Tumakuru District is an administrative district in the state of Karnataka in India. It was the part of old Mysuru State, it was formed in 1832 during the days of British commissioner of Mysuru Sir Mark Cubbon as Chitaldroog Division including the area of present Chitradurga and Tumakuru districts headquartered at Tumakuru, Major General Richard Stewart Dobbs was the first collector of the district, key responsible for the establishment of Munro system of administration. In the year 1862 Chitaldroog division was abolished and Tumakuru and Chitradurga established as separate districts by Lewin Bentham Bowring; the district headquarters are located at Tumakuru. The district occupies an area of 10,598 km² and had a population of 2,584,711, of which 19.62% were urban as of 2001. It is a one-and-a-half-hour drive from the capital of Karnataka; the district is known for the production of coconuts, called as'Kalpataru Nadu'. It is the only discontiguous district in Karnataka. Tumakuru District is the second largest district in the state of Karnataka after Belagavi.
Tumakuru District has ten talukas, eleven Assembly constituencies and the District is shared among three Parliamentary constituencies. Tumakuru District shares border with eight districts, the highest in the state; the districts that share the border are Districts of Chitradurga towards north and Chikkamagaluru towards west, Mandya towards south-west and Bengaluru Rural towards south, Chikkaballapura towards east and Ananthapuram towards north-east. It consists chiefly of elevated land intersected by river valleys. A range of hills rising to nearly 4,000 feet crosses it from north to south, forming the watershed between the systems of the Krishna and the Kaveri; the principal streams are the Shimsha. The mineral wealth of Tumakuru is considerable; the slopes of the Devarayanadurga hills are clothed with forests. Wildlife such as leopards,Indian Hyena,bears and wild boar have been recorded here. Although, tigers have been recorded from these forests as late as the 1950s, most recent reports are of stray sightings and need confirmation.
The annual rainfall averages 39 inches. According to the 2011 census Tumkur district has a population of 2,678,980 equal to the nation of Kuwait or the US state of Nevada. According to this census, 2,413,812 are Hindus, 245,923 are Muslims 9130 are Christians, 5067 are Jains; this gives it a ranking of 150th in India. The district ranked 4th place in terms of population in Karnataka after Bengaluru and Mysore; the district has a population density of 253 per square km. Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 3.74%. Tumkur has a sex ratio of 984 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 75.14%. The known history of the Tumkur district begins with the Gangas; the Ganga family ruled over the southern and eastern districts of the State from early in the Christian era to 1025 A. D; the earliest record of the Ganga family found in this district belongs to about 400 A. D. After the Gangas, Tumkur was ruled by the Rastrakutas and the Chalukyas; the Nolambas under these rulers ruled the area for a long time.
The cholas ruled some parts of the district. The Vijayanagara Empire ruled supreme for the part of the 13th to 17th century. During the 18th and 19th century, Tumkur was ruled by the Wodeyars of Mysore until Independence; the Tumkur Town Municipality was set up by the British and Mysore Wodeyars in the 1916. Self-rule of the residents of Tumkur started after the setting up of the municipality. Tumkur was converted into a City Corporation only in 2010 by adding 22 villages adjoining the city; the population is 305,877 as per the 2011 census. Tumkur is now a middle class majority city, with a literacy rate of 80% traders, government employees and medium industrialists, self-employed individuals etc; the GDP of Tumkur is around 166 billion and the total collection of income tax in the last financial year was 800 million. The aspirational level of the citizens is high. Being an agrarian economy, the major plantation crops of Tumkur are arceanuts; the major cash crops are paddy and groundnuts. Iron ore and granite are the major minerals found in Tumkur District.
