Rajahnate of Cebu
The Rajahnate of Cebu, or Sugbu, was an Indianized Raja Mandala on the island of Cebu in the Philippines prior to the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors. It was founded by Sri Lumay or Rajamuda Lumaya, a minor prince of the Chola dynasty which occupied Sumatra, he was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces, but he rebelled and established his own independent rajahnate. According to Visayan folklore, Sri Lumay was a half-Tamil & half-Malay from Sumatra, who settled in the Visayas, had several sons. One of his sons was Sri Alho, who ruled a land known as Sialo which included the present-day towns of Carcar and Santander in the southern region of Cebu. Sri Ukob ruled a polity known as Nahalin in the north, which included the present-day towns of Consolación, Compostela, Danao and Bantayan, he died in battle. The islands they were in were collectively known as Kangdaya. Sri Lumay was noted for his strict policies in defending against Moro Muslim raiders and slavers from Mindanao.
His use of scorched earth tactics to repel invaders gave rise to the name Kang Sri Lumayng Sugbu to the town, shortened to Sugbu. Sri Lumay was succeeded by the youngest of his sons, Sri Bantug, who ruled from a region known as Singhapala, now Mabolo of Cebu City, he died of disease. Sri Bantug had a brother called Sri Parang, slated to succeed Sri Bantug, but he could not govern his polity because of his infirmity. Parang handed his throne to Sri Bantug's son and his nephew, Sri Humabon, who became the Rajah of Cebu in his stead. During Rajah Humabon's reign, the region had since become an important trading center where agricultural products were bartered. From Japan and glass utensils were traded for native goods. Ivory products, leather and semi-precious stones and śarkarā came from India traders and Burmese people traders; the harbors of Sugbu became known colloquially as sinibuayng hingpit, shortened to sibu or sibo, from which the modern Castilian name "Cebú" originates. It was during Humabon's reign that Lapu-Lapu arrived from Borneo, was granted by Humabon the region of Mandawili, including the island known as Opong or Opon.
First contact with the Spanish occurred during Humabon's reign, resulting in the death of Ferdinand Magellan. The phrase Kota Raya Kita was documented by historian Antonio Pigafetta, to be a warning in the Old Malay language, from a merchant to the Rajah and was cited to have meant: "Have good care, O king, what you do, for these men are those who have conquered Calicut and all India the Greater. If you give them good reception and treat them well, it will be well for you, but if you treat them ill, so much the worse it will be for you, as they have done at Calicut and at Malacca." In reality, this phrase is that of Kota Raya kita, an indigenous Malay phrase of merchants under the authority of Rajah Humabon, with a meaning in English of: "our capital city": Kota, kita. Sri Parang, the limp had a young son, Sri Tupas known as Rajah Tupas who succeeded Rajah Humabon as king of Cebu; the Rajahnate was dissolved during the reign of Rajah Tupas by the forces of conquistador Miguel López de Legazpi in the battle of Cebu during 1565.
A crude Buddhist medallion and a copper statue of a Hindu Deity, has been found by Henry Otley Beyer in 1921 in ancient sites in Puerto Princesa, Palawan and in Mactan, Cebu. The crudeness of the artifacts indicates; these icons were destroyed during World War II. However and white photographs of these icons survive. There have been proposals to rename the current Central Visayas region, dominated by the Cebuano ethnic group, into Sugbu region, the former name of the region prior to Spanish colonization in the 16th century
Tondo (historical polity)
In early Philippine history, the Tagalog settlement at Tondo was a major trade hub located on the northern part of the Pasig River delta, on Luzon island. Together with Maynila, the polity on the southern part of the Pasig River delta, it established a shared monopoly on the trade of Chinese goods throughout the rest of the Philippine archipelago, making it an established force in trade throughout Southeast Asia and East Asia. Tondo is of particular interest to Filipino historians and historiographers because it is one of the oldest documented settlements in the Philippines. Scholars agree that it was mentioned in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, the Philippines oldest extant locally produced written document, dating back to 900 CE. Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila. Tondo's absorption into the Spanish Empire ended its status as an independent political entity. Geographically, the settlement was surrounded by bodies of water: the Pasig River to the South and the shore of Manila Bay to the West, but by several of the delta's rivulets: the Canal de la Reina to the Southeast, the Estero de Sunog Apog to the Northeast, the Estero de Vitas on its Eastern and Northernmost boundaries.
