R. D. Parker Collegiate
R. D. Parker Collegiate is the only high school in Thompson, Manitoba for students in grades 9-12; the 1025 students of R. D. Parker Collegiate come from the city of other northern Communities. R. D. Parker Collegiate was named after the Vice President of Inco, Ralph D. Parker located in Thompson; the teaching staff of R. D. Parker Collegiate are members of the Thompson Teachers' Association. R. D. Parker Collegiate, in the 2012-13 school year, has a number of clubs including a Student Council; the school sports teams are called the Trojans. R. D. Parker Collegiate offers courses in mathematics, Science, Social Studies and a number of optional courses typical of Canadian high schools, it offers an aviation program and special foods, arts and mechanical courses
University of California
The University of California is a public university system in the U. S. state of California. Under the California Master Plan for Higher Education, the University of California is a part of the state's three-system public higher education plan, which includes the California State University system and the California Community Colleges System; the University of California was founded on March 23, 1868, operated temporarily in Oakland before moving to its new campus in Berkeley in 1873. In March 1951, the University of California began to reorganize itself into something distinct from its first campus at Berkeley, with Robert Gordon Sproul remaining in place as the first systemwide President and Clark Kerr becoming the first Chancellor of UC Berkeley. However, the 1951 reorganization was stalled by resistance from Sproul and his allies, it was not until Kerr succeeded Sproul as President that UC was able to evolve into a true university system from 1957 to 1960. In the 21st century, the University of California has 10 campuses, a combined student body of 251,700 students, 21,200 faculty members, 144,000 staff members and over 1.86 million living alumni, as governed by a semi-autonomous Board of Regents.
Its tenth and newest campus in Merced opened in fall 2005. Nine campuses enroll graduate students. In addition, the UC Hastings College of Law, located in San Francisco, is affiliated with UC, but other than sharing its name is autonomous from the rest of the system; the University of California manages or co-manages three national laboratories for the U. S. Department of Energy: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory. Collectively, the colleges and alumni of the University of California make it the most comprehensive and advanced postsecondary educational system in the world, responsible for nearly $50 billion per year of economic impact. UC campuses have large numbers of distinguished faculty in every academic discipline, with UC faculty and researchers having won at least 62 Nobel Prizes as of 2017. In 1849, the state of California ratified its first constitution, which contained the express objective of creating a complete educational system including a state university.
Taking advantage of the Morrill Land-Grant Acts, the California Legislature established an Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College in 1866. However, it existed only as a placeholder to secure federal land-grant funds. Meanwhile, Congregational minister Henry Durant, an alumnus of Yale, had established the private Contra Costa Academy, on June 20, 1853, in Oakland, California; the initial site was bounded by Twelfth and Fourteenth Streets and Harrison and Franklin Streets in downtown Oakland. In turn, the Academy's trustees were granted a charter in 1855 for a College of California, though the College continued to operate as a college preparatory school until it added college-level courses in 1860; the College's trustees and supporters believed in the importance of a liberal arts education, but ran into a lack of interest in liberal arts colleges on the American frontier. In November 1857, the College's trustees began to acquire various parcels of land facing the Golden Gate in what is now Berkeley for a future planned campus outside of Oakland.
But first, they needed to secure the College's water rights by buying a large farm to the east. In 1864, they organized the College Homestead Association, which borrowed $35,000 to purchase the land, plus another $33,000 to purchase 160 acres of land to the south of the future campus; the Association subdivided the latter parcel and started selling lots with the hope it could raise enough money to repay its lenders and create a new college town. But sales of new homesteads fell short. Governor Frederick Low favored the establishment of a state university based upon the University of Michigan plan, thus in one sense may be regarded as the founder of the University of California. At the College of California's 1867 commencement exercises, where Low was present, Benjamin Silliman, Jr. criticized Californians for creating a state polytechnic school instead of a real university. That same day, Low first suggested a merger of the already-functional College of California with the nonfunctional state college, went on to participate in the ensuing negotiations.
