Sir John Edward Lennard-Jones KBE, FRS was a British mathematician, a professor of theoretical physics at University of Bristol, of theoretical science at the University of Cambridge. He may be regarded as the initiator of modern computational chemistry. Lennard-Jones is well-known among scientists for his work on molecular structure and intermolecular forces. Much research of these topics over several decades grew from a paper he published in 1929, his theories of liquids and of surface catalysis remain influential. He wrote few, papers, his main interest was of atomic and molecular structure the forces between atomic particles, the nature of chemical bonds and such basic matters as why water expands when it freezes. Holding the first Chair of Theoretical Chemistry in the United Kingdom, he established a research school applying to phenomena in physics and organic chemistry new concepts of quantum mechanics and the interactions of subatomic particles; the department attracted many notable scientists and mathematicians, including S.
F. Boys, C. A. Coulson, G. G. Hall, A. Hurley, J. Pople. Atoms of a noble gas interact via a potential in which an attracting van der Waals force balances a repelling force which results from overlapping electron orbits. A well known approximation to this potential is the so-called Lennard-Jones potential, a description of the potential energy as a function of the separation of the atoms. Named after him, the Lennard-Jones Laboratory houses the School of Chemistry and Physics at Keele University; the Royal Society of Chemistry awards a Lennard-Jones Medal and hosts the Lennard-Jones lecture every second year. Keele University holds a collection of Lennard-Jones's published work, as well as a laboratory named in his honour. Professor C. A. Coulson’s collected lecture notes from 1928–1932, held in the University of Cambridge Library, record Lennard-Jones's lectures. Coulson wrote'I suspect that these are the first lectures on theoretical chemistry, given in Britain'. Lennard-Jones's private papers are held in Cambridge.
John Edward Jones married Kathleen Lennard in 1926, adding his new wife's surname to his own to become Lennard-Jones. They had two children and Mary. 1894 Born in Leigh, Lancashire, as John Edward Jones, educated at Leigh Grammar School where he specialised in classics. 1912 Studied mathematics as an undergraduate at the University of Manchester 1915–18 First World War service in the Royal Flying Corps 1919–22 Studies for Doctor of Science degree and lectures in Mathematics at Manchester University. 1922 Receives Doctor of Science degree at Manchester 1922–4 Research student with a Senior 1851 Exhibition at Trinity College, supervised by Ralph H. Fowler. Sydney Chapman Professor of Mathematics at Manchester, had been a Lecturer at Trinity in 1914, advised Jones to apply there. 1924 Receives Doctor of Science degree at Cambridge. Proposes a semi-empirical interatomic force law. 1925 Marries Kathleen Lennard, adding his wife's surname to his own to become Lennard-Jones. 1925–32 Professor of Theoretical Physics, University of Bristol 1929 Paper introduces the Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals approximation for molecular orbitals 1929 Brings to Bristol Gerhard Herzberg to study spectra of di- & poly-atomic molecules.
1930–2 Dean of the Faculty of Science, University of Bristol 1931 Paper introduces method for the atomic Self-Consistent Field equations. Proposes the Lennard-Jones potential. 1932–53 John Humphrey Plummer Professor of Theoretical Chemistry, University of Cambridge. Founded the theoretical chemistry section of Cambridge University Chemical Laboratory. 1934 Paper applies group theory to explain energies & structures of hydrocarbon free radicals 1933 Elected a fellow of the Royal Society 1934 Graduate student Charles Coulson completes PhD 1937 Paper on conjugated hydrocarbons 1937 First Director of University of Cambridge Mathematical Laboratory with Maurice Wilkes as researcher. 1939 At outbreak of war, seconded as Chief Superintendent of Armament Research to the Ministry of Supply which took over the mathematical laboratory for ballistics calculations, developed a team of mathematicians for this purpose. 1942–5 Director-General of Scientific Research, Ministry of Supply 1942–7 Member of the Advisory Council of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research.