It is referred to in academic circles as the "Tondo polity" or "Tondo settlement", the earliest Tagalog dictionaries categorized it as a "Bayan". Travellers from monarchical cultures who had contacts with Tondo initially mistakenly labelled it as the "Kingdom of Tondo". Early Augustinian chronicler Pedro de San Buenaventura explained this to be an error as early as 1613 in his Vocabulario de la Lengua Tagala, but historian Vicente L. Rafael notes that the label was later adapted by the popular literature of the Spanish colonial era because Spanish language writers of the time did not have the appropriate words for describing the complex power relations on which Maritime Southeast Asian leadership structures were built; the earliest firsthand Spanish accounts described it as a smaller "village", in comparison to the fortified polity of Maynila. Politically, Tondo was made up of several social groupings, traditionally referred to by historians as Barangays, which were led by Datus; these Datus in turn recognised the leadership of the most senior among them as a sort of "Paramount datu" called a Lakan over the Bayan.
In the middle to late 16th century, its Lakan was held in high regard within the alliance group, formed by the various Manila Bay area polities, which included Tondo and various polities in Bulacan and Pampanga. Extrapolating from available data, demographer-historian Linda A. Newson has estimated that Tondo may have had a population of 43,000 when the Spanish first arrived in 1570. Culturally, the Tagalog people of Tondo had a rich Austronesian culture, with its own expressions of language and writing, religion and music dating back to the earliest peoples of the archipelago; this culture was influenced by its trading relations with the rest of Maritime Southeast Asia. Significant were its relations with Ming dynasty, Malaysia and the Majapahit empire, which served as the main conduit for significant Indian cultural influence, despite the Philippine archipelago's geographical location outside the Indian cultural zone. Only a few comprehensive reviews of source materials for the study of Philippine prehistory and early history have been done, with William Henry Scott's 1968 review being one of the earliest systematic critiques.
Scott's review has become a seminal academic work on the study of early Philippine history, having been reviewed early on by a panel of that era's most eminent historians and folklorists including Teodoro Agoncillo, Horacio de la Costa, Marcelino Foronda, Mercedes Grau Santamaria, Nicholas Zafra and Gregorio Zaide. Scott's 1968 review was acknowledged by Laura Lee Junker when she conducted her own comprehensive 1998 review of primary sources regarding archaic Philippine polities, by F. Landa Jocano in his Anthropological analysis of Philippine Prehistory. Scott lists the sources for the study of Philippine prehistory as: archaeology and paleogeography, foreign written documents, quasi-historical genealogical documents. In a work, he conducts a detailed critique of early written documents and surviving oral or folk traditions connected with the Philippines early historic or protohistoric era. Sources Scott and Junker consider relevant to the study of the Tondo and Maynila settlements include: Malay texts, Philippine oral traditions, Chinese tributary records and geographies, early Spanish writings, archeological evidence from the region around Manila Bay, the Pasig River, Laguna Lake.
Primary sources for the history of Rajah Kalamayin's Namayan, further upriver, include artifacts dug up from archaeological digs and Spanish colonial records. A more detailed discussion of notable archaeological and genealogical sources can be found towards the end of this article. Junker notes that most of the primary written sources for early Philippine history have inherent biases, which creates a need to counter-check their narratives with one another, with empirical archaeological evidence, she cites the works of
Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies which included the Philippines and other Pacific archipelagos, namely Guam and the Marianas Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Manila the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1571; the capital city of the province of Albay bears his name. In 1528, Hernán Cortés established settlements in North America and López de Legazpi traveled to Mexico to start a new life; this was due to the death of his parents and his dissatisfaction with his eldest sibling, who inherited the family fortune. In Tlaxcala, he worked with Isabel Garcés. López de Legazpi would go on to have nine children with her.
