It ended when metal tools became widespread. The Neolithic is a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops, the beginning of the Neolithic culture is considered to be in the Levant about 10, 200–8800 BC. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which evolved into true farming. The Natufian period was between 12,000 and 10,200 BC, and the so-called proto-Neolithic is now included in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic between 10,200 and 8800 BC. By 10, 200–8800 BC, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa, Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order, the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery.
Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture, unlike the Paleolithic, when more than one human species existed, only one human species reached the Neolithic. The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, new and λίθος líthos, the term was invented by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system. In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC, early development occurred in the Levant and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards, the Neolithic 1 period began roughly 10,000 years ago in the Levant. A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe dated around 9500 BC may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic tribes, evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity.
At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres, contain limestone pillars carved with animals, Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs. Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Jericho, Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, the start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree. The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming, in the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour, emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated
Cebu City, officially the City of Cebu, is the capital city of the province of Cebu in Central Visayas and is the second city of the Philippines after Manila. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 630,003 registered voters, Cebu City is a significant center of commerce and education in the Visayas. The city is located on the side of Cebu island. It is the first Spanish settlement, the countrys oldest city, and it is considered as the Fount of Christianity in the Far East. Cebu is the Philippines main domestic shipping port and is home to about 80% of the countrys shipping companies. Across Mactan Strait to the east is Mactan Island, Metro Cebu has a total population of 2,849,213 as of 2015, making it the second most-populous metropolitan area of the nation after Metro Manila in Luzon. The name Cebu came from the old Cebuano word sibu or sibo and it was originally applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Sugbu, in turn, was derived from the Old Cebuano term for scorched earth or great fire, before the arrival of the Spaniards, Cebu city was part of the island-rajahnate and trade center of Pulua Kang Dayang or Kangdaya, now better known as the Rajahnate of Cebu.
It was founded by a prince of the Hindu Chola dynasty of Sumatra, the name Sugbu refers to Sri Lumays scorched earth tactics against Muslim Moro raiders. On 7 April 1521, Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed in Cebu and he was welcomed by Rajah Humabon, the grandson of Sri Lumay, together with his wife and about 700 native islanders. Magellan, was killed in the Battle of Mactan, the last ruler of Sugbu, prior to Spanish colonization, was Rajah Humabons nephew, Rajah Tupas. They Christianized some natives and Spanish remnants in Cebu, the Spanish arrived in Cebu on 15 April 1565. They attempted to parley with the ruler, Rajah Tupas, but found that he. Rajah Tupas presented himself at their camp on 8 May, feast of the Apparition of Saint Michael the Archangel, the Treaty of Cebu was formalized on 3 July 1565. López de Legazpis party named the new city Villa de San Miguel de Cebú, in 1567 the Cebu garrison was reinforced with the arrival of 2,100 soldiers from New Spain. The growing colony was fortified by Fort San Pedro, by 1569 the Spanish settlement in Cebu had become important as a safe port for ships from Mexico and as a jumping-off point for further exploration of the archipelago.
Small expeditions led by Juan de Salcedo went to Mindoro and Luzon, one year later, López de Legazpi departed Cebu to discuss a peace pact with the defeated Rajahs. On 14 August 1595, Pope Clement VIII created the diocese of Cebu as a suffragan to the Archdiocese of Manila
It was established by 10 leaders called Datus. They were connected with the court of Indianized native kingdoms of Brunei and Srivijaya, who were forced to leave that land on account of enmity with the Rajah, the local folklore says that the name of the Bornean Rajah was Makatunao. They embarked on sailing rafts of the used by the Visayans in Sumatra. The semi-democratic confederation or Kedatuan was integrated to the Spanish Empire through pacts and treaties by Miguel López de Legazpi, during the time of their hispanization, the principalities of the Confederation were already developed settlements with distinct social structure, culture and religion. Among the archaeological proofs of the existence of this Hiligaynon nation are the found in pre-Hispanic tombs from many parts of the island. There are recent discoveries of artifacts of eight-foot inhabitants of Isla de Gigantes, including extra-large Lungon. One of these Westerners accounts says that the tales regarding adventures of this ancient hero of Panay were being retold during wedding celebrations in form of songs, Madja-as was a pre-colonial Indianized kingdom.