1946 Knighted, returns to Cambridge 1947–53 Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Council at the Ministry of Supply 1948–50 President of the Faraday Society 1949 Paper justifies use of diatomic orbitals only for valence electrons by showing the determinantal wave function to be invariant under unitary transformations that could transform molecular orbitals into localized equivalent orbitals. 1950 Paper defines molecular orbitals as eigenfunctions of the SCF Hamiltonian 1951 Graduate student John Pople completes PhD 1953 Awarded Royal Society's Davy Medal for work applying quantum mechanics to the theory of valency and analysis of the structure of chemical compounds 1953 Succeeds Alexander Lindsay as Principal of the University College of North Staffordshire. Corresponds with Linus Pauling about the need in England for more universities and institutes of technology. 1954 Honorary doctorate of science, the University of Oxford. The Lennard-Jones Centre is named in his honour
Princeton University is a private Ivy League research university in Princeton, New Jersey. Founded in 1746 in Elizabeth as the College of New Jersey, Princeton is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution; the institution moved to Newark in 1747 to the current site nine years and renamed itself Princeton University in 1896. Princeton provides undergraduate and graduate instruction in the humanities, social sciences, natural sciences, engineering, it offers professional degrees through the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, the School of Engineering and Applied Science, the School of Architecture and the Bendheim Center for Finance. The university has ties with the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton Theological Seminary and the Westminster Choir College of Rider University. Princeton has the largest endowment per student in the United States. From 2001 to 2018, Princeton University was ranked either first or second among national universities by U.
S. News & World Report, holding the top spot for 16 of those 18 years; as of October 2018, 65 Nobel laureates, 15 Fields Medalists and 13 Turing Award laureates have been affiliated with Princeton University as alumni, faculty members or researchers. In addition, Princeton has been associated with 21 National Medal of Science winners, 5 Abel Prize winners, 5 National Humanities Medal recipients, 209 Rhodes Scholars, 139 Gates Cambridge Scholars and 126 Marshall Scholars. Two U. S. Presidents, twelve U. S. Supreme Court Justices and numerous living billionaires and foreign heads of state are all counted among Princeton's alumni body. Princeton has graduated many prominent members of the U. S. Congress and the U. S. Cabinet, including eight Secretaries of State, three Secretaries of Defense and three of the past five Chairs of the Federal Reserve. New Light Presbyterians founded the College of New Jersey in 1746; the college was the religious capital of Scottish Presbyterian America. In 1754, trustees of the College of New Jersey suggested that, in recognition of Governor Jonathan Belcher's interest, Princeton should be named as Belcher College.
Belcher replied: "What a name that would be!" In 1756, the college moved to New Jersey. Its home in Princeton was Nassau Hall, named for the royal House of Orange-Nassau of William III of England. Following the untimely deaths of Princeton's first five presidents, John Witherspoon became president in 1768 and remained in that office until his death in 1794. During his presidency, Witherspoon shifted the college's focus from training ministers to preparing a new generation for secular leadership in the new American nation. To this end, he solicited investment in the college. Witherspoon's presidency constituted a long period of stability for the college, interrupted by the American Revolution and the Battle of Princeton, during which British soldiers occupied Nassau Hall. In 1812, the eighth president of the College of New Jersey, Ashbel Green, helped establish the Princeton Theological Seminary next door; the plan to extend the theological curriculum met with "enthusiastic approval on the part of the authorities at the College of New Jersey".
Today, Princeton University and Princeton Theological Seminary maintain separate institutions with ties that include services such as cross-registration and mutual library access. Before the construction of Stanhope Hall in 1803, Nassau Hall was the college's sole building; the cornerstone of the building was laid on September 17, 1754. During the summer of 1783, the Continental Congress met in Nassau Hall, making Princeton the country's capital for four months. Over the centuries and through two redesigns following major fires, Nassau Hall's role shifted from an all-purpose building, comprising office, dormitory and classroom space; the class of 1879 donated twin lion sculptures that flanked the entrance until 1911, when that same class replaced them with tigers. Nassau Hall's bell rang after the hall's construction; the bell was recast and melted again in the fire of 1855. James McCosh took office as the college's president in 1868 and lifted the institution out of a low period, brought about by the American Civil War.