On October 9, 1867, the College's trustees reluctantly agreed to join forces with the state college to their mutual advantage, but under one condition—that there not be an "Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College", but a complete university, within which the assets of the College of California would be used to create a College of Letters. Accordingly, the Organic Act, establishing the University of California, was introduced as a bill by Assemblyman John W. Dwinelle on March 5, 1868, after it was duly passed by both houses of the state legislature, it was signed into state law by Governor Henry H. Haight on March 23, 1868. However, as constituted, the new University was not an actual merger of the two colleges, but was an new institution which inherited certain objectives and assets from each of them; the University
Vale Canada Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of the Brazilian mining company Vale. Vale's nickel mining and metals division is headquartered in Toronto, Canada, it produces nickel, cobalt, rhodium, iridium and silver. Prior to being purchased by CVRD in 2006, Inco was the world's second largest producer of nickel, the third largest mining company outside South Africa and Russia of platinum group metals, it was a charter member of the 30-stock Dow Jones Industrial Average formed on October 1, 1928. The company was founded following the discovery of copper deposits in Ontario. Ore was shipped for smelting to a plant in Constable Hook, New Jersey, owned by the Orford Copper Company. Processing soon revealed that the ore was rich in nickel and exploration tests revealed an enormous potential. In 1902 the International Nickel Company, Ltd. was created in New York, NY as a joint venture between Canadian Copper, Orford Copper, American Nickel Works. In 1916, the International Nickel Company of Canada, Ltd. was incorporated as the operating company in Copper Cliff in Sudbury, in 1918 the company built a new refinery in Port Colborne.
The International Nickel Company of Canada, Ltd. first began using the trade name Inco in 1919. In 1929, the corporation expanded by absorbing the British-owned Mond Nickel Company. A head office was established in Toronto. During World War II, Inco's Frood Mine produced 40% of the nickel used in artillery by the Allies. Inco maintained a machining plant located in Sterling Forest, New York; the Sterling Forest Site is now owned and occupied by International Business Machines. In 1972 the Inco Superstack was built in Sudbury. In 1976, the company’s name was changed to Inco Limited. In order to generate cash Inco sold its manufacturing sites of nickel alloys to Special Metals Corporation in 1998. Special Metals Corporation however filed Chapter 11 in March 2002. On October 11, 2005, Inco announced a friendly takeover bid to buy out the operations of longtime rival Falconbridge for $12 billion. If approved, the deal would have made Inco the world's largest producer of nickel. Xstrata subsequently submitted a hostile takeover bid for Falconbridge, resulting in a bidding war between Inco and Xstrata.
The Xstrata bid was successful, but not before Falconbridge employed a poison pill to delay the acquisition, raising its share price from $28 to $62.50 in the meantime. Teck Cominco submitted a hostile takeover bid to purchase Inco on May 8, 2006 for $16 billion if it agreed to abandon its takeover of Falconbridge. On June 26 of the same year, Phelps Dodge submitted a friendly takeover bid to purchase a combined Inco and Falconbridge for around $40 billion. On August 14, 2006 Brazilian mining company CVRD extended an all-cash offer to buy Inco for $17 billion; that offer received approval from the Canadian government's investment review agency on October 19, was accepted by Inco shareholders on October 23. Part of the takeover deal was. Inco was delisted from the NYSE on November 16, 2006 and the TSX on January 5, 2007. According to its current web site, Inco is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Vale. Vale has since changed the name of Vale-Inco to Vale, stating the change is "a milestone that aligns it more with other Vale operations worldwide and reflects its position as part of the world’s second largest mining company"Vale is exploring as of 2015 an IPO of its base metals unit for $30–35 billion, in order to lighten its debt load.
In 2006 Inco was removed from the FTSE4Good Index for failing to meet their human rights criteria. The company has had disputes with environmental concerns over mine runoff. Employees for Inco in Canada are represented by the United Steelworkers throughout all the mergers; because of the mergers, the United Steelworkers signed an agreement with all the unions that represent mining workers in countries where Vale/Inco operate to "work together cooperatively and strategically as global partners, to build the bargaining power of worker." The unions include Confederação Nacional dos Trabalhadores no Setor Minera, SINTICIM, Union syndicale des ouvriers et employés de Nouvelle-Calédonie, Union des Syndicats des Travailleurs Kanak et Exploités, Fagforbundet for Industri og Energi, Forestry and Energy Union, the United Steelworkers. Coleman Mine, Vale's flagship nickel mine Copper Cliff North Mine Copper Cliff South Mine Creighton Mine Frood Mine Garson Mine Refinery in Port Colborne Stobie mine Clarabelle Mill Totten mine Copper Cliff Smelter Copper Cliff Nickel Refinery Birchtree Mine Thompson Mine Voisey's Bay Mine Long Harbour Nickel Processing Plant Vale Inco's Indonesian joint venture PT Inco, an Indonesian company, 20 percent publicly owned, is located in Soroako.