Isabel died in the mid-1550s. Between 1528 and 1559 he worked as a leader of the financial department council and as the civil governor of Mexico City. In 1564, López de Legazpi was commissioned by the viceroy, Luis de Velasco, to lead an expedition in the Pacific Ocean, to find the Spice Islands where the earlier explorers Ferdinand Magellan and Ruy López de Villalobos had landed in 1521 and 1543, respectively; the expedition was ordered by King Philip II of Spain, after whom the Philippines had earlier been named by Ruy López de Villalobos. The viceroy died in July 1564, but the Audiencia and López de Legazpi completed the preparations for the expedition. On November 19 or 20, 1564, five ships and 500 soldiers, sailed from the port of Barra de Navidad, New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico. Members of the expedition included six Augustinian missionaries, in addition to Fr. Andrés de Urdaneta, who served as navigator and spiritual adviser, Melchor de Legazpi, Felipe de Salcedo, Guido de Lavezarez.
López de Legazpi and his men sailed the Pacific Ocean for 93 days. In 1565, they landed in the Mariana Islands, where they anchored and replenished their supplies. There they burned several huts. A chief of Bohol island named Catunao gave information to Miguel Lopez of Cebu, accompanied Lopez as a guide. López de Legazpi's expedition anchored off the Indianized Rajahnate of Cebu on February 13, 1565, but did not put ashore due to opposition from natives. On February 22, 1565 the expedition reached the island of Samar and made a blood compact with Datu Urrao; the Spaniards proceeded to Limasawa and were received by Datu Bankaw to Bohol, where they befriended Datu Sikatuna and Rajah Sigala. On March 16, Legazpi made a blood compact with Datu Sikatuna. On April 27, 1565, the expedition landed there. Rajah Tupas were overpowered by them; the Spaniards established a colony, naming the settlements "Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesús" after an image of Sto. Niño in one of the native houses. In 1569, due to a scarcity of food provisions in Cebu, Legazpi transferred to Panay town on the island of Panay, where they were peacefully welcomed by the people in the Kedatuan of Madja-as.
Subsequently, they founded a second settlement named Capiz and now the city of Roxas in Capiz province, located on the bank of the Panay River. In 1570, Legazpi sent Juan de Salcedo, his grandson who had arrived from Mexico in 1567, to Mindoro to punish the Muslim Moro pirates, plundering Panay villages. Salcedo destroyed forts on the islands of Ilin and Lubang South and Northwest of Mindoro In 1570, having heard of the rich resources in Luzon, Legazpi dispatched Martín de Goiti to explore the northern region. Landing in Batangas with a force of 120 Spaniards, de Goiti explored the Pansipit River, which drains Taal Lake. On May 8, they arrived in Manila Bay. There, they were welcomed by the natives. Goiti's soldiers camped there for a few weeks while forming an alliance with the Muslim leader, Rajah Ache, a vassal under the Sultan of Brunei. Legazpi wanted to use Manila's harbor as a base for trade with China. However, the Rajah's ally in northern shores of Manila Bay known as the young Bambalito of Macabebe, asked Rajah Soliman to revoke his alliance with the Spaniards.
Rajah Matanda refused because of the "word of honor" of the Spaniards. Rajah Soliman had his conditions for Bambalito that if they were able to kill as least 50 Spaniards, he would revoke his alliance with Legazpi, the old ache would help to expel the conquerors. Bambalito rode back to Macabebe and formed a fleet of two thousand five hundred moros consisting of soldiers from the villages along Manila Bay from Macabebe and Hagonoy. On May 30, 1570, Bambalito sailed to Tondo with Caracoas and encountered the Spaniards at Bangkusay Channel, headed by Martin de Goiti on June 3, 1571. Bambalito and his fleet had lost the battle, after disputes and hostility had erupted between the two groups, the Spaniards occupied the Islamized states of Tondo and Maynila. Manila was prepared by Goiti for Legazpi. In the same year, more reinforcements arrived in the Philippines, prompting López de Legazpi to leave Cebu for Panay and for Luzon, he recruited 250 Spanish soldiers and 600 native warriors to e
Lapu-Lapu was a ruler of Mactan in the Visayas. Modern Philippine society regards him as the first Filipino hero because he was the first native to resist Imperial Spanish colonization, he is best known for the Battle of Mactan that happened at dawn on April 27, 1521, where he and his soldiers defeated Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan, killed in the battle. Magellan's death ended his voyage of circumnavigation, this delayed the Spanish occupation of the islands by over forty years until the expedition of Miguel López de Legazpi in 1564. Monuments to Lapu-Lapu have been built in Cebu and Manila, while the Philippine National Police and the Bureau of Fire Protection use his image as part of their official seals. Besides being a rival of Rajah Humabon of neighbouring Indianized Cebu little is known about the life of Lapu-Lapu; the only existing documents about his life are those written by Antonio Pigafetta. His name, origins and fate are still a matter of controversy. Lapu-Lapu is known under the names Çilapulapu, Si Lapulapu, Salip Pulaka, Cali Pulaco, Lapulapu Dimantag.