During his two decades of service, he overhauled the curriculum, oversaw an expansion of inquiry into the sciences, supervised the addition of a number of buildings in the High Victorian Gothic style to the campus. McCosh Hall is named in his honor. In 1879, the first thesis for a Doctor of Philosophy Ph. D. was submitted by James F. Williamson, Class of 1877. In 1896, the college changed its name from the College of New Jersey to Princeton University to honor the town in which it resides. During this year, the college underwent large expansion and became a university. In 1900, the Graduate School was established. In 1902, Woodrow Wilson, graduate of the Class of 1879, was elected the 13th president of the university. Under Wilson, Princeton introduced the preceptorial system in 1905, a then-unique concept in the US that augmented the standard lecture method of teaching with a more personal form in which small groups of students, or precepts, could interact with a single instructor, or preceptor, in their field of interest.
In 1906, the reservoir Lake Carnegie was created by Andrew Carnegie. A collection of historical photographs of the build
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac was an English theoretical physicist, regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century. Dirac made fundamental contributions to the early development of both quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics. Among other discoveries, he formulated the Dirac equation which describes the behaviour of fermions and predicted the existence of antimatter. Dirac shared the 1933 Nobel Prize in Physics with Erwin Schrödinger "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory", he made significant contributions to the reconciliation of general relativity with quantum mechanics. Dirac was regarded by his colleagues as unusual in character. In a 1926 letter to Paul Ehrenfest, Albert Einstein wrote of Dirac, "This balancing on the dizzying path between genius and madness is awful", he was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, a member of the Center for Theoretical Studies, University of Miami, spent the last decade of his life at Florida State University.
Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac was born at his parents' home in Bristol, England, on 8 August 1902, grew up in the Bishopston area of the city. His father, Charles Adrien Ladislas Dirac, was an immigrant from Saint-Maurice, who worked in Bristol as a French teacher, his mother, Florence Hannah Dirac, née Holten, the daughter of a ship's captain, was born in Cornwall and worked as a librarian at the Bristol Central Library. Paul had a younger sister, Béatrice Isabelle Marguerite, known as Betty, an older brother, Reginald Charles Félix, known as Felix, who committed suicide in March 1925. Dirac recalled: "My parents were distressed. I didn't know they cared so much I never knew that parents were supposed to care for their children, but from on I knew."Charles and the children were Swiss nationals until they became naturalised on 22 October 1919. Dirac's father was authoritarian, although he disapproved of corporal punishment. Dirac had a strained relationship with his father, so much so that after his father's death, Dirac wrote, "I feel much freer now, I am my own man."
Charles forced his children to speak to him only in French. When Dirac found that he could not express what he wanted to say in French, he chose to remain silent. Dirac was educated first at Bishop Road Primary School and at the all-boys Merchant Venturers' Technical College, where his father was a French teacher; the school was an institution attached to the University of Bristol. It emphasised technical subjects like bricklaying and metal work, modern languages; this was unusual at a time when secondary education in Britain was still dedicated to the classics, something for which Dirac would express his gratitude. Dirac studied electrical engineering on a City of Bristol University Scholarship at the University of Bristol's engineering faculty, co-located with the Merchant Venturers' Technical College. Shortly before he completed his degree in 1921, he sat the entrance examination for St John's College, Cambridge, he passed and was awarded a £70 scholarship, but this fell short of the amount of money required to live and study at Cambridge.
Despite his having graduated with a first class honours Bachelor of Science degree in engineering, the economic climate of the post-war depression was such that he was unable to find work as an engineer. Instead, he took up an offer to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree in mathematics at the University of Bristol free of charge, he was permitted to skip the first year of the course owing to his engineering degree. In 1923, Dirac graduated, once again with first class honours, received a £140 scholarship from the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research. Along with his £70 scholarship from St John's College, this was enough to live at Cambridge. There, Dirac pursued his interests in the theory of general relativity, an interest he had gained earlier as a student in Bristol, in the nascent field of quantum physics, under the supervision of Ralph Fowler. From 1925 to 1928 he held an 1851 Research Fellowship from the Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851, he completed his PhD in June 1926 with the first thesis on quantum mechanics to be submitted anywhere.