Owing to its proximity to Bangalore, besides being the gateway to Karnataka, being on the Chennai – Mumbai Industrial Corridor and the infrastructure that Tumkur provides, Tumkur has the potential to be the satellite city to decongest the State Capital of Bangalore. And has been identified as National Investment and Manufacturing Zone. NIMZ of approx. 13500 acres and the HAL Helicopter manufacturing facility 610 acres will be developed as integrated industrial townships with state-of-the art infrastructure and land use on the basis of zoning. Tumkur is home to 24 large scale industries with an investment of 9114.2 million and generating an employment for 6445 persons. The existing 15 medium scale industries and 23804 micro and small Industries employ 132994 persons and account for an investment of close to 7.90 billion. 2000 MW of Solar power plant on 11000 acres in Pavagada to cater to the power needs of Tumkur and adjoining districts. Tumkur is a knowledge hub in the south interior Karnataka and boasts of its own Tumkur University, two medical coll
Master of Music
The Master of Music is, as an academic title, the first graduate degree in Music awarded by universities and conservatories. The M. M. combines advanced studies in an applied area of specialization with graduate-level academic study in subjects such as music history, music theory, or music pedagogy. The degree, which takes one or two years of full-time study to complete, prepares students to be professional performers and composers, according to their area of specialization; the M. M. is required as the minimum teaching credential for university and conservatory instrumental or vocal teaching positions. The M. M. is available in performance, conducting, less music education. In 2005, Boston University launched an online Master of Music program in music education, the only online program at this level as of November 2006; the music education degree may be awarded as a more titled Master of Music Education. The master's in music theory and ethnomusicology is the Master of Arts; some universities in the UK utilize the M.
M. as a special research degree, in which the student undertakes original research and prepares a written thesis or similar document. Programs focusing on preparing musicians for careers in sacred music for churches and houses of worship may alternatively be called Master of Sacred Music. One of the major differences between a typical M. A. degree and the M. M. is that whereas M. A. degree students undertake original research and prepare and submit a thesis or similar research document, M. M. students focus on practical, applied areas, as set out in their M. M. area of specialization, which are instrumental or vocal performance, composition of new music, or conducting (the latter may focus on orchestral conducting, choral conducting, or a combination of both. In M. M. programs, the student spends intensive lesson time with a professor. For singers and instrumentalists, this is with a instrument professor, respectively. For composition students, they take coaching sessions with composer-professors.
For conducting students, they get conducting coaching from a conductor-professor at the university. M. M. students complete applied studies, such as lessons with a professor, take courses within their area of specialization. In many M. M. programs, all of the different M. M. streams take a common core of music theory and music history courses, as these core courses are a necessary background for all three careers. The different streams may have different required courses for each stream. For example, vocal performance students may be required to take an art song class; some programs additionally require a sub-specialization in a cognate area, such as music history or performance practice, which contributes to their area of specialization. For example, a student doing an M. M. in Baroque violin might do a sub-specialization in Baroque music history. Some institutions permit M. M. students to do a sub-specialization in a field outside music that contributes to their professional and academic goals. For example, a student completing a M.
M. in piano pedagogy may be able to do a sub-specialization in the psychology of learning in the university's department of psychology or take a sub-specialization in educational methods in the university's department of education. Doing sub-specializations outside the faculty of music requires the approval of both the faculty of music and the other faculty; the last stage of the M. M. is the performance of one or two recitals and completion of comprehensive exams. Most programs require that the recitals include advanced-grade pieces that are drawn from the different eras of music history, such as Baroque-era solo suites, a Classical-era sonata or concerto; the specific components of the recital vary between schools. Some programs allow students to include chamber pieces, in which the student plays a major role as part of a chamber group, for some of the pieces. In some schools, students are required to give a lecture for one or both of the recitals, in which they explain the historical context or music theory or compositional issues involved in the pieces.
This approach, called a lecture-recital, is designed to give students experience explaining and contextualizing the pieces or songs they perform. This skill is important for performers because many teach or coach students, some will go on to become professors, where they may be required to give lectures on music history, theory, or composition; some M. M. programs require students to pass comprehensive exams on their area of specialization and subjects such as music history and music theory. The goal of this exam is to ensure that the student has obtained a well-rounded knowledge and understanding that extends beyond their specialization. Since the M. M. is the standard minimum credential to teach applied subjects at universities and conservatories, it is import
International Atomic Energy Agency
The International Atomic Energy Agency is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons. The IAEA was established as an autonomous organisation on 29 July 1957. Though established independently of the United Nations through its own international treaty, the IAEA Statute, the IAEA reports to both the United Nations General Assembly and Security Council; the IAEA has its headquarters in Austria. The IAEA has two "Regional Safeguards Offices" which are located in Toronto, in Tokyo, Japan; the IAEA has two liaison offices which are located in New York City, United States, in Geneva, Switzerland. In addition, the IAEA has laboratories and research centers located in Seibersdorf, Austria, in Monaco and in Trieste, Italy; the IAEA serves as an intergovernmental forum for scientific and technical co-operation in the peaceful use of nuclear technology and nuclear power worldwide. The programs of the IAEA encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear energy and technology, provide international safeguards against misuse of nuclear technology and nuclear materials, promote nuclear safety and nuclear security standards and their implementation.
