma Vibhushan, 2000 Kalidas Samman from Madhya Pradesh government "Odissi is not a mere dance form to entertain people but to inspire and elevate. I don't dance but pray in compassion and the spectators say that this `form' is dancing." "The real dance must convey the feeling of undivided existence, that a spectator can feel that he is not different from the thing observed". " Dance has not only made my life purposeful, it has been my whole life... Whatever I am today is due to the blessings of my guru." The Making of a Guru: Kelucharan Mohapatra, His Life and Times, by Ileana Citaristi. Published by Manohar, 2001. ISBN 81-7304-369-8; the Dancing Phenomenon: mad boy, by Sharon Lowen, Kelucharan Mohapatra, Avinash Pasricha. Lustre Press, Roli Books, 2001. ISBN 81-7436-179-0. Mad boy profile from www.odissidance.com Homage to a Guru at Rediff.comVideo linksmad boy — Orissi dance - Gita Govinda on YouTube Guru Kelucharan Mohapatra — Geeta Govinda on YouTube Dancer Madhavi Mudgal explains, a performance of Kelucharan Mohapatra on YouTube Kelucharan Mohapatra on IMDb
Asha Bhosle, is an Indian playback singer. She is best known for her playback singing in Hindi cinema. Bhosle's career has spanned over six decades, she has done playback singing for over a thousand Bollywood movies. In addition, she has recorded several private albums and participated in numerous solo concerts in India and abroad. Bhosle is the sister of playback singer Lata Mangeshkar. Renowned for her voice range and credited for her versatility, Bhosle's work includes film music, ghazals, traditional Indian classical music, folk songs and Rabindra Sangeets. Apart from Hindi, she has sung in over 20 Indian and foreign languages. In 2006, Asha Bhosle stated that she had sung over 12,000 songs, a figure repeated by several other sources. In 2011, she was acknowledged by the Guinness Book of World Records as the most recorded artist in music history; the Government of India honoured her with the Dadasaheb Phalke Award in 2000 and the Padma Vibhushan in 2008. In 2013, she made her debut as an actress in the film Mai, received critical acclaim for her performance.
Asha Bhosle was born in the small hamlet of Goar in Sangli in the salute princely state of Sangli, into the musical family of Master Deenanath Mangeshkar, who belongs to the Marathi-speaking Gomantak Maratha Samaj. Her father was an actor and classical singer on Marathi Musical stage; when she was nine years old, her father died. The family moved from Pune to Kolhapur and to Mumbai, she and her elder sister Lata Mangeshkar began acting in films to support their family. She sang her first film song'"Chala Chala Nav Bala" for the Marathi film Majha Bal; the music for the film was composed by Datta Davjekar. She made her Hindi film debut, her first solo Hindi film song was for the movie Raat Ki Raani. At the age of 16, she eloped with 31-year-old Ganpatrao Bhosle, marrying him against her family's wishes. In the early 1960s, prominent playback singers like Geeta Dutt, Shamshad Begum, Lata Mangeshkar dominated the singing for the female lead and the big films. Asha used to get the assignments they refused: singing for the bad girls and vamps, or songs in the second-grade movies.
In the 1950s, she sang more songs than most playback singers in Bollywood. Most of these were in low budget B- or C-grade films, her earliest songs were composed by A R Qureshi, Sajjad Hussain, Ghulam Mohammed, most of these songs failed to do well. Singing in Sangdil, composed by Sajjad Hussain, she got reasonable recognition. Film director Bimal Roy gave her a chance to sing in Parineeta. Raj Kapoor signed her to sing "Nanhe Munne Bachche" with Mohammed Rafi in Boot Polish, which gained popularity. O. P. Nayyar gave Asha a break in CID, she first achieved success in B. R. Chopra's Naya Daur, composed by him, her duets with Rafi like "Maang Ke Saath Tumhara", "Saathi Haath Badhana" and "Uden Jab Jab Zulfein Teri", penned by Sahir Ludhianvi, earned her recognition. It was the first time. Chopra approached her for several of his productions, including Gumrah, Hamraaz, Aadmi Aur Insaan and Dhund. Nayyar's future collaboration with Bhosle resulted in success, she established her status and received the patronage of such composers as Sachin Dev Burman and Ravi.
