Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma
Sree Padmanabhadasa Sree Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, popularly known as Sree Chithira Thirunal, was the last ruling Maharaja of the Princely State of Travancore, in southern India until 1949 and the Titular Maharajah of Travancore until 1991. Sree Chithira Thirunal was the eldest son of Junior Maharani of Travancore, H. H. Sree Padmanabhasevini Vanchidharmavardhini Rajarajeshwari Maharani Moolam Thirunal Sethu Parvathi Bayi, Sri Pooram Nal Ravi Varma Koyi Thampuran of the Royal House of Kilimanoor, he was educated, became the Maharajah of Travancore, at the age of 12, upon the death of his maternal great uncle, the Maharajah of Travancore Sree Moolam Thirunal, on 7 August 1924. He reigned under the regency of his maternal aunt, Sethu Lakshmi Bayi, until he came of age and was invested with full ruling powers on 6 November 1931; the period of Sree Chithira Thirunal's reign witnessed many-sided progress. He enacted the now famous Temple Entry Proclamation in 1936, established the University of Travancore in 1937.
The Women Studies Journal Samyukta reports that, 40% of the Travancore's revenue was set apart for education, during the reign of Sree Chithira Thirunal. Thiruvananthapuram International Airport, Travancore Public Transport Department renamed Kerala State Road Transport Corporation, Pallivasal Hydro-electric Project and Chemicals Travancore etc. were established by him. Historians like A. Sreedhara Menon credit him for the industrialization of Travancore as well. According to researchers, the Punnapra - Vayalar incident in 1946 which led to the death of hundreds of Communist Party workers, the declaration of an independent Travancore in 1947, allowing too much power to his Prime Minister, Sir C. P. Ramaswamy Iyer, would represent the negative aspects of Sree Chithira Thirunal's reign. Upon India's independence from the British on 15 August 1947, Sree Chithira Thirunal chose to keep his domain an independent country; as this was unacceptable to the Govt. Of India, several rounds of negotiations were held between the Maharaja and the Indian representatives.
An agreement was reached in 1949 and Sree Chithira Thirunal agreed to merge Travancore as a part of the Union of India. In 1949, Travancore was united with Cochin, Sree Chithira Thirunal served as the first and only Rajpramukh of the Travancore-Cochin Union from 1 July 1949 until 31 October 1956. On 1 November 1956, the state of Kerala was created by uniting the Malayalam-speaking areas of the Travancore-Cochin Union with Malabar, Sree Chithira Thirunal's office of Rajpramukh came to an end. Sree Chithira Thirunal was an Hon. Major General with the British Indian Army and the Colonel-in-Chief and the Supreme Commander of the Travancore Military and of the Travancore-Cochin State Forces, for the period 1924–56, he became an Hon. Colonel in the Indian Army since 1949, as the Travancore Military was integrated by him into the former, as the 9th and the 16th Battalion of the Madras Regiment. After the Constitutional Amendment of 1971, he was stripped of his political powers and emoluments from the privy purse by the Indira Gandhi government.
At the age of 78, after suffering a stroke, he fell into a coma for nine days and died on 20 July 1991. Along with the Sree Chitra Thirunal Institute of Medical Sciences and Technology, many other charitable trusts were established using the funds and buildings provided by him. Sree Chithira Thirunal sponsored the higher education of a young K. R. Narayanan who went on to become the 10th President of India. Sree Chithira Thirunal was the eldest son of Sethu Parvathi Bayi, popularly known as "Amma Maharani", the Queen Mother and Junior Maharani of Travancore, by her consort, Ravi Varma Kochu Koyi Thampuran of Royal House of Kilimanoor, a Sanskrit scholar and the great-nephew of the celebrated painter Raja Ravi Varma, he was born on a Deepavali day on 7 November 1912, as the Heir Apparent to the throne of Travancore. His siblings were Uthradom Thirunal Marthanda Varma. Sree Chithira Thirunal's mother, Sethu Parvathi Bayi, was distantly related, by birth, to the royal house of Travancore in the direct female line.