The IAEA and its former Director General, Mohamed ElBaradei, were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize on 7 October 2005. The IAEA's current Director General is Yukiya Amano. In 1953, the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, proposed the creation of an international body to both regulate and promote the peaceful use of atomic power, in his Atoms for Peace address to the UN General Assembly. In September 1954, the United States proposed to the General Assembly the creation of an international agency to take control of fissile material, which could be used either for nuclear power or for nuclear weapons; this agency would establish a kind of "nuclear bank." The United States called for an international scientific conference on all of the peaceful aspects of nuclear power. By November 1954, it had become clear that the Soviet Union would reject any international custody of fissile material if the United States did not agree to a disarmament first, but that a clearing house for nuclear transactions might be possible.
From 8 to 20 August 1955, the United Nations held the International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva, Switzerland. In October 1957, a Conference on the IAEA Statute was held at the Headquarters of the United Nations to approve the founding document for the IAEA, negotiated in 1955–1957 by a group of twelve countries; the Statute of the IAEA was approved on 23 October 1956 and came into force on 29 July 1957. Former US Congressman W. Sterling Cole served as the IAEA's first Director General from 1957 to 1961. Cole served only one term, after which the IAEA was headed by two Swedes for nearly four decades: the scientist Sigvard Eklund held the job from 1961 to 1981, followed by former Swedish Foreign Minister Hans Blix, who served from 1981 to 1997. Blix was succeeded as Director General by Mohamed ElBaradei of Egypt, who served until November 2009. Beginning in 1986, in response to the nuclear reactor explosion and disaster near Chernobyl, the IAEA increased its efforts in the field of nuclear safety.
The same happened after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan. Both the IAEA and its Director General, ElBaradei, were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. In ElBaradei's acceptance speech in Oslo, he stated that only one percent of the money spent on developing new weapons would be enough to feed the entire world, that, if we hope to escape self-destruction nuclear weapons should have no place in our collective conscience, no role in our security. On 2 July 2009, Yukiya Amano of Japan was elected as the Director General for the IAEA, defeating Abdul Samad Minty of South Africa and Luis E. Echávarri of Spain. On 3 July 2009, the Board of Governors voted to appoint Yukiya Amano "by acclamation," and IAEA General Conference in September 2009 approved, he took office on 1 December 2009. The IAEA's mission is guided by the interests and needs of Member States, strategic plans and the vision embodied in the IAEA Statute. Three main pillars -- or areas of work -- underpin the IAEA's mission: Security.
The IAEA as an autonomous organisation is not under direct control of the UN, but the IAEA does report to both the UN General Assembly and Security Council. Unlike most other specialised international agencies, the IAEA does much of its work with the Security Council, not with the United Nations Economic and Social Council; the structure and functions of the IAEA are defined by the IAEA Statute. The IAEA has three main bodies: the Board of Governors, the General Conference, the Secretariat; the IAEA exists to pursue the "safe and peaceful uses of nuclear sciences and technology". The IAEA executes this mission with three main functions: the inspection of existing nuclear facilities to ensure their peaceful use, providing information and developing standards to ensure the safety and security of nuclear facilities, as a hub for the various fields of science involved in the peaceful applications of nuclear technology; the IAEA recognises knowledge as the nuclear energy industry's most valuable asset and resource, without which the industry cannot operate safely and economically.
