Ralph Merkle

Ralph C. Merkle is a computer scientist, he is one of the inventors of public key cryptography, the inventor of cryptographic hashing, more a researcher and speaker of cryonics. While an undergraduate, Merkle devised Merkle's Puzzles, a scheme for communication over an insecure channel, as part of a class project; the scheme is now recognized to be an early example of public key cryptography. He co-invented the Merkle–Hellman knapsack cryptosystem, invented cryptographic hashing, invented Merkle trees; the Merkle–Damgård construction is at the heart of many hashing algorithms. While at Xerox PARC, Merkle designed the Khufu and Khafre block ciphers, the Snefru hash function. Merkle was the manager of compiler development at Elxsi from 1980. In 1988, he became a research scientist at Xerox PARC. In 1999 he became a nanotechnology theorist for Zyvex. In 2003 he became a Distinguished Professor at Georgia Tech, where he led the Georgia Tech Information Security Center. In 2006 he returned to the San Francisco Bay Area, where he has been a senior research fellow at IMM, a faculty member at Singularity University, a board member of the Alcor Life Extension Foundation.

He was awarded the IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal in 2010. Ralph Merkle is a grandnephew of baseball star Fred Merkle. Merkle is married to the video game designer best known for her game, River Raid. Merkle is on the Board of Directors of the cryonics organization Alcor Life Extension Foundation. Merkle appears in the science fiction novel The Diamond Age, involving nanotechnology. 1996 Paris Kanellakis Award for the Invention of Public Key Cryptography. 1998 Feynman Prize in Nanotechnology for computational modeling of molecular tools for atomically-precise chemical reactions 1999 IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computers and Communications Award 2000 RSA Award for Excellence in Mathematics for the invention of public key cryptography. 2008 International Association for Cryptographic Research fellow for the invention of public key cryptography. 2010 IEEE Hamming Medal for the invention of public key cryptography 2011 Computer History Museum Fellow "for his work, with Whitfield Diffie and Martin Hellman, on public key cryptography."

2011 National Inventors Hall of Fame, for the invention of public key cryptography 2012 National Cyber Security Hall of Fame inductee Other references: Ralph C. Merkle, Secrecy and public key systems, UMI Research Press, 1982, ISBN 0-8357-1384-9. Robert A. Freitas Jr. Ralph C. Merkle, Kinematic Self-Replicating Machines, Landes Bioscience, 2004, ISBN 1-57059-690-5. Paul Kantor, Gheorghe Mureşan, Fred Roberts, Daniel Zeng, Frei-Yue Wang, Hsinchun Chen, Ralph Merkle, "Intelligence and Security Informatics": IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics, ISI 2005, Atlanta, GA, US, May 19–20... Springer, 2005, ISBN 3-540-25999-6. Interview at Google Videos in the Death in the Deep Freeze documentary Nova Southeastern University, Nanotechnology Expert Ralph Merkle to Speak on "Life and Death" Ralph Merkle's personal website Oral history interview with Martin Hellman – from 2004, Palo Alto, California. Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Hellman describes his invention of public key cryptography with collaborators Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle at Stanford University in the mid-1970s.

He relates his subsequent work in cryptography with Steve Pohlig and others

Sodoma's Ghost

Sodoma's Ghost is an Italian direct-to-video horror film directed by Lucio Fulci. At an isolated country house during World War II, a group of AWOL Nazi soldiers indulge in orgiastic behavior with a few prostitutes. One, Aryan-blond soldier films the cavorting with a movie camera. While viewing the film, the Germans revels are brought to a sudden end when Allied bombs land on the villa, destroying it. Present day. Six teenagers are driving to Paris after a touring holiday in the countryside, they are the van driver Mark, his friends Paul, Anne and Maria. Driving off the main road, the group descends on the house seen in the prologue. Finding the villa abandoned, they elect to stay for the night; the place is plush furnished, dotted with erotic paintings and photographs. It's haunted by the ghosts of the same sex-crazed Nazis; that night, Willy the young Nazi soldier, filming the orgy seen earlier, emerges from a mirror and seduces Anne as she sleeps alone in a room. Anne responds to his violent sexual overtures.

When she wakes up the next morning, she assumes it was all a bad dream. The six teenagers attempt to leave the next day, but their one attempt to drive away is thwarted when the route leads mysteriously back to the villa. Returning inside, they loiter around until dusk deciding to stay again for another night; the next morning, they decide to try to leave. They go back inside to phone for help, they are met with sinister responses over the phone by the police station. They discover that the phone line was cut all this time. What's more, they are locked in the house; the window shutters resist their efforts to break through, plus all the doors. Claustrophoic attacks happen. Soon, bitter arguments occur between the three guys. Mark gets drunk on the vintage wine found in the cellar. After obnoxiously taunting Maria, he wonders off to explore more of the house. Mark finds a group of Nazi playing cards around a table, they invite the inebriated youth to join them. The others disappear and Mark plays Russian roulette with Willy by playing a five-hand of cards with him, being forced to put the revolver to his head and pull the trigger three times with a single bullet in it.