In 1900, following the absence of heirs in the Travancore Royal Family, she had been adopted by her maternal great-aunt. According to the matrilineal traditions of the Travancore Royal Family, Sree Chithira Thirunal, at the time of his birth, was proclaimed the Heir Apparent of Travancore with the title of: Sree Padmanabhadasa Maharajkumar Sree Balarama Varma II, Elaya Rajah of Travancore. At the age of 6, Sree Chithira Thirunal began his education under tutors specially chosen by his uncle, Maharajah Sree Moolam Thirunal, in subjects like Malayalam, Tamil, Mathematics, Geography, General Literature and Culture, his early education in Malayalam and Sanskrit was imparted by the eminent scholar of the time, Sri Attoor Krishna Pisharody and in English by Mr. Dowel I. C. S and T. Raman Nambeeshan, he had his higher education under Captain G. T. B. Harvey, Mr. Dutt I. C. S. At the age of 16 began his training in State Craft and Administration, for two years, in Bangalore. Sree Chithira Thirunal lived in Bangalore till 1 July 1931 and acquired knowledge in practical administration for 15 months, under the guidance of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV, the Maharajah of Mysore.
The head tutor of Sree Chithira Thirunal, Captain. Harvey, quoted in his report to the Travancore government that: His Highness is an intelligent and willing pupil and his educational progress has been quite satisfactory, his mental equipment and the present s
A princely state called native state, feudatory state or Indian state, was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj. Though the history of the princely states of the subcontinent dates from at least the classical period of Indian history, the predominant usage of the term princely state refers to a semi-sovereign principality on the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj, not directly governed by the British, but rather by a local ruler, subject to a form of indirect rule on some matters. In actual fact, the imprecise doctrine of paramountcy allowed the government of British India to interfere in the internal affairs of princely states individually or collectively and issue edicts that applied to all of India when it deemed it necessary. At the time of the British withdrawal, 565 princely states were recognised in the Indian subcontinent, apart from thousands of thakurs, taluqdars and jagirs. In 1947, princely states covered 40% of area of pre-Independent India and constituted 23% of its population.
The most important states had their own British Political Residencies: Hyderabad and Travancore in the South followed by Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim in the Himalayas, Indore in Central India. The most prominent among those – a quarter of the total – had the status of a salute state, one whose ruler was entitled to a set number of gun salutes on ceremonial occasions; the princely states varied in status and wealth. In 1941, Hyderabad had a population of over 16 million, while Jammu and Kashmir had a population of over 4 million. At the other end of the scale, the non-salute principality of Lawa covered an area of 49 km2, with a population of just below 3,000; some two hundred of the lesser states had an area of less than 25 km2. The era of the princely states ended with Indian independence in 1947. By 1950 all of the principalities had acceded to either India or Pakistan; the accession process was peaceful, except in the cases of Jammu and Kashmir, Junagadh. and Kalat. As per the terms of accession, the erstwhile Indian princes received privy purses, retained their statuses and autonomy in internal matters during a transitional period which lasted until 1956.
During this time, the former princely states were merged into unions, each of, headed by a former ruling prince with the title of Rajpramukh, equivalent to a state governor. In 1956, the position of Rajpramukh was abolished and the federations dissolved, the former principalities becoming part of Indian states; the states which acceded to Pakistan retained their status until the promulgation of a new constitution in 1956, when most became part of the province of West Pakistan. The Indian Government formally derecognised the princely families in 1971, followed by the Government of Pakistan in 1972. Though principalities and chiefdoms existed on the Indian subcontinent from at least the Iron Age, the history of princely states on the Indian subcontinent dates to at least the 5th–6th centuries C. E. during the rise of the middle kingdoms of India following the collapse of the Gupta Empire. Many of the future ruling clan groups – notably the Rajputs – began to emerge during this period; the widespread expansion of Islam during this time brought many principalities into tributary relations with Islamic sultanates, notably with the Mughal Empire.