Following the IAEA General Conference since 2002 resolutions the Nuclear Knowledge Management, a formal programme was established to address Member States' priorities in the 21st century. In 2004, the IAEA developed a Progr
India and weapons of mass destruction
The Republic of India has developed and possesses weapons of mass destruction in the form of nuclear weapons. Though India has not made any official statements about the size of its nuclear arsenal, recent estimates suggest that India has 110 nuclear weapons — consistent with earlier estimates that it had produced enough weapons-grade plutonium for up to 75–110 nuclear weapons. In 1999, India was estimated to have 800 kg of separated reactor-grade plutonium, with a total amount of 8,300 kg of civilian plutonium, enough for 1,000 nuclear weapons. India is a member of three multilateral export control regimes — the Missile Technology Control Regime, Wassenaar Arrangement and Australia Group, it has ratified the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention. India is a subscribing state to the Hague Code of Conduct. India has signed neither the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty nor the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, considering both to be flawed and discriminatory. India possessed chemical weapons, but voluntarily destroyed its entire stockpile in 2009 — one of the seven countries to meet the OPCW extended deadline.
India maintains a "no first use" nuclear policy and has developed a nuclear triad capability as a part of its "minimum credible deterrence" doctrine. India has a well-developed biotechnology infrastructure that includes numerous pharmaceutical production facilities and bio-containment laboratories for working with lethal pathogens, it has qualified scientists with expertise in infectious diseases. Some of India's facilities are being used to support research and development for biological weapons defence purposes. India pledges to abide by its obligations. There is no clear evidence, circumstantial or otherwise, that directly points toward an offensive BW program. India does possess the scientific capability and infrastructure to launch an offensive BW program, but has chosen not to do so. In terms of delivery, India possesses the capability to produce aerosols and has numerous potential delivery systems ranging from crop dusters to sophisticated ballistic missiles. No information exists in the public domain suggesting interest by the Indian government in delivery of biological agents by these or any other means.
To reiterate the latter point, in October 2002, the President A. P. J. Abdul Kalam asserted that "India will not make biological weapons, it is cruel to human beings". In 1992, India signed the Chemical Weapons Convention, stating that it did not have chemical weapons and the capacity or intent to manufacture chemical weapons. By doing this India became one of the original signatories of the CWC in 1993, ratified it on 2 September 1996. According to India's ex-Army Chief General Sunderji, a country having the capability of making nuclear weapons does not need to have chemical weapons, since the dread of chemical weapons could be created only in those countries that do not have nuclear weapons. Others suggested that the fact that India has found chemical weapons dispensable highlighted its confidence in the conventional weapons system at its command. In June 1997, India declared its stock of chemical weapons. By the end of 2006, India had destroyed more than 75 percent of its chemical weapons/material stockpile and was granted extension for destroying the remaining stocks by April 2009 and was expected to achieve 100 percent destruction within that time frame.
India informed the United Nations in May 2009 that it had destroyed its stockpile of chemical weapons in compliance with the international Chemical Weapons Convention. With this India has become third country after South Albania to do so; this was cross-checked by inspectors of the United Nations. India has an advanced commercial chemical industry, produces the bulk of its own chemicals for domestic consumption, it is widely acknowledged that India has an extensive civilian chemical and pharmaceutical industry and annually exports considerable quantities of chemicals to countries such as the United Kingdom, United States and Taiwan. As early as 26 June 1946, Jawaharlal Nehru, soon to be India's first Prime Minister, announced: India's nuclear programme can trace its origins to March 1944 and its three-stage efforts in technology were established by Homi Jehangir Bhabha when he founded the nuclear research centre, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research. India's loss of territory to China in a brief Himalayan border war in October 1962, provided the New Delhi government impetus for developing nuclear weapons as a means of deterring potential Chinese aggression.
India first tested a nuclear device in 1974, under Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, which it called a "peaceful nuclear explosion." The test used plutonium produced in the Canadian-supplied CIRUS reactor, raised concerns that nuclear technology supplied for peaceful purposes could be diverted to weapons purposes. This stimulated the early work of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. India performed further nuclear tests in 1998. In 1998, as a response to the continuing tests, the United States and Japan imposed sanctions on India, which have since been lifted. R Chidambaram who headed India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests said in an interview to the Press Trust of India that India is capable of producing a neutron bomb. India has a declared nuclear no-first-use policy and is in the process of developing a nuclear doctrine based on "credible minimum deterrence." In August 1999, the Indian government released a draft of the doctrine which asserts that nuclear weapons are for deterrence and that India will pursue a policy of "retaliation only".