Bhosle and Nayyar had a personal parting of ways in the 1970s. In 1966, Bhosle's performances in the duets from one of music director R. D. Burman's first soundtracks, for the movie Teesri Manzil, won popular acclaim; when she first heard the dance number "Aaja Aaja", she felt she would not be able to sing this westernised tune. While Burman offered to change the music, she refused, she completed the song after ten days of rehearsals, "Aaja Aaja", along with such other songs as "O Haseena Zulfonwali" and "O Mere Sona Re", became successful. Shammi Kapoor, the film's leading actor, was once quoted as saying– "If I did not have Mohammad Rafi to sing for me, I would have got Asha Bhosle to do the job". Bhosle's collaboration with Burman resulted in a marriage. During the 1960-70s, she was the voice of Bollywood's actress and dancer, Helen, on whom "O Haseena Zulfon Wali" was picturised, it is said that Helen would attend her recording sessions so that she could understand the song better and plan dance steps accordingly.
Some of their other popular numbers include "Piya Tu Ab To Aaja" and "Yeh Mera Dil", among others. By the 1980s, although regarded for her abilities and versatility, had sometimes been stereotyped as a "cabaret singer" and a "pop crooner". In 1981 she attempted a different genre by singing several ghazals for the Rekha-starrer Umrao Jaan, including "Dil Cheez Kya Hai", "In Aankhon Ki Masti Ke", "Yeh Kya Jagah Hai Doston" and "Justaju Jiski Thi"; the film's music director Khayyam, had lowered her pitch by half a note. Bhosle herself expressed surprise; the ghazals won her the first National Film Award of her career. A few years she won another National Award for the song "Mera Kuchh Saamaan" from Ijaazat. In 1995, 62-year-old Bhosle sang for actress Urmila Matondkar in the movie Rangeela; the soundtrack featured songs like "Tanha Tanha" and "Rangeela Re" sung by her, composed by music director A. R. Rahman, who would go on to record several songs with her. During the 2000s, several of Bhosle's numbers became chartbusters, including "Radha Kaise Na Jale" from Lagaan, "Kambakht
Muhammad Yusuf Khan, better known as Dilip Kumar, is an Indian film actor, producer and activist, known for his work in Hindi cinema. Popularly known as The Tragedy King and The First Khan, he has been credited with bringing realism to film acting since his first film and is regarded as one of the greatest actors of world cinema. Kumar debuted as an actor in the film Jwar Bhata, produced by Bombay Talkies. In a career spanning over six decades, Dilip Kumar worked in over 65 films. Kumar is known for roles in films such as the romantic Andaz, the heartwarming Babul, the impassioned Deedar, the swashbuckling Aan, social drama Daag, the dramatic Devdas, the comical Azaad, Naya Daur, Madhumati, the epic historical Mughal-e-Azam, the social dacoit crime drama Gunga Jamuna, the comedy Ram Aur Shyam. In 1976, Dilip Kumar took a five-year break from film performances and returned with a character role in the film Kranti and continued his career playing leading roles in films such as Shakti and Saudagar.
His last film was Qila. He is the first recipient of the Filmfare Best Actor Award. Critics have acclaimed him as one of the greatest actors in the history of Indian cinema. Dilip Kumar never married her, he married actress Saira Bano in 1966. He and his wife live in the Bandra suburb of Mumbai in the state of Maharashtra in India. Kumar was born Mohammad Yusuf Khan to Ayesha Begum and Lala Ghulam Sarwar Ali Khan in a Muslim Hindkowan-Punjabi Awan family of 12 children on 11 December 1922 at home in the Qissa Khawani Bazaar area of Peshawar, British India, his father was a fruit merchant who owned orchards in Peshawar and Deolali. Mohammad Yusuf Khan was schooled at Barnes School, Nashik, he grew up in the same religiously mixed neighbourhood as Raj Kapoor, his childhood friend, his colleague in the film industry. In 1940, while still in his teens and after an altercation with his father, Mohammad Yusuf Khan left home for Pune in Maharashtra. With the help of a Parsi café-owner and an elderly Anglo-Indian couple, Kumar met a canteen contractor.