In the south, the Hindu Vijayanagara Empire remained dominant until the mid-17th century. The Turco-Mongol Mughal Empire brought a majority of the existing Indian kingdoms and principalities under its suzerainty by the 17th century, beginning with its foundation in the early 16th century; the advent of Sikhism resulted in the Jat sikh creation of the Sikh Empire in the north by the early 18th century, by which time the Mughal Empire was in full decline. At the same time, the Marathas carved out their own states to form the Maratha Empire. Through the 18th century, former Mughal governors formed their own independent states. In the north-west, some of those – such as Tonk – allied themselves with various groups, including the Marathas and the Durrani Empire, itself formed in 1747 from a loose agglomeration of tribal chiefdoms that composed former Mughal territories. In the south, the principalities of Hyderabad and Arcot were established by the 1760s, though they nominally remained vassals of the Mughal Emperor.
India under the British Raj consisted of two types of territory: British India and the Native states or Princely states. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any govern
Central India Agency
The Central India Agency was created in 1854, by amalgamating the Western Malwa Agency with other smaller political offices which reported to the Governor-General of India. The agency was overseen by a political agent who maintained British relations with the princely states and influence over them on behalf of the Governor-General; the headquarters of the agent were at Indore. British hegemony over the states of Central India began in 1802, when several states in the Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand regions came under British control at the conclusion of the Treaty of Bassein between the British and the Maratha - Peshwa Bajirao II. British control of Bundelkhand expanded at the conclusion of the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1805; the remaining states, including Gwalior, Bhopal and a number of smaller states in the regions of Malwa and Bundelkhand, came under British control with the end of the Third Anglo-Maratha War in 1818. The estate of Chanderi was ceded to the Sindhia ruler of Gwalior in 1844 by the British, Jhansi State was seized by the British in 1853 under the doctrine of lapse was added to the United Provinces.
In 1921 Gwalior Residency was separated from the Central India Agency, in 1933 the state of Makrai transferred to Central India from the Central Provinces and Berar. The princely states in the area of the Agency, 148 in all, varied in status and in size. Eleven states held treaty relations directly with the British Government, were known as the treaty states: Gwalior State, Indore State, Bhopal State, Dhar State, Dewas Senior and Dewas Junior, Orchha, Datia and Rewa; the 31 sanad states had direct relations with the British Government, but not by treaty. These states, in Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand, were granted deeds confirming rulers in possession of their states, in return for the rulers signing a written bond of allegiance to the British; the remaining smaller states and estates were known as mediatized or guaranteed states. Mediatized states were under the authority of a larger state, with the relationship between the states arranged through British mediation. Guaranteed states, found only in Malwa, were states under the authority of larger states, in which the British guaranteed whatever rights existed at the time of British occupation of the region at the conclusion of the Pindari War.
The princely states were related to one of several political officers, which were rearranged a number of times in the history of the Agency. Upon the British withdrawal from India in 1947, the political offices consisted of Indore Residency and the Bundelkhand and Malwa Agencies. Bundelkhand Agency was bounded by Bagelkhand to the east, the United Provinces to the north, Lalitpur District to the west, the Central Provinces to the south. Bagelkhand Agency was separated from Bundelkhand in 1871. In 1900 it included 9 states, the most important of which were Orchha, Samthar, Chhatarpur, Datia and Ajaigarh; the agency included 13 estates and the pargana of Alampur, the latter belonging to Indore State. In 1931, all of the states under the Baghelkhand Agency apart from Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand. Salute states, by precedence: Datia, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 15-guns Orchha, title raja, Hereditary salute of 15-guns Ajaigarh, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Baoni, title Nawab, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Bijawar, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Charkhari, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Panna, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 11-guns Samthar, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 11-gunsNon-salute states, alphabetically: Alipura, title Rao Beri, title Rao/Raja Bihat Chhatarpur, title Raja Garrauli Gaurihar, title Sardar Sawai.
In 1900, it covered the area of twelve states, including: Salute states, by precedence: Rewa, the largest state in Bagelkhand, title Maharaja, Hereditary salute of 17-guns Baraundha, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 9-guns Maihar, title Raja, Hereditary salute of 9-gunsNon-salute states: Bhaisaunda Jaso Kamta-Rajaula Kothi Nagode Pahra Paldeo Sohawal TaraonIn 1931, all of the states but Rewa were transferred back to Bundelkhand, in 1933 Rewa was transferred to the Indore Residency. Gwalior Residency was placed under the Central India Agency in 1854, separated from Central India Agency in 1921, it included the following, among other smaller states, plus Chhabra pargana of Tonk State: Salute states: Gwalior, title Maharaja Scindia.