The document a
Mumbai is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra. As of 2011 it is the most populous city in India with an estimated city proper population of 12.4 million. The larger Mumbai Metropolitan Region is the second most populous metropolitan area in India, with a population of 21.3 million as of 2016. Mumbai has a deep natural harbour. In 2008, Mumbai was named an alpha world city, it is the wealthiest city in India, has the highest number of millionaires and billionaires among all cities in India. Mumbai is home to three UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the Elephanta Caves, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus, the city's distinctive ensemble of Victorian and Art Deco buildings; the seven islands that constitute Mumbai were home to communities of Koli people, who originated in Gujarat in prehistoric times. For centuries, the islands were under the control of successive indigenous empires before being ceded to the Portuguese Empire and subsequently to the East India Company when in 1661 Charles II of England married Catherine of Braganza and as part of her dowry Charles received the ports of Tangier and Seven Islands of Bombay.
During the mid-18th century, Bombay was reshaped by the Hornby Vellard project, which undertook reclamation of the area between the seven islands from the sea. Along with construction of major roads and railways, the reclamation project, completed in 1845, transformed Bombay into a major seaport on the Arabian Sea. Bombay in the 19th century was characterised by educational development. During the early 20th century it became a strong base for the Indian independence movement. Upon India's independence in 1947 the city was incorporated into Bombay State. In 1960, following the Samyukta Maharashtra Movement, a new state of Maharashtra was created with Bombay as the capital. Mumbai is the financial and entertainment capital of India, it is one of the world's top ten centres of commerce in terms of global financial flow, generating 6.16% of India's GDP and accounting for 25% of industrial output, 70% of maritime trade in India, 70% of capital transactions to India's economy. The city houses important financial institutions such as the Reserve Bank of India, the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock Exchange of India, the SEBI and the corporate headquarters of numerous Indian companies and multinational corporations.
It is home to some of India's premier scientific and nuclear institutes like Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Power Corporation of India, Indian Rare Earths, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Atomic Energy Commission of India, the Department of Atomic Energy. The city houses India's Hindi and Marathi cinema industries. Mumbai's business opportunities, as well as its potential to offer a higher standard of living, attract migrants from all over India, making the city a melting pot of many communities and cultures; the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbā or Mahā-Ambā—the name of the patron goddess Mumbadevi of the native Koli community— and ā'ī meaning "mother" in the Marathi language, the mother tongue of the Koli people and the official language of Maharashtra. The Koli people originated in Kathiawad and Central Gujarat, according to some sources they brought their goddess Mumba with them from Kathiawad, where she is still worshipped. However, other sources disagree.
The oldest known names for the city are Galajunkja. In 1508, Portuguese writer Gaspar Correia used the name "Bombaim" in his Lendas da Índia; this name originated as the Galician-Portuguese phrase bom baim, meaning "good little bay", Bombaim is still used in Portuguese. In 1516, Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa used the name Tana-Maiambu: Tana appears to refer to the adjoining town of Thane and Maiambu to Mumbadevi. Other variations recorded in the 16th and the 17th centuries include: Mombayn, Bombain, Monbaym, Mombaym, Bombaiim, Boon Bay, Bon Bahia. After the English gained possession of the city in the 17th century, the Portuguese name was anglicised as Bombay. Ali Muhammad Khan, imperial dewan or revenue minister of the Gujarat province, in the Mirat-i Ahmedi referred to the city as Manbai; the French traveller Louis Rousselet who visited in 1863 and 1868 tells us in his book L’Inde des Rajahs: "Etymologists have wrongly derived this name from the Portuguese Bôa Bahia, or, not knowing that the tutelar goddess of this island has been, from remote antiquity, Bomba, or Mamba Dévi, that she still... possesses a temple".