He continued his research in Copenhagen and Göttingen. Dirac married Margit Wigner, in 1937, he adopted Margit's two children and Gabriel. Paul and Margit Dirac had two children together, Mary Elizabeth and Florence Monica. Margit, known as Manci, visited her brother in 1934 in Princeton, New Jersey, from her native Hungary and, while at dinner at the Annex Restaurant met the "lonely-looking man at the next table." This account from a Korean physicist, Y. S. Kim, who met and was influenced by Dirac says: "It is quite fortunate for the physics community that Manci took good care of our respected Paul A. M. Dirac. Dirac published eleven papers during the period 1939–46.... Dirac was able to maintain his normal research productivity only because Manci was in charge of everything else." Dirac was known among his colleagues for his taciturn nature. His colleagues in Cambridge jokingly defined a unit called a "dirac", one word per hour; when Niels Bohr complained that he did not know how to finish a sentence in a scientific article he was writing, Dirac replied, "I was taught at school never to start a sentence without knowing the end of it."
He criticised the physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer's interest in poetry: "The aim of science is to make difficult things understandable in a simpler way.
Wang Zhuxi, who had the given name Zhiqi and the sobriquet Zhuxi, was a renowned Chinese physicist and philologist. Wang was born in Gong ` Hubei Province, he graduated from the Department of Physics of Tsinghua University in 1933, continued his postgraduate study in the university's graduate school. With government support, he went to study in the United Kingdom, where he obtained his doctorate degree from Cambridge University under the supervision of Ralph Fowler in 1938. Upon his return to China, Wang taught statistical physics and quantum mechanics at the Department of Physics at Tsinghua. After 1952 he became a professor at Peking University serving as the vice president of the university. In recognition of his advancements in the field of physics, he was elected as a founding member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences in 1955. Wang authored several textbooks published by the Peking University Press, including "Thermodynamics" and "Introduction to Statistical Physics", he served as the director of the Terminology Committee of the Chinese Physics Society, created many Chinese translations of new physics terms.
In the meantime he was devoted to studying philology, serving as an editor of the "New Chinese Dictionary by Division Heads" with 2,500,000 words. It simplified 214 division heads of the Kangxi Dictionary into only 56, arranged over 50,000 Chinese characters by stroke orders from top to bottom and left to right, a convenient system for retrieval. Many of Wang's students are prominent physicists, including Nobel laureate Chen-Ning Yang and former president of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Zhou Guangzhao. In 2003, a bronze bust of Wang was founded at the Peking University campus. Thermodynamics, 2nd Edition. X. X; the Beauty of Rigor and Conciseness—Wang Zhuxi's Life Long Pursuit of Physics, by Wang Zhengxing, Peking U Press ISBN 978-7-301-13538-9
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer + δυναμική, is the study of motion of air as interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing. It is a sub-field of fluid dynamics and gas dynamics, many aspects of aerodynamics theory are common to these fields; the term aerodynamics is used synonymously with gas dynamics, the difference being that "gas dynamics" applies to the study of the motion of all gases, is not limited to air. The formal study of aerodynamics began in the modern sense in the eighteenth century, although observations of fundamental concepts such as aerodynamic drag were recorded much earlier. Most of the early efforts in aerodynamics were directed toward achieving heavier-than-air flight, first demonstrated by Otto Lilienthal in 1891. Since the use of aerodynamics through mathematical analysis, empirical approximations, wind tunnel experimentation, computer simulations has formed a rational basis for the development of heavier-than-air flight and a number of other technologies.