Maharaja of Patiala
The Maharaja of Patiala was a maharaja in India and the ruler of the princely state of Patiala, a Sidhu Jat state in British India. The first Maharaja of Patiala was Baba Ala Singh Sidhu, granted the title by Ahmed Shah Abdali of Afghanistan in 1764. Yadavindra Singh became the maharaja on 23 March 1938, he was the last independent maharaja, agreeing to the accession of Patiala State into the newly independent Union of India in 1947. On 5 May 1948, he became Rajpramukh of the new Indian state of Patiala and East Punjab States Union; the most famous Maharaja of Patiala was Maharaja Bhupinder Singh. He is best known for his extravagance, for being a cricketer, his polo and cricket teams were among the best in India. Two of his sons, Maharajadhiraj Yadavindra Singh and Raja Bhalindra Singh, both played first-class cricket. Yuvraj played in one Test for India, in 1934; the Maharaja of Patiala was known as the owner of the highest cricket ground in Chail and the first Indian to own a car and an aircraft.
He was said to own an aircraft in the Wright brothers' model-B craft. The Maharaja of Patiala was considered as leader of the Sikhs and masses of Punjab before the Partition of India; when during rainy season a seasonal river bordering the city of Patiala overflows, the incumbent Maharaja offers the river a traditional Nath, an ornament worn by women in their nose, thick kangans, following prayers made by priests. This was last practised in 1993, when the river breached the river flooded Patiala. Yadavindra Singh became the maharaja on 23 March 1938, he was the last independent maharaja, agreeing to the accession of Patiala State into the newly independent Union of India in 1947. On 5 May 1948 he became Rajpramukh of the new Indian state of East Punjab States Union; the present head of the royal family, the heir of Yadavindra Singh, is Captain Amarinder Singh Chief Minister of Punjab and a politician of the Indian National Congress. His son is Raninder Singh. Maharaja Baba Ala Singh Maharaja Amar Singh Maharaja Sahib Singh Maharaja Karam Singh Maharaja Narinder Singh Maharaja Mohinder Singh Maharaja Rajinder Singh Maharaja Bhupinder Singh Maharaja Yadavindra Singh Patiala House Courts Complex housed in the former palace of the Maharaja The Phulkian Dynasty Bhupinder Singh, Maharaja of Patiala Collar del Maharaja de Patiala
Emperor of India
Emperor/Empress of India, styled as the King-Emperor or Queen-Empress, was a title used by British monarchs from 1 May 1876 to 22 June 1948. The Emperor/Empress's image was used to signify British government authority — his/her profile, for instance, appearing on currency, in government buildings, railway stations, courts, on statues etc. "God Save the King" was the former national anthem of British India. Oaths of allegiance were made to the Emperor/Empress and his/her lawful successors by the princes, commissioners in India in events such as Imperial Durbars; the Emperor/Empress took little direct part in government. The decisions to exercise sovereign powers were delegated from the Emperor/Empress, either by statute or by convention, to the Viceroy and Governor-General of India who were appointed by the Emperor/Empress, to offices such as the Secretary of State for India, exclusive of him/her personally, thus the acts of state done in the name of the Crown, such as Crown Appointments if performed by them, such as the Imperial Durbars depended upon decisions made elsewhere, such as the India Office.
Legislatures such as the Central Legislative Assembly, Imperial Legislative Council and Council of State were presided by the Viceroy and Governor-General on behalf of the Emperor/Empress, Governors of provinces, by and with the advice and consent of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Government of India. Executive power was exercised by His/Her Imperial Majesty's Government in the presidencies and provinces, which comprised of ministers, the princely states, via suzerainty, they had the direction of the Armed Forces in India, such as the British Indian Army and Royal Indian Navy, the Indian Civil Service and other Crown Servants Secret Services. Judicial power was vested in the various Crown Courts in India, who by statute had judicial independence of the Government. Unlike the United Kingdom, the Church of England did not hold power in Indian matters as it would be deemed unacceptable to the religions of India. Powers independent of government were granted to other public bodies by statute or Statutory Instrument such as an Order in Council, Royal Commission or otherwise.
