Rally raid known as cross-country rallying, is a form of long distance off-road racing that takes place over several days. The length of the event can be as short as 2-3 days for a cross-country baja to as long as 15 days with marathon rallies like the Dakar Rally. With skill in navigation being key, the driving skill and endurance of riders, drivers, co-drivers, machines are put to the test; the total distance covered can be anywhere between 600km to over 5000km with terrain ranging from sandy dunes, forest roads, mountain roads, dry river beds. The most well known of rally raid events is the Dakar Rally. Other prominent marathon rallies include Silk Way Rally. Well known examples of cross-country rallies include the Abu Dhabi Desert Challenge, Rally of Morocco, the Rallye des Pharaons; the Baja Aragón is an example of a cross-country baja with the Baja Russia Northern Forest taking place in snow. Other examples of rally raid races include the TransAnatolia Rally Raid, Hellas Rally Raid, Borneo Rally Raid, Raid De Himalaya.
The first African rally raid run was the Côte-Côte Rally, first held in December 1976. While the sport is most known for the Dakar Rally, a number of international competitions exist. For amateurs the Budapest-Bamako has been considered the world's largest amateur rally raid spanning two continents and 9000 kilometers. Navigation is accomplished using a paper roadbook in conjunction with a digital odometer to measure distance; the use of GPS or GPS-enabled devices, in contrast with desert racing, is not allowed. The three major competitive groups in rally raid are the motorcycle class, including quads; some events likes the ASO-sanctioned Dakar Rally separate the quads and SxSs into their own classes while the FIA and FIM-sanctioned events keep them as sub-classes. The Moto class is divided between three groups. Group 1 is Marathon bikes, which are mildly modified production motorcycles, subdivided between engines of greater and less than 451 cc. Group 2 is Super-Production bikes, which are more modified than Marathon bikes, subdivided between engines of greater and less than 451 cc.
Group 3 is reserved for quads, is subdivided between engines of greater and less than 500 cc. Popular motorcycles include those made by KTM, Yamaha and Husqvarna because many of their bikes have finished in top positions. BMW motorcycles and Triumph have been successful in the Dakar; the car class is made up of vehicles weighing less than 3,500 kg and subdivided into several categories. The T1 Group is made up of Improved Cross Country Vehicles, such as the Mitsubishi MRX09 Racing Lancer, Toyota Hilux overdrive, Mini X-raid buggy, the T2 Group is made up of Cross Country Series Production vehicles such as Toyota Land Cruiser, Nissan Patrol and Mercedes-Benz GLE-Class; the Open class accepts weight-qualifying vehicles, such as SCORE International trucks, while the T3 category refers to Side by Side vehicles made by Polaris and Can-Am. European utility vehicles like the Renault 4, Land Rover, Range Rover, Mercedes-Benz G, Volkswagen Iltis and the Pinzgauer, as well the Japanese Toyota Land Cruiser, dominated the sport.
Other prominent examples in the Car Class included the Mitsubishi Pajero/Montero, the Volkswagen Race Touareg, the Bowler Wildcat 200 and the Nissan Navara. Recent race winners include the Mini All4 Racing; the Truck class known as "Camions" or "Lorries" is made up of vehicles weighing more than 3,500 kg. They are divided into two groups, Group T4 and T5; the T4 Group is made up of trucks that participate in the competition, while the T5 Group is reserved for rally support trucks, which means they travel from bivouac to bivouac to support other competition vehicles. The T4 Group is further divided into two subgroups: the T4.1 class for production trucks, the T4.2 class for modified trucks. T4 trucks must be homologated vehicles. T5 trucks do not have to be homologated; the T4 Group has been composed of vehicles manufactured by Tatra, LIAZ, Kamaz, Isuzu, MAN, DAF, MAZ, ZiL, Mercedes-Benz Unimog, Renault Kerax, Iveco and GINAF. In the 1980s, a strong rivalry between DAF and Mercedes-Benz led to vehicles which had twin engines and more than 1000 hp.