Recent work in aerodynamics has focused on issues related to compressible flow and boundary layers and has become computational in nature. Modern aerodynamics only dates back to the seventeenth century, but aerodynamic forces have been harnessed by humans for thousands of years in sailboats and windmills, images and stories of flight appear throughout recorded history, such as the Ancient Greek legend of Icarus and Daedalus. Fundamental concepts of continuum and pressure gradients appear in the work of Aristotle and Archimedes. In 1726, Sir Isaac Newton became the first person to develop a theory of air resistance, making him one of the first aerodynamicists. Dutch-Swiss mathematician Daniel Bernoulli followed in 1738 with Hydrodynamica in which he described a fundamental relationship between pressure and flow velocity for incompressible flow known today as Bernoulli's principle, which provides one method for calculating aerodynamic lift. In 1757, Leonhard Euler published the more general Euler equations which could be applied to both compressible and incompressible flows.
The Euler equations were extended to incorporate the effects of viscosity in the first half of the 1800s, resulting in the Navier–Stokes equations. The Navier-Stokes equations are the most general governing equations of fluid flow and but are difficult to solve for the flow around all but the simplest of shapes. In 1799, Sir George Cayley became the first person to identify the four aerodynamic forces of flight, as well as the relationships between them, in doing so outlined the path toward achieving heavier-than-air flight for the next century. In 1871, Francis Herbert Wenham constructed the first wind tunnel, allowing precise measurements of aerodynamic forces. Drag theories were developed by Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Gustav Kirchhoff, Lord Rayleigh. In 1889, Charles Renard, a French aeronautical engineer, became the first person to reasonably predict the power needed for sustained flight. Otto Lilienthal, the first person to become successful with glider flights, was the first to propose thin, curved airfoils that would produce high lift and low drag.
Building on these developments as well as research carried out in their own wind tunnel, the Wright brothers flew the first powered airplane on December 17, 1903. During the time of the first flights, Frederick W. Lanchester, Martin Kutta, Nikolai Zhukovsky independently created theories that connected circulation of a fluid flow to lift. Kutta and Zhukovsky went on to develop a two-dimensional wing theory. Expanding upon the work of Lanchester, Ludwig Prandtl is credited with developing the mathematics behind thin-airfoil and lifting-line theories as well as work with boundary layers; as aircraft speed increased, designers began to encounter challenges associated with air compressibility at speeds near or greater than the speed of sound. The differences in air flows under such conditions leads to problems in aircraft control, increased drag due to shock waves, the threat of structural failure due to aeroelastic flutter; the ratio of the flow speed to the speed of sound was named the Mach number after Ernst Mach, one of the first to investigate the properties of supersonic flow.
William John Macquorn Rankine and Pierre Henri Hugoniot independently developed the theory for flow properties before and after a shock wave, while Jakob Ackeret led the initial work of calculating the lift and drag of supersonic airfoils. Theodore von Kármán and Hugh Latimer Dryden introduced the term transonic to describe flow speeds around Mach 1 where drag increases rapidly; this rapid increase in drag led aerodynamicists and aviators to disagree on whether supersonic flight was achievable until the sound barrier was broken for the first time in 1947 using the Bell X-1 aircraft. By the time the sound barrier was broken, aerodynamicists' understanding of the subsonic and low supersonic flow had matured; the Cold War prompted the design of an ever-evolving line of high performance aircraft. Computational fluid dynamics began as an effort to solve for flow properties around complex objects and has grown to the point where entire aircraft can be designed using computer software, with wind-tunnel tests followed by flight tests to confirm the computer predictions.
Understanding of supersonic and hypersonic aerodynamics has matured since the 1960s, the goals of aerodynamicists have shifted from the behavior of fluid flow to the engineering of a vehicle such that it interacts pedictably with the fluid flow. Designing aircraft for supersonic and hypersonic conditions, as well as the desire to improve the aerodynamic efficiency of current aircraft and propulsion systems, continues to motivate new research in aero
HMS Excellent (shore establishment)
HMS Excellent is a Royal Navy "stone frigate" sited on Whale Island near Portsmouth in Hampshire. HMS Excellent is itself part of the Maritime Warfare School, with a Headquarters at HMS Collingwood, although a number of lodger units are resident within the site, the principal of, the Headquarters of Fleet Commander. In the 1829 a Commander George Smith advocated the establishment of a Naval School of Gunnery. Smith was given oversight and set up Excellent not only as a training establishment but as a platform for experimental firing of new weapons. In 1832 Smith was replaced in command by Captain Thomas Hastings, under whom the school grew both numerically and in reputation, as trained gunners began to prove their effectiveness in combat situations. In 1834 the original Excellent was replaced by the second rate HMS Boyne, duly renamed Excellent. In 1845 Captain Henry Ducie Chads took over command of Excellent in succession to Hastings, he remained in post until 1854, by which time the Admiralty had purchased'Whaley Island'.