By the late 20th century, the city was referred to as Mumbai or Mambai in Marathi, Gujarati and Sindhi, as Bambai in Hindi. The Government of India changed the English name to Mumbai in November 1995; this came at the insistence of the Marathi nationalist Shiv Sena party, which had just won the Maharashtra state elections, mirrored similar name changes across the country and in Maharashtra. According to Slate magazine, "they argued that'Bombay' was a corrupted English version of'Mumbai' and an unwanted legacy of British colonial rule." Slate said "The push to rename Bombay was part of a larger movement to strengthen Marathi identity in the Maharashtra region." While the city is still referred to as Bombay by some of its residents and by Indians from other regions, mention of the ci
Atomic Energy Research Establishment
The Atomic Energy Research Establishment, known as AERE or colloquially Harwell Laboratory, near Harwell, was the main centre for atomic energy research and development in the United Kingdom from the 1940s to the 1990s. In 1945 John Cockcroft was asked to set up a research laboratory to further the use of nuclear fission for both military purposes and generating energy; the criteria for selection involved finding somewhere remote with a good water supply, but within reach of good transport links and a university with a nuclear physics laboratory. This less limited the choice to the areas around Oxford or Cambridge, it had been decided that an RAF airfield would be chosen, the aircraft hangars being ideal to house the large atomic piles that would need to be built. Although Cambridge University had the better nuclear physics facility, the RAF did not want to abandon any of its eastern airfields because of its potential involvement in the Cold War, therefore Harwell was chosen when the RAF made the airfield available.
RAF Harwell was sixteen miles south of Oxford near Didcot and Harwell, on 1 January 1946 the Atomic Energy Research Establishment was formed, coming under the Ministry of Supply. The scientists took over both accommodations and work buildings from the departing RAF; the early laboratory had several specialist divisions: Chemistry, General Physics, Nuclear Physics, Reactor Physics, Theoretical Physics (Klaus Fuchs Brian Flowers and Walter Marshall, Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Metallurgy. Finniston was to become chairman of the British Steel Corporation. Directors after Cockcroft included Sir Arthur Vick and Walter Marshall; the decision to site AERE at Harwell had huge implications for a rural area which had depended on agriculture for employment before World War II. The site became one of the main employers in the post-war period, it led to an influx of labour from outside the area, putting pressure on scarce housing stocks. In response to the problem and temporary housing were established around the site.
The hostels were named Icknield Way House, Portway House and Ridgeway House provided either single or double room accommodation for staff and were adopted from existing RAF structures on the site. The class distinction was maintained by the UKAEA. A-Mess housed visiting scientists, B-Mess scientific support staff and some post-graduate scientists, C-Mess industrial support staff; the temporary housing stock consisted of several hundred'Prefabs', single storey structures manufactured in parts for quick erection, which were designed to help alleviate chronic housing shortages in the immediate post-war period in Britain. Two estates of'Prefabs' were built to the north and south of the site perimeter, along with a road system and parade of shops. In years, conventional housing was provided on estates built in Abingdon and Newbury for employees. A modern hostel was built in Abingdon; the houses were sold in the 1980s and the hostels were demolished or adapted for other uses. The'Prefab' estates lasted until the early 1990s when the residents were transferred to local authority housing.
The RAF prewar NCO married quarter housing at Harwell together other UKAEA housing in Abingdon, Grove and Newbury totaling 129 houses were sold in their entirety to the Welbeck Estate Group in 1995 and following extensive refurbishment were sold to local buyers. Workers were bussed to the site from as far away as Reading in utilitarian grey buses marked'AERE'; such was the interest in nuclear power and the priority devoted to it in those days that the first reactor, GLEEP, was operating by 15 August 1947. GLEEP was a low-power graphite-moderated air-cooled reactor; the first reactor in Western Europe, it operated until 1990. The engineers at Harwell decided that this small reactor should be put to some use, so the air that flowed over it was directed through an underground trench, where there were some pipes filled with water that connected to a secondary group of water-filled pipes that were used by the nearby establishments to heat offices. A successor to GLEEP, called BEPO was constructed based on the experience with GLEEP, commenced operation in 1948.