Tatra and Kamaz took the race up. After 2000, renewed competition started in the truck class between DAF, Mercedes-Benz and Kamaz. FIA World Cup for Cross-Country Rallies FIA World Cup for Cross-Country Bajas FIM Cross-Country Rallies World Championship FIM Bajas World Cup Dakar Rally Africa Eco Race Silk Way Rally Abu Dhabi Desert Challenge Rally of Morocco Merzouga Rally Rallye des Pharaons Central Europe Rally Budapest-Bamako - Largest amateur rally raid Baja Aragón Baja Russia Northern Forest
The Simca 8 is a small family car built by Simca and sold in France between November 1937 and 1951, available as a saloon, coupé or cabriolet. It was a rebadged Fiat 508C "nuova Balilla" made at Fiat's Simca plant in France; the Simca 8 was first presented, at the Paris Motor Show in October 1937, sales in France started immediately in November. Early the next summer Henri Pigozzi, Simca's energetic boss, organised a three part endurance run under the supervision of the ACF. A single Simca 8 undertook a "non-stop" 50,000 kilometer run split as follows: 10,000 kilometers lapping the Montlhéry circuit averaging 115.1 km/h and returning 7.9 l/100 km 20,000 kilometers on open roads averaging 65 km/h and consuming 6.0 l/100 km 20,000 kilometers in Paris averaging 54 km/h and consuming 6.5 l/100 kmThe initial 10,000 km round the race-circuit south of Paris involved breaking no fewer than 8 international records, although the manufacturer's advertisement including this information does not spell out what these records were.
The purpose of the exercise was, of course, to gain positive publicity for the Simca 8, as soon as the 50,000 kilometers had been completed, on 12 May 1938, a press dinner was organised at which the journalists were able to dine with the drivers, the ACF monitors, the Simca directors as well as representatives from Shell and Dunlop, whose products had played a key role in the exercise. The printed summary of the event, used to advertise to the wider public, concluded with an invitation that the reader "achetez la même voiture". The'8' in the car's name did not indicate an eight-cylinder engine. At launch the car featured a 1,089 cc engine with a claimed output of 32 hp at 4,000 rpm. Fuel feed came via a Solex 30mm carburetor and overhead valves driven, using rods and rocker arms, by a side-mounted camshaft. An unusual feature at the time was the use of aluminium for the cylinder head. Shortly before it was replaced in 1951, the Simca 8 had acquired, in September 1949, the Fiat designed 1,221 cc engine which would be employed its successor, the popular 7CV Simca 9 Aronde.
At launch only two bodies were offered, these being a 2-door cabriolet. This contrasted with the Simca's Italian cousin for which a wider range of bodies was available from the start and it marked a departure from the strategy followed by Simca themselves with the predecessor model, the Simca-Fiat 6CV, offered with as wide a range of body variants as its Turin built relative; the 4-door saloon body was unusual in that there was no central pillar between the front doors, hinged at the front, the rear doors, hinged at the back, permitting easy access when a front and rear door were opened simultaneously. In 1937 the Simca 8 4-door Berline was priced at 23,900 Francs for a "Normale" version and at 25,900 Francs for a "Grande Luxe"; the Peugeot 202 made its debut only six months in Spring 1938, was priced at 21,300 Francs for a "Normale" version and at 22,500 Francs for a "Luxe". The cars were similar in size and power, but sales data suggest that the market found space for both of them, despite the Simca's higher price.
The post war range became wider, with coupé, cabriolet and after 1948 estate versions listed, but these were all more expensive than the berline: all the cars sold were still Simca 8 Berlines, which early in 1947 were priced at 330,000 francs against 420,000 francs for the cabriolet. Over the course of a few years the Simca 8 underwent some grille changes, other minor upgrades; the Simca 8 won plaudits for excellent fuel economy. The four ratios on the new gear box were chosen so that when cruising at 110 km/h fuel consumption remained reasonable, set to permit good progress along country roads and reasonable acceleration in hilly areas; the car came with unusually precise steering and efficient hydraulically controlled brakes that did not overheat. Commentators noted that the engine was noisy when working hard, the direction indicators were fragile, the ambitiously sophisticated front suspension proved fragile when confronted with France's rural roads, many of which were still unpaved; the gear box could be disagreeable when changing down across the gate from third speed to second, the car was only just large enough for four people, with only a small storage area for luggage, located in a hard to get at position behind the back seat and without any external access.