The historical name of Lapu-Lapu is debated. The earliest record of his name comes from Italian diarist Antonio Pigafetta who accompanied Magellan's expedition. Pigafetta notes the names of two chiefs of the island of "Matan", the chiefs "Zula" and "Çilapulapu"; the honorific Çi or Si is a corruption of the Sanskrit title Sri. In an annotation of the 1890 edition of Antonio de Morga's Sucesos de las islas Filipinas, José Rizal spells this name as "Si Lapulapu"; the Aginid chronicle calls him "Lapulapu Dimantag". The title Salip is used as an honorific for Lapu-lapu and other Visayan datus. Despite common misconception, it is not derived from the Islamic title Khalīfah. Like the cognate Si, it was derived from the Sanskrit title Sri Paduka, denoting "His Highness"; the title is still used today in Malaysia as Seri Paduka. The 17th century mestizo de sangley poet Carlos Calao mentions Lapu-Lapu under the name of "Cali Pulaco" in his poem Que Dios le perdone; the name, spelled "Kalipulako", was adopted as one of the pseudonyms of the Philippine hero, Mariano Ponce, during the Philippine Revolution.
The 1898 Philippine Declaration of Independence of Cavite II el Viejo mentions Lapu-Lapu under the name "Rey Kalipulako de Manktan ". There had been many folk accounts surrounding Lapu-Lapu’s origin. One oral tradition is that the Sugbuanons of Opong was once ruled by datu named Mangal and succeeded by his son named Lapu-Lapu. Another is from oral chronicles from the reign of the last king of Rajah Tupas; this was compiled and written in Baybayin in the book Aginid, Bayok sa Atong Tawarik in 1952 by Jovito Abellana. The chronicle records the founding of the Rajahnate of Cebu by a certain Sri Lumay, a prince from the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra, his sons, Sri Alho and Sri Ukob, ruled the neighboring communities of Sialo and Nahalin, respectively. The islands they were in were collectively known as Kangdaya. Sri Lumay was noted for his strict policies in defending against Moro raiders and slavers from Mindanao, his use of scorched earth tactics to repel invaders gave rise to the name Kang Sri Lumayng Sugbo to the town, shortened to Sugbo.
Upon his death in a battle against the raiders, Sri Lumay was succeeded by his youngest son, Sri Bantug, who ruled from the region of Singhapala, now Mabolo in modern Cebu City. Sri Bantug was succeeded by his son Rajah Humabon. During Humabon's reign, the region had become an important trading center; the harbors of Sugbo became known colloquially as sinibuayng hingpit, shortened to sibu or sibo, from which the modern name "Cebu" originates. According to the epic Aginid, this was the period in which Lapu-Lapu was first recorded as arriving from Borneo, he asked Humabon for a place to settle, the king offered him the region of Mandawili, including the island known as Opong, hoping that Lapu-Lapu's people would cultivate the land. They were successful in this, the influx of farm produce from Mandawili enriched the trade port of Sugbo further; the relationship between Lapu-Lapu and Humabon deteriorated when Lapu-Lapu turned to piracy. He began raiding merchant ships passing the island of Opong; the island thus earned the name Mangatang evolving to "Mactan".