In August 2011, a dispute began because PT Inco broke its promise to build 2 smelters in Pomala and Bahodopi in 2005 and 2010 and to hand over 50,000 hectares of its 118,000-hectare concession to locals. Based on the latest feasibility study, only the Bahodopi smelter facility was possible; the dispute might go to court. October 11, 2011: After starting operation of its third hydropower plant at Karebbe with an output of 130 megawatts, the company would increase production from 73,000
A magnetometer or magnetic sensor is an instrument that measures magnetism—either the magnetization of a magnetic material like a ferromagnet, or the direction, strength, or relative change of a magnetic field at a particular location. A compass is a simple type of magnetometer, one that measures the direction of an ambient magnetic field; the first magnetometer capable of measuring the absolute magnetic intensity was invented by Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1833 and notable developments in the 19th century included the Hall effect, still used. Magnetometers are used for measuring the Earth's magnetic field and in geophysical surveys to detect magnetic anomalies of various types, they are used in the military to detect submarines. Some countries, such as the United States and Australia, classify the more sensitive magnetometers as military technology, control their distribution. Magnetometers can be used as metal detectors: they can detect only magnetic metals, but can detect such metals at a much larger depth than conventional metal detectors.
In recent years, magnetometers have been miniaturized to the extent that they can be incorporated in integrated circuits at low cost and are finding increasing use as miniaturized compasses. Magnetic fields are vector quantities characterized by both direction; the strength of a magnetic field is measured in units of tesla in the SI units, in gauss in the cgs system of units. 10,000 gauss are equal to one tesla. Measurements of the Earth's magnetic field are quoted in units of nanotesla called a gamma; the Earth's magnetic field can vary from 20,000 to 80,000 nT depending on location, fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field are on the order of 100 nT, magnetic field variations due to magnetic anomalies can be in the picotesla range. Gaussmeters and teslameters are magnetometers that measure in units of gauss or tesla, respectively. In some contexts, magnetometer is the term used for an instrument that measures fields of less than 1 millitesla and gaussmeter is used for those measuring greater than 1 mT.
There are two basic types of magnetometer measurement. Vector magnetometers measure the vector components of a magnetic field. Total field magnetometers or scalar magnetometers measure the magnitude of the vector magnetic field. Magnetometers used to study the Earth's magnetic field may express the vector components of the field in terms of declination and the inclination. Absolute magnetometers measure the absolute magnitude or vector magnetic field, using an internal calibration or known physical constants of the magnetic sensor. Relative magnetometers measure magnitude or vector magnetic field relative to a fixed but uncalibrated baseline. Called variometers, relative magnetometers are used to measure variations in magnetic field. Magnetometers may be classified by their situation or intended use. Stationary magnetometers are installed to a fixed position and measurements are taken while the magnetometer is stationary. Portable or mobile magnetometers are meant to be used while in motion and may be manually carried or transported in a moving vehicle.
Laboratory magnetometers are used to measure the magnetic field of materials placed within them and are stationary. Survey magnetometers are used to measure magnetic fields in geomagnetic surveys; the performance and capabilities of magnetometers are described through their technical specifications. Major specifications include; the inverse is the cycle time in seconds per reading. Sample rate is important in mobile magnetometers. Bandwidth or bandpass characterizes. For magnetometers with no onboard signal processing, bandwidth is determined by the Nyquist limit set by sample rate. Modern magnetometers may perform averaging over sequential samples. Achieving a lower noise in exchange for lower bandwidth. Resolution is the smallest change in a magnetic field. A magnetometer should have a resolution a good deal smaller than the smallest change one wishes to observe. Quantization error is caused by recording roundoff and truncation of digital expressions of the data. Absolute error is the difference between the readings of a magnetometer true magnetic field.
Drift is the change in absolute error over time. Thermal stability is the dependence of the measurement on temperature, it is given as a temperature coefficient in units of nT per degree Celsius. Noise is the random fluctuations generated by electronics. Noise is given in units of n T / H z. Sensitivity is the larger of the resolution. Heading error is the change in the measurement due to a change in orientation of the instrument in a constant magnetic field; the dead zone is the angular region of magnetometer orientation in which the instrument produces poor or no measurements. All optically pumped, proton-free precession, Overhauser magnetometers experience some dead zone effects. Gradient tolerance is the ability of a ma