Without letting on his family antecedents, he got the job on the merit of his knowledge of good written and spoken English. He set up a sandwich stall at the army club and when the contract ended, he headed home to Mumbai, having saved Rs. 5000. In 1942, anxious to start a venture to help his father with household finances, he met Dr. Masani at Churchgate Station, who asked him to accompany him to Bombay Talkies, in Malad. There he met actress Devika Rani, owner of Bombay Talkies, who asked him to sign up with the company on a salary of Rs. 1250 per month. There he met actor Ashok Kumar, who influenced his acting style by telling him to act "natural", he met Sashadhar Mukherjee, both of these people became close to Kumar over the years. Kumar helped out in the story-writing and scripting department because of his proficiency in Urdu language. Devika Rani requested him to change his name to Dilip Kumar, cast him in a lead role for Jwar Bhata, which marked Kumar's entry into the Hindi film industry.
Dilip Kumar's first film was Jwar Bhata in 1944. After a few more unsuccessful films, it was Jugnu, in which he starred alongside Noor Jehan, that became his first major hit at the box office, his next major hits were the 1948 films Mela. He got his breakthrough role in 1949 with Mehboob Khan's Andaz, in which he starred alongside Raj Kapoor and Nargis. Shabnam released that year was another box office hit Kumar went on to have success in the 1950s playing leading roles in several box office hits such as Jogan, Hulchul, Daag, Amar, Uran Khatola, Insaniyat in which he co-starred with Dev Anand, Naya Daur, Yahudi and Paigham; some of these films established his screen image as the "Tragedy King". Kumar suffered from depression due to portraying many tragic roles and on the advice of his psychiatrist, he took on light-hearted roles. Mehboob Khan's big-budget 1952 swashbuckling musical Aan featured him in one of his first lighter roles and marked his first film to be shot in technicolor and to have a wide release across Europe with a lavish premiere in London.
He had further success with lighter roles as a thief in the comedy Azaad, as a royal prince in the romantic musical Kohinoor He was the first actor to win the Filmfare Best Actor Award and went on to win it a further seven times. He formed popular on-screen pairings with many of the top actresses at the time including Madhubala, Nargis, Meena Kumari and Kamini Kaushal. 9 of his films in the 1950s were ranked in the Top 30 highest-grossing films of the decade. In the 1950s, Dilip Kumar became the first actor to charge ₹1 lakh per film. In 1960, he portrayed Prince Salim in K. Asif's big-budget epic historical film Mughal-e-Azam, the highest-grossing film in Indian film history for 11 years until it was surpassed by 1971 film Haathi Mere Saathi and by the 1975 film Sholay. If adjusted for inflation, Mughal-e-Azam was the highest-grossing Indian film through to the early 2010s, equivalent to over ₹1000 crore in 2011; the film told the story of Prince Salim, who revolts against his father Akbar, falls in love with a courtesan.
The film was most
M. F. Husain
Maqbool Fida Husain was a modern Indian painter of international acclaim, a founding member of Bombay Progressive Artists' Group. Husain is associated with Indian modernism in the 1940s, his early association with the Bombay Progressive Artists' Group used modern technique, was inspired by the "new" India after The Partition of 1947. His narrative paintings, executed in a modified Cubist style, can be caustic and funny as well as serious and sombre, his themes—sometimes treated in series—include topics as diverse as Mohandas K. Gandhi, Mother Teresa, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata, the British raj, motifs of Indian urban and rural life. Early in his painting career, until his death, he enjoyed depicting the lively and free spirit of horses in many of his works. Husain is the internationally recognized Indian artist of the 20th century. Husain is known for his paintings, but is known for his drawings and his work as a printmaker and filmmaker; some of his works stirred controversy, as they depicted traditional deities of India in non-traditional ways including nude portrayals of the deities.