The polity of Pannai was a militant-nation allied under the Sri-Vijaya Mandala that defended the conflict-ridden Strait of Malacca, the Chola invaders eventually destroyed the polity of Pannai and its surviving soldiers and scholars were said to have been secreted-out eastwards. In their 450 years of occupying Sumatra, they refused to be enslaved to Islam, the people who stayed behind in Pannai, have an oral tradition wherein they said that the high-borne scholars and nobles of Pannai, fled to other islands. The following is the account of P. Francisco Colin. One of these groups was subjugated there and they were unable to flee for various circumstances. Someone speaking pampango found out that they were not speaking pampango among themselves, but they donned the old pampango ethnic costume. And when he addressed an old man among them, the replied, You are descendants of the lost, that in times past left this place to settle in other lands, and nothing was heard about them again. Colins experience in Sumatra resonates the local tradition in the Visayan island of Panay, recorded in the Maragtas and it is good to note that the word maragtas in the Hiligaynon language means history.
The local Panay tradition recounts that sailing northward from Borneo along the coast of Palawan, the ten Datus from Borneo crossed the intervening sea and they landed at the point, which is near the present town of San Joaquin. They had been able to reach the place directly because their small fleet was piloted by a sailor who had visited these regions on a ship engaged in commerce. Soon after the expedition had landed, the Malay migrants from Borneo came in contact with the people of the Island. Some writers have interpreted these Atis as Negritos, other sources present evidence that they were not at all a dwarfed primitive people of Negrito type, but were rather tall, dark-skinned Indonesian type
Rajahnate of Maynila
It is one of the settlements mentioned by the Philippines earliest historical record, the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. Thus, it became a force in trade throughout Southeast Asia. Tondos regional prominence further culminated during the period of its associated trade, and by around 1500, the kingdom reached its peak as a thalassocratic force in the northern part of the archipelago. Following contact with the Spanish Empire beginning in 1570 and the defeat of local rulers in the Manila Bay area in 1571, Tondo was ruled from Manila. The kingdoms absorption into the Spanish Empire effectively ended its status as an independent kingdom, numerous theories on the origin of the name Tondo have been put forward. Filipino National Artist Nick Joaquin suggested that it might be a reference to high ground, french linguist Jean-Paul Potet, has suggested that the River Mangrove, Aegiceras corniculatum, which at the time was called tundok, is the most likely origin of the name. The bay area in which Tondo can be found was named Lusong or Lusung and this name was eventually used as the modern name of the entire island of Luzon.
Rajah Alon, King of Tondo and son of Lakan Timamanukum, expanded the Kingdom of Tondo by conquering neighboring territories such as Kapampangan chiefdoms, Kumintang and he was succeeded by his grandson Rajah Gambang. The Tondo Dynasty lasted until the end of the 15th century, the first reference to Tondo occurs in the Philippines oldest historical record — the Laguna Copperplate Inscription. This legal document was written in Kawi, and dates back to Saka 822, the article mentioned that other places in the Philippines and their Rulers, Puliran Kasumuran, Binwangan. While the document does not describe the relationship of the King of Tundun with these other rulers. The next historical reference to Ancient Tondo can be found in the Ming Shilu Annals and her rulers, based in their capital, Tondo were acknowledged not as mere chieftains, but as kings. This reference places Tondo into the context of Chinese trade with the aboriginals of the Philippine archipelago. But the earliest archeological evidence of trade between the Philippine aborigines and China takes the form of pottery and porcelain pieces dated to the Tang and Song Dynasties and it is believed that the people of Tondo kingdom were related to Malay of Malay peninsula and Sumatra.
They belonged to the nobility class similar to the Timawa of the Visayan people. In modern Filipino, the term itself has come to mean royal nobility. The different type of culture prevalent in Luzon gave a stable and more complex social structure to the pre-colonial Tagalog barangays of Manila, Pampanga. The more complex structure of the Tagalogs was less stable during the arrival of the Spaniards because it was still in a process of differentiating
Hinduism is a religion, or a way of life, found most notably in India and Nepal. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, and some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder. This Hindu synthesis started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE following the Vedic period, although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, and pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Shruti and Smriti and these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, and temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha, karma and the various Yogas. Hindu practices include such as puja and recitations, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals.
Some Hindus leave their world and material possessions, engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, Hinduism is the worlds third largest religion, with over one billion followers or 15% of the global population, known as Hindus. The majority of Hindus reside in India, Mauritius, the Caribbean, the word Hindu is derived from the Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit word Sindhu, the Indo-Aryan name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. The term Hindu in these ancient records is a geographical term, the Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people who live across the River Indus. This Arabic term was taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as an alternative name of India. It was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus.