After the nominal Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was deposed at the conclusion of the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the government of the United Kingdom decided to transfer control of British India and its princely states from the mercantile East India Company to the Crown, thus marking the beginning of the British Raj. The EIC was dissolved on 1 June 1874, the British Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, decided to offer Queen Victoria the title "Empress of India" shortly afterwards. Victoria accepted this style on 1 May 1876; the first Delhi Durbar was held in her honour eight months on 1 January 1877. The idea of having Victoria proclaimed Empress of India was not new, as Lord Ellenborough had suggested it in 1843 upon becoming the Governor-General of India. By 1874, Major-General Sir Henry Ponsonby, the Queen's Private Secretary, had ordered English charters to be scrutinised for imperial titles, with Edgar and Stephen mentioned as sound precedents; the Queen irritated by the sallies of the republicans, the tendency to democracy, the realisation that her influence was manifestly on the decline, was urging the move.
Another factor may have been that the Queen's first child, was married to Crown Prince Frederick, the heir to the German Empire. Upon becoming empress, the Princess Royal would outrank her mother. By January 1876, the Queen's insistence was so great that Benjamin Disraeli felt that he could procrastinate no longer. Victoria had considered the style "Empress of Great Britain and India", but Disraeli had persuaded the Queen to limit the title to India in order to avoid controversy. Many in the United Kingdom, regarded the assumption of the title as an obvious development from the 1858 Government of India Act, which resulted in the founding of the British Raj; the public were of the opinion that the title of "Queen" was no longer adequate for the ceremonial ruler of what was referred to informally as the Indian Empire. The new styling underlined the fact that the native states were no longer a mere agglomeration but a collective entity; when Edward VII ascended to the throne on 22 January 1901, he continued the imperial tradition laid down by his mother, Queen Victoria, by adopting the title "Emperor of India".
Three subsequent British monarchs followed in his footsteps, it continued to be used after India had become independent on 15 August 1947. It was not until 22 June 1948 that the style was abolished during the reign of George VI; when signing off Indian business, the reigning British king-emperors or queen-empresses used the initials R I or the abbreviation Ind. Imp. after their name. When a male monarch held the title, his wife used the style queen-empress, despite the fact that she was not a reigning monarch in her own right. British coins, as well as those of the Empire and the Commonwealth included the abbreviated title Ind. Imp.. Coins in India, on the other hand, were stamped with the word "Empress", "King-Emperor"; when India became independent in 1
Yadvinder Singh Mahendra pronunciation was the 9th and last Maharaja of Patiala from 1938 to 1971. He was an Indian cricketer who played in one Test in 1934. Born at Patiala, Punjab in 1914, Maharaja Yadavindra attended Lahore, he served in the Patiala State Police, became its Inspector General and served in Malaya and Burma during the Second World War. In 1935, he married Hem Prabha Devi of Saraikela State, he succeeded his father, Maharaja Bhupinder Singh, as the Maharaja of Patiala on 23 March 1938 and subsequently married his second wife, Mehtab Kaur, in 1938. It was believed that his second marriage was due to the stated reason that his first wife being issueless, in fact, was due to the influences of Akali leaders who wanted the future Maharaja of Patiala to marry to a Sikh family in order to beget genuine Sikh heirs. Yadavindra served as president of the Indian Olympic Association from 1938 to 1960, he was instrumental in organizing the Asian Games. He founded Yadavindra Public School. Lal Bagh Palace, the building in which Yadavindra Public School is housed was donated by Sir Yadavindra Singh.