Chads was succeeded first by Captain Thomas Maitland and in 1857, by Richard Hewlett. In December 1859 the first-rate Queen Charlotte took over the role of gunnery training ship and was renamed Excellent. In 1863 Hewlett was replaced by Captain Astley Cooper Key, in turn succeeded by Captain Arthur Hood some three years later. By this time, a rifle range had been established on the island for the use of HMS Excellent and the first building appeared there, the land having been somewhat drained and levelled. Under Hood's leadership a torpedo section was set up within the school, it was under Fisher's command, in the 1880s, that approval was given to move the gunnery school ashore, on to Whale Island. The initial proposal had come from a Lieutenant Percy Scott, who used the island as a running track; the island had grown in size since the 1850s: indeed, up until the early 1890s excavated spoil from the expansion of the Dockyard was conveyed there, using convict labour, to build the island up. Scott returned to Excellent as an instructor in 1883 and took the opportunity to submit a detailed proposal to Fisher, accepted.
The first buildings of the shore establishment were begun in 1885 and building work continued alongside the tasks of draining and levelling the land. By 1891 the whole operation had moved ashore and the old ship was paid off. Centred on a large open drill ground, the site includes the officers' mess in a range to the north with rows of barracks blocks for ratings arrayed behind. To the west, opposite the Quarterdeck, were long gun battery sheds. Firing training took place on the batteries and all different varieties of guns were kept on site for instruction on their maintenance and operation. Full-sized dummy gun turrets were provided for training purposes. Seagoing training took place up until 1957 on a series of battleships and destroyers that were attached to the facility. From the late 1950s guided missile training was provided; the Portsmouth Field Gun Crew, competing in the Royal Navy field gun competition at the Royal Tournament, used to be based at the site. A small museum in the Quarterdeck block preserves artefacts from Excellent's days as a gunnery school.
The gunnery school closed in 1985 whereupon HMS Excellent was decommissioned. The site became part of HMS Nelson; the establishment was recommissioned as HMS Excellent in 1994 following the closure of the old HMS Phoenix in nearby Tipner and Horsea Island, the relocation of the school of Fire Fighting and Damage Control from there to Whale Island. The following list goes as far as 1984, it shows the date of appointment, rank and decorations held at the time. In some cases a captain held several sequential appointments, it does not show captains held on the books of the Excellent who were not commanding officers of Excellent. Maritime Warfare School elements within the site are: MWS Phoenix school of Nuclear and Chemical Defence, damage control and fire fighting HMS Phoenix South East Naval Military Training Centre Defence Diving School Boat SectionHMS Excellent provides administrative and infrastructure support to the Maritime Warfare School elements at Defence Diving School, Horsea Island, small arms ranges at Tipner.