The term Hinduism, spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th-century to denote the religious, because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion defies our desire to define and categorize it, Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, and a way of life. From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion, in India the term dharma is preferred, which is broader than the western term religion. Hindu traditionalists prefer to call it Sanatana Dharma, the study of India and its cultures and religions, and the definition of Hinduism, has been shaped by the interests of colonialism and by Western notions of religion. Since the 1990s, those influences and its outcomes have been the topic of debate among scholars of Hinduism, Hinduism as it is commonly known can be subdivided into a number of major currents
Maitum Anthropomorphic Pottery
In 1991, the National Museum archaeological team discovered anthropomorphic secondary burial jars in Ayub Cave, Barangay Pinol, Sarangani Province, Philippines. The jars are commonly known today as Maitum jars and they are made of earthenware, and are characterized by their design that suggests human figures with complete or partial facial features of the first inhabitants in Mindanao. Furthermore, they give emphasis to the Filipinos’ popular belief of life after death, according to Dr. Eusebio Dizon, head of the archaeological team, this type of burial jars are “remarkably unique and intriguing” because they have not been found elsewhere in Southeast Asia. These jars have characteristics that belong to the Developed Metal Age Period in the Philippines, according to the laboratory results determined through radiocarbon dating, these secondary burial jars date back to the Metal Age. Two conventional dates were 1830 +/-60 B. P. and 1920 +/-50 B. P, experts used soot samples taken from the walls of a small earthenware vessel found inside one of the larger burial jars.
Three days after, the archaeologist received photographs of artifacts collected by local residents. The artifacts have high probability of not only to the history of Maguindanao. That’s why when they found a sponsor for Dr. Dizon’s trip to Mindanao, he still went despite the unpredictable climate. The Maitum Archaeological Project of the National Museum team formally started on November 6,1991, Ayub Cave, now referred to as Pinol Cave, is a Miocene limestone formation located approximately 1,000 meters due south of the Mindanao shoreline with an elevation of 6 meters. The site is on the area of Pinol, Maitum. The first phase of the ended on December 1991, the second was from April 8 to May 3,1992. Unfortunately, the conflict between the Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front during the 70’s resulted in casualties in this historical site. It threatened future discoveries and prevented preservation, no complete Maitum jar in the form of a female has survived, but there are still evidence of its existence such as the many pottery shards of female breasts.
This is an indication of equality in terms of the practice of jar burials, altogether, a total of 29 burial jars and approximately 33 baskets or about 4 cubic meters of archaeological material have been collected. Most of them are now in the possession and care of the National Museum while some are on display at the level of Maitum Municipal Hall in an exhibit called as The Treasures of Maitum. And because of its significance the Pinol Cave was declared by the National Museum of the Philippines as an “Important Cultural Property” on May 5,2009, while there are three types of heads, Plain and Painted red and black from hematite and organic material. The black paint may indicate where the hair of the dead has once been, some jars are decorated with glass beads and shell scoops and pendants. All of these features represent and reflect the Maitum potters’ creativity, the heads of the anthropomorphic covers portray different facial expressions and emotions, ranging from happiness and contentment to sadness and grief
Buddhism is a religion and dharma that encompasses a variety of traditions and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to the Buddha. Buddhism originated in India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE, from where it spread through much of Asia, two major extant branches of Buddhism are generally recognized by scholars and Mahayana. Buddhism is the worlds fourth-largest religion, with over 500 million followers or 7% of the global population, Buddhist schools vary on the exact nature of the path to liberation, the importance and canonicity of various teachings and scriptures, and especially their respective practices. In Theravada the ultimate goal is the attainment of the state of Nirvana, achieved by practicing the Noble Eightfold Path, thus escaping what is seen as a cycle of suffering. Theravada has a following in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. Mahayana, which includes the traditions of Pure Land, Nichiren Buddhism, rather than Nirvana, Mahayana instead aspires to Buddhahood via the bodhisattva path, a state wherein one remains in the cycle of rebirth to help other beings reach awakening.
Vajrayana, a body of teachings attributed to Indian siddhas, may be viewed as a branch or merely a part of Mahayana. Tibetan Buddhism, which preserves the Vajrayana teachings of eighth century India, is practiced in regions surrounding the Himalayas, Tibetan Buddhism aspires to Buddhahood or rainbow body. Buddhism is an Indian religion attributed to the teachings of Buddha, the details of Buddhas life are mentioned in many early Buddhist texts but are inconsistent, his social background and life details are difficult to prove, the precise dates uncertain. Some hagiographic legends state that his father was a king named Suddhodana, his mother queen Maya, and he was born in Lumbini gardens. Some of the stories about Buddha, his life, his teachings, Buddha was moved by the innate suffering of humanity. He meditated on this alone for a period of time, in various ways including asceticism, on the nature of suffering. He famously sat in meditation under a Ficus religiosa tree now called the Bodhi Tree in the town of Bodh Gaya in Gangetic plains region of South Asia.