He was a noted horticulturist by passion and served as chairman of Indian Horticulture Development Council. He was the president of BCCI. Following his accession to the throne of Patiala, Yadavindra pursued a political and diplomatic career, serving as chancellor of the Chamber of Princes from 1943 to 1944. In 1947, when India gained independence, he was the pro-chancellor of the Chamber of Princes. At a special session he said "After centuries time has come when India has gained independence from foreign rule and it's the time when we all should unite for our motherland" and persuaded many other rulers to join the Indian Union. During the Partition of India numerous pogroms occurred around the princely state of Patiala. In several cases, organized bands of Sikhs and Hindus were responsible for atrocities. Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru believed Maharaja Yadavindra Singh had tacitly or explicitly approved of these pogroms as part of an attempt to "get complete supremacy of Sikhistan". Harkishan Singh Surjeet general secretary of the CPI was an eyewitness and is quoted as saying he believes the pogroms were planned in advance and Yadavindra Singh was involved.
The Maharaja was involved in the Khalistan Movement, which aimed to create a state for Sikhs. Nehru believed the Maharaja had sought to ethnically cleanse the territory of Muslims as part of this effort. Master Tara Singh had proposed such a plan to the Maharajas of Patiala and Faridkot, Yadavindra Singh is quoted as having said "We won't leave a Muslim here" at a party with British officers; the Foreign Minister of Patiala, Sardar Bari Ram Sharma issued a denial stating "I assert that no Patiala soldier has associated himself with or has been involved in any killings in any part of the East Punjab."He agreed to the incorporation of the princely state into India on 5 May 1948. He was Rajpramukh of the new Indian state of Patiala and East Punjab States Union until it was merged with Punjab in 1956. In 1956 Yadvinder Singh donated the Anand Bhawan, a 150 bigha palace, to the Government of Punjab for a holiday home for poor children, leased out to Baba Ramdev for his Patanjali Trust, he continued his career from 1956 onwards, serving as Indian delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1956 to 1957 and to UNESCO in 1958.
He headed the Indian delegation to the FAO on and off during 1959-1969. Sir Yadavindra served as Indian Ambassador to Italy and as Indian Ambassador to the Netherlands from 1971 until 17 June 1974, when he died in office at The Hague from heart failure, age 60. On specific instructions of Indira Gandhi, he was cremated with full state honours, he was succeeded as family head by his son Amarinder Singh, a politician with the Congress Party and who served as Chief Minister of the Indian State of Punjab from 2002 to 2007 and again starting in 2017. His daughter, Heminder Kaur, was married to K. Natwar Singh, the former external affairs minister of India. 1913-1935: Sri Yuvaraja Yadavindra Singh Sahib-ji 1935-1938: Lieutenant Sri Yuvaraja Yadavindra Singh Sahib-ji 1938-1939: Lieutenant His Highness Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Mansur-i-Zaman, Amir ul-Umara, Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar, 108 Sri Maharaja-i-Rajgan, Maharaja Yadavindra Singh, Mahendra Bahadur, Yadu Vansha Vatans Bhatti Kul Bushan, Maharaja of Patiala 1939-1942: Captain His Highness Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Mansur-i-Zaman, Amir ul-Umara, Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar, 108 Sri Maharaja-i-Rajgan, Maharaja Yadavindra Singh, Mahendra Bahadur, Yadu Vansha Vatans Bhatti Kul Bushan, Maharaja of Patiala 1942-1944: Major His Highness Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Mansur-i-Zaman, Amir ul-Umara, Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar, 108 Sri Maharaja-i-Rajgan, Maharaja Sir Yadavindra Singh, Mahendra Bahadur, Yadu Vansha Vatans Bhatti Kul Bushan, Maharaja of Patiala, GBE 1944-1945: Lieutenant-Colonel His Highness Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Mansur-i-Zaman, Amir ul-Umara, Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar, 108 Sri Maharaja-i-Rajgan, Maharaja Sir Yadavindra Singh, Mahendra Bahadur, Yadu Vansha Vatans Bhatti Kul Bushan, Maharaja of Patiala, GBE 1945-1946: Major-General His Highness Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Mansur-i-Zaman, Amir ul-Umara, Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar, 108 Sri Maharaja-i-Rajgan, Maharaja Sir Yadavindra Singh, Mahendra Bahadur, Yadu Vansha Vatans Bhatti Kul Bushan, Maharaja of Patiala, GBE 1946-1971: Lieutenant-General His Highness Farzand-i-Khas-i-Daulat-i-Inglishia, Mansur-i-Zaman, Amir ul-Umara, Maharajadhiraja Raj Rajeshwar, 108 Sri Maharaja-i-Rajgan
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is a state in northern India denoted by its acronym, J&K. It is located in the Himalayan mountains, shares borders with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south; the Line of Control separates it from the Pakistani-administered territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan in the west and north and a Line of Actual Control separates it from the Chinese-administered territory of Aksai Chin in the east. The state has special autonomy under Article 370 of the Constitution of India. A part of the former princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the region is the subject of a territorial conflict among India and China; the western districts of the former princely state known as Azad Kashmir and the northern territories known as Gilgit-Baltistan have been under Pakistani control since 1947. The Aksai Chin region in the east, bordering Tibet, has been under Chinese control since 1962. Jammu and Kashmir consists of three regions: the Kashmir Valley and Ladakh. Srinagar is the summer capital, Jammu is the winter capital.