BEPO was shut down in 1968. LIDO was an enriched uranium thermal swimming pool reactor which operated from 1956 to 1972 and was used for shielding and nuclear physics experiments, it was dismantled and returned to a green field site in 1995. In the same building as LIDO, DAPHNE was constructed to test equipment used in experiments on the two larger reactors. A pair of larger 26 MW reactors, DIDO and PLUTO, which used enriched uranium with a heavy water moderator came online in 1956 and 1957 respectively; these reactors were used for testing the behaviour of different materials under intense neutron irradiation to help decide what materials to build reactor components out of. A sample could be irradiated for a few months to simulate the radiation dose that it would receive over the lifetime of a power reactor. Both reactors were used for neutron scattering cr
Music theory is the study of the practices and possibilities of music. The Oxford Companion to Music describes three interrelated uses of the term "music theory": The first is what is otherwise called'rudiments' taught as the elements of notation, of key signatures, of time signatures, of rhythmic notation, so on; the second is the study of writings about music from ancient times onwards. The third is an area of current musicological study that seeks to define processes and general principles in music — a sphere of research that can be distinguished from analysis in that it takes as its starting-point not the individual work or performance but the fundamental materials from which it is built. Music theory is concerned with describing how musicians and composers make music, including tuning systems and composition methods among other topics; because of the ever-expanding conception of what constitutes music, a more inclusive definition could be that music theory is the consideration of any sonic phenomena, including silence, as they relate to music.
This is not an absolute guideline. However, this medieval discipline became the basis for tuning systems in centuries, it is included in modern scholarship on the history of music theory. Music theory as a practical discipline encompasses the methods and concepts composers and other musicians use in creating music; the development and transmission of music theory in this sense may be found in oral and written music-making traditions, musical instruments, other artifacts. For example, ancient instruments from Mesopotamia and prehistoric sites around the world reveal details about the music they produced and something of the musical theory that might have been used by their makers. In ancient and living cultures around the world, the deep and long roots of music theory are visible in instruments, oral traditions, current music making. Many cultures, at least as far back as ancient Mesopotamia and ancient China, have considered music theory in more formal ways such as written treatises and music notation.
Practical and scholarly traditions overlap, as many practical treatises about music place themselves within a tradition of other treatises, which are cited just as scholarly writing cites earlier research. In modern academia, music theory is a subfield of musicology, the wider study of musical cultures and history. Etymologically, music theory is an act of contemplation of music, from the Greek θεωρία, a looking at, contemplation, theory a sight, a spectacle; as such, it is concerned with abstract musical aspects such as tuning and tonal systems, scales and dissonance, rhythmic relationships, but there is a body of theory concerning practical aspects, such as the creation or the performance of music, ornamentation and electronic sound production. A person who researches, teaches, or writes articles about music theory is a music theorist. University study to the M. A. or Ph. D level, is required to teach as a tenure-track music theorist in Canadian university. Methods of analysis include mathematics, graphic analysis, analysis enabled by Western music notation.
Comparative, descriptive and other methods are used. Music theory textbooks in the United States of America include elements of musical acoustics, considerations of musical notation, techniques of tonal composition, among other topics. Preserved prehistoric instruments and depictions of performance in artworks can give clues to the structure of pitch systems in prehistoric cultures. See for instance Paleolithic flutes, Gǔdí, Anasazi flute. Several surviving Sumerian and Akkadian clay tablets include musical information of a theoretical nature lists of intervals and tunings; the scholar Sam Mirelman reports that the earliest of these texts dates from before 1500 BCE, a millennium earlier than surviving evidence from any other culture of comparable musical thought. Further, "All the Mesopotamian texts are united by the use of a terminology for music that, according to the approximate dating of the texts, was in use for over 1,000 years." Much of Chinese music history and theory remains unclear.
The earliest texts about Chinese music theory are inscribed on the stone and bronze bells excavated in 1978 from the tomb of Marquis Yi of the Zeng state. They include more than 2800 words describing practices of music pitches of the time; the bells produce two intertwined pentatonic scales three tones apart with additional pitches completing the chromatic scale. Chinese theory starts from numbers, the main musical numbers being twelve and eight. Twelve refers to the number of pitches; the Lüshi chunqiu from about 239 BCE recalls the legend of Ling Lun. On order of the Yellow Emperor, Ling Lun collected twelve bamboo lengths with thick and nodes. Blowing on one of these like a pipe, he found its sound agreeable and named it huangzhong, the "Yellow Bell." He heard phoenixes singing. The male and female phoenix each sang six tones. Ling Lun cut his bamboo pipes to match the pitches of the phoenixes, producing twelve pitch pipes in two sets: six from the male phoenix and six from the female: these were called the lülü or the shierlü.
The lülü formed the ritual scale to which