Lapu-Lapu was one of the two datus of Mactan before the Spanish arrived in the archipelago, the other being a certain Zula, both of whom belong to the Maginoo class. When Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines in the service of Spain, Zula was one of those who gave tribute to the Spanish king while Lapu-Lapu refused. In the midnight of April 27, 1521, Magellan led a force of around sixty Spaniards and twenty to thirty war boats of Humabon's warriors from Cebu, they arrived in Mactan three hours before dawn. However, because of the presence of rock outcroppings and coral reefs, Magellan's ships could not land on the shores of Mactan, their ships were forced to anchor "two crossbow flights" away from the beach. According to Antonio Pigafetta, they faced around 1,500 warriors of Lapu-Lapu armed w
Cebu is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consists of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, politically independent from the provincial government; the Cebu Metropolitan Area or Metro Cebu is formed by 6 municipalities. Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines with Metro Cebu being the second largest metropolitan area in the Philippines and Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade and industry in the Visayas. In a decade it has transformed into a global hub for business processing services, shipping, furniture-making, heavy industry. Mactan–Cebu International Airport, located on Mactan Island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines; the name "Cebu" comes from a shortened form of sinibuayng hingpit. It was applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Alternate renditions of the name by traders between the 13th to 16th centuries include Sebu, Zubu, or Zebu, among others.
Sugbu, in turn, is derived from the Old Cebuano term for "scorched earth" or "great fire". The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which existed in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, it was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya, a half-Malay, half-Tamil prince of the Chola dynasty who invaded Sumatra in Indonesia. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead; the arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 began a period of Spanish exploration and colonization. Losing the favour of King Manuel I of Portugal for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On 20 September 1519, Magellan led five ships with a total complement of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to southeast Asia via the Americas and Pacific Ocean.
They reached the Philippines on 16 March 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, where they could trade and obtain provisions. Arriving in Cebu City, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu, persuaded the natives to ally themselves with Charles I of Spain. Humabon and his wife were baptized as Carlos and Juana; the Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On 14 April Magellan erected a large wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized. Magellan soon heard of datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu, it was thought that Humabon and Lapu–Lapu had been fighting for control of the flourishing trade in the area. On 27 April the Battle of Mactan occurred, where the Spaniards were defeated and Magellan was killed by the natives of Mactan in Mactan Island. According to Italian historian and chronicler Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels.
Magellan's second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano, took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed the fleet back to Spain, circumnavigating the world. Survivors of the Magellan expedition returned to Spain with tales of a savage island in the East Indies. Several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailing from Mexico, arrived in 1565, established a colony; the Spaniards fought the King, Rajah Tupas, occupied his territories. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to "Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús". Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. In 1595, the Universidad de San Carlos was established and in 1860, Cebu opened its ports to foreign trade; the first printing house was established in 1873 and in 1880, the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion was established and the first periodical The Bulletin of Cebu began publishing in 1886.
In 1898, the island was ceded to the United States after the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War. In 1901, Cebu was governed by the United States for a brief period, however it became a charter province on 24 February 1937 and was governed independently by Filipino politicians. Cebu, being one of the most densely populated islands in the Philippines, served as a Japanese base during their occupation in World War II which began with the landing of Japanese soldiers in April 1942; the 3rd, 8th, 82nd and 85th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was re-established from 3 January 1942 to 30 June 1946 and the 8th Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was reestablished again from 28 October 1944 to 30 June 1946 at the military general headquarters and the military camps and garrisoned in Cebu city and Cebu province. They started the Anti-Japanese military operations in Cebu from April 1942 to September 1945 and helped Cebuano guerrillas and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces.
Three years in March 1945, combined Filipino and A
Tarik Sulayman spelled Tarik Soliman, is the most popular of several names attributed by Kapampangan historians to the individual that led the forces of Macabebe against the Spanish forces of Miguel López de Legazpi during the Battle of Bangkusay Channel on June 3, 1571. Aside from "Tarik Sulayman", this individual has been associated with the names Bambalito or Bankau by some historians, while others consider him "nameless."The Spanish records do not identify that individual by name, so the attribution of the name Tarik Sulayman is based on genealogical records presented by the leader's supposed Kapampangan descendants during the 19th century. The Battle of Bangkusay happened because he refused to ally with the Spaniards as Lakandula had done, decided to mount an attack on the Spaniards, massing his forces at Bangkusay Channel. López de Legazpi launched a preemptive strike; the Macabebe forces were defeated, Tarik Sulayman himself was killed. The Spanish victory at Bangkusay and López de Legazpi's friendship with Lakandula enabled the Spaniards to establish themselves throughout the city and its neighboring towns.