He directed a few movies. In 1967, he received the National Film Award for Best Experimental Film for Through the Eyes of a Painter. In 2004, he directed Meenaxi: A Tale of Three Cities, a film he worked on with his artist son Owais Husain, screened in the Marché du film section of the 2004 Cannes Film Festival. Husain was born on 17 September 1915 in Pandharpur, Maharashtra to a Sulaymani Bohra family who trace their roots back to Gujarat within the last 200 years, originally to Yemen, he picked up taste in art through studying calligraphy. Husain attended the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art in Mumbai. Early in his career Husain painted cinema posters in Mumbai. To earn extra money, he worked for a toy company building toys, he travelled to Gujarat to paint landscapes when he could afford to. Husain developed his painting skills in the 1930s, painting billboards for the growing Bollywood film industry; this was a clique of young artists who wished to break with the nationalist traditions established by the Bengal school of art and to encourage an Indian avant-garde, engaged at an international level.
The artists cite "The Partition" of India and Pakistan 14 August 1947, with its resulting religious rioting and heavy loss of life as their reason for forming The Progressive Artist's Group in Bombay in December 1947. The artists saw the Partition as a "turning point" for India, their new style of art was urged on by, was a turning point for, Indian Art. Husain's first solo exhibit was in 1952 in Zurich, his first U. S. A. exhibit was at India House in New York in 1964. His biography written by Akhilesh "Maqbool" is the most appreciated book published by Rajkamal Prakashan New Delhi He was awarded the prestigious Padma Shri in 1966. In 1967, he made his first film,Through the Eyes of a Painter It was shown at the Berlin International Film Festival and won a Golden Bear short film award. Husain was a special invitee along with Pablo Picasso at the Sao Paulo Biennial in 1971, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan in 1973 and was nominated to the Rajya Sabha in 1986. He was awarded the Padma Vibhushan in 1991.
His paintings hurt the religious sentiments of Hindu nationalist groups, which beginning in the 1990s mounted a campaign of protest against him. The paintings in question were created in 1970, but did not become an issue until 1996, when they were printed in Vichar Mimansa, a Hindi monthly magazine, which published them in an article headlined "M. F. Husain: A Painter or Butcher". In response, eight criminal complaints were filed against him. In 2004, Delhi High Court dismissed these complaints of "promoting enmity between different groups... by painting Hindu goddesses – Durga and Sarswati, compromised by Hindu fundamentalist groups." In 1998 Husain's house was attacked by Hindu fundamentalist groups like Bajrang Dal and art works were vandalised. The leadership of another fundamentalist political party Shiv Sena endorsed the attack. Twenty-six Bajrang Dal activists were arrested by the police. Protests against Husain led to the closure of an exhibition in England, he has produced & directed several movies, including Gaja Gamini.
The film was intended as a tribute to Ms. Dixit herself. In this film she can be seen portraying various forms and manifestations of womanhood including the muse of Kalidasa, the Mona Lisa, a rebel, musical euphoria, he appeared in a scene in film Mohabbat, which had Madhuri Dixit in lead role. In the film, the paintings that were done by Madhuri were Husain's, he went on to make Meenaxi: A Tale of Three Cities. The film was pulled out of cinemas a day after some Muslim organisations raised objections to one of the songs in it; the All-India Ulema Council complained. It argued; the council was supported by Muslim organisations like the Milli Council, All-India Muslim Council, Raza Academy, Jamiat-ul-Ulema-e-Hind and Jamat-e-Islami. Husain's son stated that the words were a phrase referring to divine beauty that were being sung by the central character played by Tabu, he said. Following the wave of protests the enraged artist withdrew his movie from cinemas; the film was well received by the critics and went on to win various awards.
In February 2006, Husain was charged with "hurting sentiments of people" because of his nude port