Jammu and Kashmir is the only state in India with a Muslim-majority population. The Kashmir valley is famous for its beautiful mountainous landscape, Jammu's numerous shrines attract tens of thousands of Hindu pilgrims every year, while Ladakh is renowned for its remote mountain beauty and Buddhist culture. Maharaja Hari Singh became the ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir in 1925, he was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of the British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. With the impending independence of India, the British announced that the British Paramountcy over the princely states would end, the states were free to choose between the new Dominions of India and Pakistan or to remain independent, it was emphasized that independence was only a ‘theoretical possibility’ because, during the long rule of the British in India, the states had come to depend on British Indian government for a variety of their needs including their internal and external security. Jammu and Kashmir had a Muslim majority.
Following the logic of Partition, many people in Pakistan expected. However, the predominant political movement in the Valley of Kashmir was secular and was allied with the Indian National Congress since the 1930s. So many in India too had expectations; the Maharaja was faced with indecision. On 22 October 1947, rebellious citizens from the western districts of the State and Pushtoon tribesmen from the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan invaded the State, backed by Pakistan; the Maharaja fought back but appealed for assistance to India, who agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947 in return for military aid and assistance, accepted by the Governor General the next day. While the Government of India accepted the accession, it added the proviso that it would be submitted to a "reference to the people" after the state is cleared of the invaders, since "only the people, not the Maharaja, could decide where the people of J&K wanted to live."
It was a provisional accession. Once the Instrument of Accession was signed, Indian soldiers entered Kashmir with orders to evict the raiders; the resulting Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 lasted till the end of 1948. At the beginning of 1948, India took the matter to the United Nations Security Council; the Security Council passed a resolution asking Pakistan to withdraw its forces as well as the Pakistani nationals from the territory of Jammu and Kashmir, India to withdraw the majority of its forces leaving only a sufficient number to maintain law and order, following which a plebiscite would be held. A ceasefire was agreed on 1 January supervised by UN observers. A special United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan was set up to negotiate the withdrawal arrangements as per the Security Council resolution; the UNCIP made three visits to the subcontinent between 1948 and 1949, trying to find a solution agreeable to both India and Pakistan. It passed a resolution in August 1948 proposing a three-part process.
It was accepted by India but rejected by Pakistan. In the end, no withdrawal was carried out, India insisting that Pakistan had to withdraw first, Pakistan contending that there was no guarantee that India would withdraw afterward. No agreement could be reached between the two countries on the process of demilitarization. India and Pakistan fought two further wars in 1965 and 1971. Following the latter war, the countries reached the Simla Agreement, agreeing on a Line of Control between their respective regions and committing to a peaceful resolution of the dispute through bilateral negotiations; the primary argument for the continuing debate over the ownership of Kashmir is that India did not hold the promised plebiscite. In fact, neither side has adhered to the UN resolution of 13 August 1948. India gives the following reasons for not holding the plebiscite: United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 on Kashmir was passed by UNSC under chapter VI of UN Charter, which are non-binding and have no mandatory enforceability.
In March 2001, the Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofi Annan during his visit to India and Pakistan, remarked that Kashmir resolutions are only advisory recommendations and comparing with those on East Timor and Iraq was like comparing apples and oranges, since those resolutions were passed under chapter VII, which make it enforceable by UNSC. In 2003 Paki