Some controversy exists about whether Tarik Sulayman of Macabebe, Rajah Sulaiman III of Manila were the same person. This is presented to be the case in some versions of the Battle of Bangkusay, but Kapampangan historians insist that the two were different individuals who are confused with one another because of their names; some have suggested that the two men were related. In any case, the Spanish records do not identify the leader of the Macabebe forces by name, but they do record that he died during the Battle of Bangkusay, resulting in a Macabebe retreat and a Spanish Victory. Rajah Sulaiman of Manila, on the other hand, is recorded as participating in the 1574 Manila Revolt; these data reinforces the theory that the two are different men, as the Spanish knew, Rajah Silaiman of Manila, that they did not use his name when writing about Tarik Sulayman of Macabebe
Rajah Humabon baptized as Don Carlos, was the Rajah of Cebu at the time of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan's arrival in the Philippines in 1521. There is no official record of his existence before the Spanish contact in 1521; the existing information was written by Magellan's voyage chronicler, Antonio Pigafetta on Humabon and the indigenous Philippine realms that existed prior to Spanish colonisation. There is no official record on the origins of Rajah Humabon prior to the arrival of Magellan. According to tradition, Sri Hamabar was the son of Sri Bantug, the grandson of Sri Lumay. One of the native kings was Sri Lumay, a native from Sumatera, who settled in the Visayas and sired several sons, namely Alho, Bantug. Sri Alho, who ruled a land known as Sialo which included the present-day towns of Carcar and Santander in the southern region of Cebu. Sri Ukob ruled a kingdom known as Nahalin in the north which included the present-day towns of Consolación, Compostela, Danao and Bantayan, he died in battle.
The youngest of his sons was Sri Bantug who ruled a kingdom known as Singhapala, in a region, now part of Cebu City, who died of disease and was succeeded by his son Sri Hamabar known as Rajah Humabon. Sri Bantug could not rule because of his infirmity. Sri Parang handed his throne to his nephew Humabon as regent, he became the Rajah of Cebu, he had a young son, who succeeded Humabon as king of Cebu. The phrase Cata Raya Chita was documented by historian Antonio Pigafetta to be a warning in the Malay language, from a merchant to the Rajah. Following Pigafetta's inscription, the phrase is creole Malay for "Kata-katanya adalah raya cita-cita"; the phrase may mean "What they say is ambitious": kata-kata, –nya, raya, cita-cita. Another interpretation is that the phrase was spoken by merchants under the authority of Rajah Humabon was the Old Malay Kota raya kita, meaning "We are of the great fortress": kota, kita; the meeting between Rajah Humabon and Enrique of Malacca, the slave accompanying Magellan's voyage, was documented by Antonio Pigafetta and Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi and is evidence that Old Malay was understood in parts of what is now the Philippines.
According to historical accounts, Rajah Humabon was among the first indigenous converted to Catholicism after he, his wives, his subjects were baptised by the expedition's priest. On 14 April 1521, Humabon was christened Carlos in honour of King Charles I of Spain, while his chief consort, Hara Humamay was given the name Juana, after Charles' mother, Joanna of Castile, he made a blood compact with Magellan, as a sign of friendship. After the death of Magellan at the Battle of Mactan and the consequent failure of the Spanish to defeat Lapu Lapu and his warriors plotted to poison the remaining Spanish soldiers in Cebu during a feast. Several men were killed including the then-leaders of the expedition, Duarte Barbosa and João Serrão. According to the chronicler Pigafetta, Serrão, begging to be saved from the Cebuano tribesmen referred to Enrique as having instigated the massacre by claiming to Humabon that the Europeans planned to take over the rajahnate. History of the Philippines Rajahnate of Cebu Singhapala - Ancient capital of the Rajahanate of Cebu.
RAJAH HUMABON King of Cebu Cebu eskrima The official website of Boholchronicle