He reached enlightenment, discovering what Buddhists call the Middle Way, as an enlightened being, he attracted followers and founded a Sangha. Now, as the Buddha, he spent the rest of his teaching the Dharma he had discovered. Dukkha is a concept of Buddhism and part of its Four Noble Truths doctrine. It can be translated as incapable of satisfying, the unsatisfactory nature, the Four Truths express the basic orientation of Buddhism, we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which is dukkha, incapable of satisfying and painful. This keeps us caught in saṃsāra, the cycle of repeated rebirth, dukkha
New Spain was a colonial territory of the Spanish Empire, in the New World north of the Isthmus of Panama. It was established following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire in 1521, after 1535 the colony was governed by the Viceroy of New Spain, an appointed minister of the King of Spain, who ruled as monarch over the colony. The capital of New Spain was Mexico City and it developed highly regional divisions, which reflect the impact of climate, the presence or absence of dense indigenous populations, and the presence or absence of mineral resources. The areas of central and southern Mexico had dense indigenous populations with complex social, silver mining not only became the engine of the economy of New Spain, but vastly enriched Spain, and transformed the global economy. New Spain was the New World terminus of the Philippine trade, although New Spain was a dependency of Spain, it was a kingdom not a colony, subject to the presiding monarch on the Iberian Peninsula. Every privilege and position, economic political, or religious came from him and it was on this basis that the conquest and government of the New World was achieved.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain was established in 1535 in the Kingdom of New Spain and it was the first New World viceroyalty and one of only two in the Spanish empire until the 18th century Bourbon Reforms. The Spanish Empire comprised the territories in the north overseas Septentrion, from North America, to the west of the continent, New Spain included the Spanish East Indies. To the east of the continent, it included the Spanish West Indies and this was not occupied by many Spanish settlers and were considered more marginal to Spanish interests than the most densely populated and lucrative areas of central Mexico. To shore up its claims in North America starting in the late 18th century, Spanish expeditions to the Pacific Northwest explored and claimed the coast of what is now British Columbia and Alaska. The indigenous societies of Mesoamerica brought under Spanish control were of unprecedented complexity, the societies could provide the conquistadors, especially Hernán Cortés, a base from which the conquerors could become autonomous, or even independent, of the Crown.
As a result, the Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain, since the time of the Catholic Monarchs, central Iberia was governed through councils appointed by the monarch with particular jurisdictions. Thus, the creation of the Council of the Indies became another, the crown had set up the Casa de Contratación in 1503 to regulate contacts between Spain and its overseas possessions. A key function was to gather information about navigation to make trips less risky and they were accompanied by maps of the area discussed, many of which were drawn by indigenous artists. The Francisco Hernández Expedition, the first scientific expedition to the New World, was sent to gather information medicinal plants, an earlier Audiencia had been established in Santo Domingo in 1526 to deal with the Caribbean settlements. That Audiencia, housed in the Casa Reales in Santo Domingo, was charged with encouraging further exploration, management by the Audiencia, which was expected to make executive decisions as a body, proved unwieldy.
Therefore, in 1535, King Charles V named Don Antonio de Mendoza as the first Viceroy of New Spain. After the Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire in 1532 opened up the vast territories of South America to further conquests, the Crown established an independent Viceroyalty of Peru there in 1540
Rajahnate of Butuan
The Rajahnate of Butuan or Kingdom of Butuan was a Indic polity centered on the present Mindanao island city of Butuan in what is now the southern Philippines. It was known for its mining of gold, its products and its extensive trade network across the Nusantara area. The kingdom had trading relationships with the ancient civilizations of Japan, India, Persia, the balangay that have been found along the east and west banks of the Libertad river have revealed much about Butuans history. As a result, Butuan is considered to have been a trading port in the Caraga region during the pre-colonial era. Evidence indicates that Butuan was in contact with the Song dynasty of China by at least 1001 AD, the rajah sent an envoy under I-hsu-han, with a formal memorial requesting equal status in court protocol with the Champa envoy. The request was denied by the Imperial court, mainly because of favoritism over Champa, a new ruler with the Indianized name Sri Bata Shaja succeeded in attaining diplomatic equality with Champa by sending the flamboyant ambassador Likanhsieh.
This display of irreverence sparked interests from China over the small Rajahnate, chinese records about the Rajahnate stopped after the reign of Rajah Calambu the last independent Rajah of Butuan. He was formally subjugated into the Spanish empire after he made a compact with Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. Numerous jars have been found in the Butuan area that indicate the wealth of the kingdom, the name Butuan is believed to have existed long before the Spanish conquistadores arrived in the Philippine archipelago. One possible indication of this is a rhinoceros ivory seal with design carved in ancient Javanese or early kawi script which, another account suggests the name derives from the word batuan, a mangosteen-related fruit common in Mindanao. Another alternative is that the name derives from Datu Bantuan, possibly a former lord of the region, Butuan History of the Philippines Butuan silver strips Flag and smbols Butuan ivory seals