Lodger units are: Navy Command Headquarters – Fleet Commander Headquarters of UK Maritime Battle Staff HMS King Alfred Royal Naval Reserve Fleet Regional Photographic Unit Volunteer Cadet Corps Sea Cadet Corps National Training Centre HMS Bristol – Accommodation and Cadet Forces training ship TS Alamein Sea Cadet Corps DASA: Defence Analytical Services and Advice is a Division of the MOD t
Trinity College, Cambridge
Trinity College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in England. With around 600 undergraduates, 300 graduates, over 180 fellows, it is the largest college in either of the Oxbridge universities by number of undergraduates. In terms of total student numbers, it is second only to Cambridge. Members of Trinity have won 33 Nobel Prizes out of the 116 won by members of Cambridge University, the highest number of any college at either Oxford or Cambridge. Five Fields Medals in mathematics were won by members of the college and one Abel Prize was won. Trinity alumni include six British prime ministers, physicists Isaac Newton, James Clerk Maxwell, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr, mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan, the poet Lord Byron, historian Lord Macaulay, philosophers Ludwig Wittgenstein and Bertrand Russell, Soviet spies Kim Philby, Guy Burgess, Anthony Blunt. Two members of the British royal family have studied at Trinity and been awarded degrees as a result: Prince William of Gloucester and Edinburgh, who gained an MA in 1790, Prince Charles, awarded a lower second class BA in 1970.
Other royal family members have studied there without obtaining degrees, including King Edward VII, King George VI, Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester. Trinity has many college societies, including the Trinity Mathematical Society, the oldest mathematical university society in the United Kingdom, the First and Third Trinity Boat Club, its rowing club, which gives its name to the college's May Ball. Along with Christ's, King's and St John's colleges, it has provided several of the well known members of the Apostles, an intellectual secret society. In 1848, Trinity hosted the meeting at which Cambridge undergraduates representing private schools such as Westminster drew up an early codification of the rules of football, known as the Cambridge Rules. Trinity's sister college in Oxford is Christ Church. Like that college, Trinity has been linked with Westminster School since the school's re-foundation in 1560, its Master is an ex officio governor of the school; the college was founded by Henry VIII in 1546, from the merger of two existing colleges: Michaelhouse, King's Hall.
At the time, Henry had been seizing church lands from monasteries. The universities of Oxford and Cambridge, being both religious institutions and quite rich, expected to be next in line; the King duly passed an Act of Parliament. The universities used their contacts to plead with Catherine Parr; the Queen persuaded her husband not to create a new college. The king did not want to use royal funds, so he instead combined two colleges and seven hostels namely Physwick, Gregory's, Ovyng's, Catherine's, Margaret's and Tyler's, to form Trinity. Contrary to popular belief, the monastic lands granted by Henry VIII were not on their own sufficient to ensure Trinity's eventual rise. In terms of architecture and royal association, it was not until the Mastership of Thomas Nevile that Trinity assumed both its spaciousness and its courtly association with the governing class that distinguished it since the Civil War. In its infancy Trinity had owed a great deal to its neighbouring college of St John's: in the exaggerated words of Roger Ascham Trinity was little more than a colonia deducta.
Its first four Masters were educated at St John's, it took until around 1575 for the two colleges' application numbers to draw a position in which they have remained since the Civil War. In terms of wealth, Trinity's current fortunes belie prior fluctuations. Bentley himself was notorious for the construction of a hugely expensive staircase in the Master's Lodge, for his repeated refusals to step down despite pleas from the Fellows. Most of the Trinity's major buildings date from the 17th centuries. Thomas Nevile, who became Master of Trinity in 1593, redesigned much of the college; this work included the enlargement and completion of Great Court, the construction of Nevile's Court between Great Court and the river Cam. Nevile's Court was completed in the late 17th century when the Wren Library, designed by Christopher Wren, was built. In the 20th century, Trinity College, St John's College and King's College were for decades the main recruiting grounds for the Cambridge Apostles, an elite, intellectual secret society.
In 2011, the John Templeton Foundation awarded Trinity College's Master, the astrophysicist Martin Rees, its controversial million-pound Templeton Prize, for "affirming life's spiritual dimension". Trinity is the richest Oxbridge college, with a landholding alone worth £800 million. Trinity is sometimes suggested to be the second, third or fourth wealthiest landowner in the UK – after the Crown Estate, the National Trust and the Church of England. In 2005, Trinity's annual rental income from its properties was reported to be in excess of £20 million. Trinity owns: 3400 acres housing facilities at the Port of Felixstowe, Britain's busiest container port the Cambridge Science Park the O2 Arena in London Lord Byron purportedly kept a pe