For most of the time the Simca 8's principal competitors were the "bargain basement" Renault Juvaquatre and the Peugeot 202. After the war, with the Juvaquatre range restricted to an estate version, Peugeot moving half a market segment up at the end of 1948 replacing the Peugeot 202 with the larger 203, sales of the Simca 8 held up impressively though the Simca was itself by now nearing the end of its production run. In 1948 the Simca 8 was Simca's top seller, with 14,000 sold all of them were saloons. Two years in its penultimate year, the car was being produced at an higher rate; the principal complication arose from the fact that the car was in most respects a badge engineered Fiat, which compromised its export potential, a particular issue after the war, when government were dema
Hotchkiss et Cie
Société Anonyme des Anciens Etablissements Hotchkiss et Cie was a French arms and, in the 20th century, automobile manufacturer first established by United States gunsmith Benjamin B. Hotchkiss, he moved to France and set up a factory, first at Viviez near Rodez in 1867 at Saint-Denis near Paris in 1875 manufacturing arms used by the French in the Franco-Prussian war. An example of the company's output was the Hotchkiss revolving cannon; the cannon had five barrels each able to fire 43 shells a minute a distance of one mile. At the turn of the twentieth century, the company introduced the gas-actuated Hotchkiss machine gun, a sturdy and reliable weapon, used during World War I and thereafter by the French Army. At the start of the twentieth century the company started building cars. Information provided by the company for the International Universal Exhibition of 1900, at which it displayed a variety of cannons, said the St Denis factory employed around 400 staff and had 600 machine tools; the first Hotchkiss car, a 17 CV four-cylinder model, appeared in 1903.
The badge for the marque consisted of a pair of crossed cannons—a salute to the company's first products. A factory fire nearly killed all projects. Despite this, a six-cylinder model followed in 1906. During World War I, they mass-produced the Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun, tank parts and other weapons. In 1933, they developed the Hotchkiss H35 tank. Post war came. In 1920, there was an unsuccessful attempt to build Hotchkiss cars by a British arm of Hotchkiss in the United Kingdom—only a prototype was made. A refined model named AM was in production between 1923 and 1928. A new six-cylinder model, named AM 80 came in 1928; the company made several successful racing cars. Hotchkiss racers won the Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo in 1932, 1933, 1934, 1939, 1949 and 1950; the Hotchkiss 680 was an important model between the wars—it had a six-cylinder, 3-litre engine. In 1937, the company merged with Amilcar. J. A. Grégoire joined the company as a designer. After World War II, the 680 continued; the first new car post war was a 13 CV four-cylinder model.
From 1947, two-litre flat-four models are called Hotchkiss-Grégoire. In 1954, Hotchkiss purchased French manufacturer Delahaye, closing down their automotive line but continuing to produce Hotchkiss-Delahaye trucks for a few months before eliminating the Delahaye name completely. After 1954, Hotchkiss manufactured Jeeps under licence from Willys. In 1956, Hotchkiss merged with French car manufacturer Brandt, producing jeeps at their factory near Paris for the French military until 1966; the firm was merged into Thomson-Houston in 1970 stopped producing vehicles of any sort. In the early 1970s, the Hotchkiss marque disappeared, as the French conglomerate came to be known as Thomson-Brandt. This, in turn, was nationalized in 1982 to form Thomson SA; the name of the Hotchkiss firm was given to a form of power transmission from a vehicle's engine by shaft to the differential on its back axle, which through leaf springs both locates the back axle and transmits drive forces to the vehicle, called Hotchkiss drive.
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
The Dakar Rally is an annual rally raid organised by the Amaury Sport Organisation. Most events since the inception in 1978 were from Paris, France, to Dakar, but due to security threats in Mauritania, which led to the cancellation of the 2008 rally, races since 2009 have been held in South America; the race is open to amateur and professional entries, amateurs making up about eighty percent of the participants. The race is an off-road endurance event; the terrain that the competitors traverse is much tougher than that used in conventional rallying, the vehicles used are true off-road vehicles rather than modified on-road vehicles. Most of the competitive special sections are off-road, crossing dunes, camel grass and erg among others; the distances of each stage covered vary from short distances up to 800–900 kilometres per day. The race originated in December 1977, a year after Thierry Sabine got lost in the Ténéré desert whilst competing in the Abidjan-Nice rally and decided that the desert would be a good location for a regular rally.
182 vehicles took the start of the inaugural rally in Paris, with 74 surviving the 10,000-kilometre trip to the Senegalese capital of Dakar. Cyril Neveu holds the distinction of being the event's first winner, riding a Yamaha motorcycle; the event grew in popularity, with 216 vehicles taking the start in 1980 and 291 in 1981. Neveu won the event for a second time in 1980, Hubert Auriol taking honours in 1981 for BMW. By this stage, the rally had begun to attract the participation of famous names from elsewhere in motorsport, such as Henri Pescarolo and Jacky Ickx. Now boasting 382 competitors, more than double the amount that took the start in 1979, Neveu won the event for a third time in 1982, this time riding a Honda motorcycle, while victory in the car class went to the Marreau brothers, driving a entered Renault 20, whose buccaneering exploits seemed to capture the spirit of the early years of the rally. Auriol captured his second bikes class victory in 1983, the first year that Japanese manufacturer Mitsubishi competed in the rally, beginning an association that would last all the way until 2009.
At the behest of 1983 car class winner Jacky Ickx, Porsche entered the Dakar in 1984, with the total number of entries now at 427. The German marque won the event at their first attempt courtesy of René Metge, who had won in the car category in 1981, whilst Ickx finished sixth. Gaston Rahier meanwhile continued BMW's success in the motorcycle category with back-to-back wins in 1984 and 1985, the year of Mitsubishi's first victory of 12 in the car category, Patrick Zaniroli taking the spoils; the 1986 event, won by Metge and Neveu, was marred by the death of event founder Sabine in a helicopter crash, his father Gilbert taking over organisation of the rally. The 1987 rally marked the start of an era of increased official factory participation in the car category, as French manufacturer Peugeot arrived and won the event with former World Rally champion Ari Vatanen; the 1987 event was notable for a ferocious head-to-head duel between Neveu and Auriol in the motorcycle category, the former taking his fifth victory after Auriol was forced to drop out of the rally after breaking both ankles in a fall.
The 1988 event reached its zenith with 603 starters. Vatanen's title defence was derailed. Though it was found, Vatanen was subsequently disqualified from the event, victory instead going to compatriot and teammate Juha Kankkunen. Peugeot and Vatanen returned to winning ways in 1989 and 1990, the latter marking Peugeot's final year of rally competition before switching to the World Sportscar Championship. Sister brand Citroën took Peugeot's place, Vatanen taking a third consecutive victory in 1991; the 1991 event saw Stéphane Peterhansel take his first title in the motorcycle category with Yamaha, marking the beginning of an era of domination by the Frenchman. For the 1992 event, the finish line moved to Cape Town, South Africa in a bid to combat a declining number of competitors, where GPS technology was used for the first time. Auriol became the first person to win in multiple classes after taking Mitsubishi's second victory in the car class, while Peterhansel defended his motorcycle category title.
The 1993 rally entry list slumped to 153 competitors, around half of the preceding year's figure and around a quarter of that of 1988. The event was the last to be organised by Gilbert Sabine and the Amaury Sport Organisation took over the following year. With the finish line now back in its traditional location of Dakar, Bruno Saby won a third title for Mitsubishi and Peterhansel took a third straight success in the motorcycle category; the 1994 event returned to Paris after reaching Dakar, resulting in a grueling event. Pierre Lartigue took Citroën's second win in acrimonious circumstances, as Mitsubishi's leading drivers were forced to withdraw from exhaustion after traversing some demanding sand dunes in the Mauritanian desert that the Citroen crews had opted to skip. Peterhansel's did not compete due to a disagreement between Yamaha and the race organizers over the regulations. Edi Orioli claimed a third title in the bikes category; the 1995 and 1996 events begin in the Spanish city of Granada, with Lartigue racking up wins for Citroen in both years.
Peterhansel returned to take a fourth bikes category win in 1995, but lost to Orioli in 1996 because of refuelling problems. The 1997 rally ran in Africa for the first time, with the route running from Dakar to Agadez and back to Dakar. Citroen's withdrawal due to a rule change paved the wa
World Rally Championship
The World Rally Championship is a rallying series organised by the FIA, culminating with a champion driver, co-driver and manufacturer. The driver's world championship and manufacturer's world championship are separate championships, but based on the same point system; the series consists of 14 three-day events driven on surfaces ranging from gravel and tarmac to snow and ice. Each rally is split into 15 -- 25 special stages; the WRC was formed from well-known and popular international rallies, most of, part of the European Rally Championship or the International Championship for Manufacturers, the series was first contested in 1973. The World Rally Car is the current car specification in the series, it evolved from Group A cars. World Rally Cars are built on production 1.6-litre four-cylinder cars, but feature turbochargers, anti-lag systems, four-wheel-drive, sequential gearboxes, aerodynamic parts and other enhancements bringing the price of a WRC car to around US$1 million. The WRC features three support championships, the Junior World Rally Championship, the World Rally Championship-2, the World Rally Championship-3 which are contested on the same events and stages as the WRC, but with different regulations.
The WRC-2, WRC-3 and junior entrants race through the stages after the WRC drivers. The World Rally Championship was formed from well-known international rallies, nine of which were part of the International Championship for Manufacturers, contested from 1970 to 1972; the 1973 World Rally Championship was the inaugural season of the WRC and began with the Monte Carlo Rally on January 19. Alpine-Renault won the first manufacturer's world championship with its Alpine A110, after which Lancia took the title three years in a row with the Ferrari V6-powered Lancia Stratos HF, the first car designed and manufactured for rallying; the first drivers' world championship was not awarded until 1979, although 1977 and 1978 seasons included an FIA Cup for Drivers, won by Italy's Sandro Munari and Finland's Markku Alén respectively. Sweden's Björn Waldegård became the first official world champion, edging out Finland's Hannu Mikkola by one point. Fiat took the manufacturers' title with the Fiat 131 Abarth in 1977, 1978 and 1980, Ford with its Escort RS1800 in 1979 and Talbot with its Sunbeam Lotus in 1981.
Waldegård was followed by Finn Ari Vatanen as drivers' world champions. The 1980s saw the rear-wheel-drive Group 2 and the more popular Group 4 cars be replaced by more powerful four-wheel-drive Group B cars. FISA legalized all-wheel-drive in 1979, but most manufacturers believed it was too complex to be successful. However, after Audi started entering Mikkola and the new four-wheel-drive Quattro in rallies for testing purposes with immediate success, other manufacturers started their all-wheel-drive projects. Group B regulations were introduced in the 1982, with only a few restrictions allowed unlimited power. Audi took the constructors' title in 1982 and 1984 and drivers' title in 1983 and 1984. Audi's French female driver Michèle Mouton came close to winning the title in 1982, but had to settle for second place after Opel rival Röhrl. 1985 title seemed set to go to Vatanen and his Peugeot 205 T16 but a bad accident at the Rally Argentina left him to watch compatriot and teammate Timo Salonen take the title instead.
Italian Attilio Bettega had a more severe crash with his Lancia 037 at the Tour de Corse and died instantly. The 1986 started with impressive performances by Finns Henri Toivonen and Alén in Lancia's new turbo- and supercharged Delta S4, which could accelerate from 0–60 mph in 2.3 seconds, on a gravel road. However, the season soon took a dramatic turn. At the Rally Portugal, three spectators were killed and over 30 injured after Joaquim Santos lost control of his Ford RS200. At the Tour de Corse, championship favourite Toivonen and his co-driver Sergio Cresto died in a fireball accident after plunging down a cliff. Only hours after the crash, Jean-Marie Balestre and the FISA decided to freeze the development of the Group B cars and ban them from competing in 1987. More controversy followed when Peugeot's Juha Kankkunen won the title after FIA annulled the results of the San Remo Rally, taking the title from fellow Finn Markku Alén; as the planned Group S was cancelled, Group A regulations became the standard in the WRC until 1997.
A separate Group A championship had been organized as part of the WRC in 1986, with Sweden's Kenneth Eriksson taking the title with a Volkswagen Golf GTI 16V. Lancia was quickest in adapting to the new regulations and controlled the world rally scene with Lancia Delta HF, winning the constructors' title six years in a row from 1987 to 1992 and remains the most successful marque in the history of the WRC. Kankkunen and Miki Biasion both took two drivers' titles with the Lancia Delta HF; the 1990s saw the Japanese manufacturers, Toyota and Mitsubishi, become title favourites. Spain's Carlos Sainz driving for Toyota Team Europe took the 1990 and 1992 titles with a Toyota Celica GT-Four. Kankkunen moved to Toyota for the 1993 season and won his record fourth title, with Toyota taking its first manufacturers' crown. Frenchman Didier Auriol brought the team further success in 1994, soon Subaru and Mitsubishi continued the success of the Japanese constructors. Subaru's Scotsman Colin McRae won the drivers' world championship in 1995 and Subaru took the manufacturers' title three years in a row.
Simo Lampinen is a Finnish former rally driver, one of the first of the "Flying Finns" who came to dominate the sport. Having contracted polio at a young age, Lampinen was left with a pronounced limp, as a result he was granted a driving licence aged 17 so he could travel to and from school more easily, he graduated to competitive driving, won the Finnish Rally Championship twice in succession in 1963 and 1964. His early victories were in the Saab 96, before being lured to Lancia in 1970 where he continued his winning ways, he drove for Peugeot and Triumph, though without the same success. More he has been Clerk of the Course at the Rally Finland, the event he won three times himself, he has assisted Saab in two racing events. 13th 1000 Lakes Rally 14th 1000 Lakes Rally 17th RAC Rally 3º TAP Rallye de Portugal 15ème Rallye du Maroc 22nd 1000 Lakes Rally Profile of Lampinen at FlyingFinns.com Career results of Lampinen at Rallybase.nl