Mark gets his reward: an assignation with a prostitute in a neighboring room. His desire turns to horror when his hands go right into a bloody pulp. Running out of the room, Mark sees him transform into a Nazi too. Mark lunges at Paul in which Mark breaks his neck; the others drag him into the living room. More supernatural occurrences occur, starting when Maria retreats to a room where a ghost prostitute attempts to seduce her and tries to sow seeds of anxiety in her by saying that her lover, Anne, is cheating on her with Celine. Paul gets approached and seduced by a processed Anne who turns into a rotting corpse. Exploring for a way out and John find a can of film in the cellar, which holds the key to the ghosts power; as Mark's corpse rots before their eyes, they hear footsteps of the approaching Nazi ghosts. The four surviving teens flee into the parlor where they decide to play the film to find the mystery of the supernatural occurrences; the film is the orgy sequence. Just when the ghosts break down the door, the film ends with the explosion.

The marauding ghosts disappear and the youths black out from the massive explosion that rocks the entire building. When they wake up, they all find themselves outside the now-ruined shell of the villa, their experiences have been nothing more than dreams, the teens are relieved to discover that Mark is alive after all. Having enough of their adventures, the six teens drive off. By the second half of the 1980s, Italian cinema was finding it more difficult to get theatrical distribution; as films released to home video did not need to be sent to the rating board for a theatrical screening certificate, some productions including Sodoma's Ghost saved money by releasing films direct-to-video. The film was part of a series titled I maestri del thriller, aimed directly at television and home video release. Producer Carlo Alberto Alfieri presented the project to Luciano Martino who rejected it, made a deal with August Caminito's Scena International. Caminito's company contacted Distribuzione Alpha Cinematographica and Cine Duck and sold television rights to the series to Reteitalia.

Cinematographer Silvano Tessicini got director Lucio Fulci involved in the series. Fucli was ill. Tessicini suggested Fulci to be part of the production as a supervisor, but Fulci directed two features: Touch of Death and Sodoma's Ghost. One of the directors had backed out of the series, which led to Fulci directing Sodoma's Ghost based on a script written by Fulci and Carlo Alberto Alfieri years before. Filming lasted for four weeks; the film was shot around Vides Studios. Fulci spoke negatively about both films stating that there were so many shots in the film to get the minimum running time of the films complete. Fucli argued with the producers on set while the producers were unhappy with him as Fulci was continuously behind schedule. Actress Teresa Razzaudi argued with Fulci as she refused to do n

Female infertility

Female infertility refers to infertility in women. It affects an estimated 48 million women, with the highest prevalence of infertility affecting people in South Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa/Middle East, Central/Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Infertility is caused by many sources, including nutrition and other malformations of the uterus. Infertility affects women from around the world, the cultural and social stigma surrounding it varies. Causes or factors of female infertility can be classified regarding whether they are acquired or genetic, or by location. Although factors of female infertility can be classified as either acquired or genetic, female infertility is more or less a combination of nature and nurture; the presence of any single risk factor of female infertility does not cause infertility, if a woman is infertile, the infertility cannot be blamed on any single risk factor if the risk factor is present. According to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, smoking, sexually transmitted infections, being overweight or underweight can all affect fertility.

In broad sense, acquired factors include any factor, not based on a genetic mutation, including any intrauterine exposure to toxins during fetal development, which may present as infertility many years as an adult. A woman's fertility is affected by her age; the average age of a girl's first period is 12–13, but, in postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles are anovulatory in the first year after menarche, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year. A woman's fertility peaks in the early and mid 20s, after which it starts to decline, with this decline being accelerated after age 35. However, the exact estimates of the chances of a woman to conceive after a certain age are not clear, with research giving differing results; the chances of a couple to conceive at an advanced age depend on many factors, including the general health of a woman and the fertility of the male partner. Tobacco smoking is harmful to the ovaries, the degree of damage is dependent upon the amount and length of time a woman smokes or is exposed to a smoke-filled environment.

Nicotine and other harmful chemicals in cigarettes interfere with the body’s ability to create estrogen, a hormone that regulates folliculogenesis and ovulation. Cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesis, uterine blood flow and the uterine myometrium; some damage is irreversible. Smokers are 60% more to be infertile than non-smokers. Smoking reduces the chances of IVF producing a live birth by 34% and increases the risk of an IVF pregnancy miscarrying by 30%. Female smokers have an earlier onset of menopause by 1–4 years. Sexually transmitted infections are a leading cause of infertility, they display few, if any visible symptoms, with the risk of failing to seek proper treatment in time to prevent decreased fertility. Twelve percent of all infertility cases are a result of a woman either being underweight or overweight. Fat cells produce estrogen, in addition to the primary sex organs. Too much body fat causes production of too much estrogen and the body begins to react as if it is on birth control, limiting the odds of getting pregnant.

Too little body fat causes insufficient production of estrogen and disruption of the menstrual cycle. Both under and overweight women have irregular cycles in which ovulation does not occur or is inadequate. Proper nutrition in early life is a major factor for fertility. A study in the US indicated that 20% of infertile women had a past or current eating disorder, five times higher than the general lifetime prevalence rate. A review from 2010 concluded that overweight and obese subfertile women have a reduced probability of successful fertility treatment and their pregnancies are associated with more complications and higher costs. In hypothetical groups of 1,000 women undergoing fertility care, the study counted 800 live births for normal weight and 690 live births for overweight and obese anovulatory women. For ovulatory women, the study counted 700 live births for normal weight, 550 live births for overweight and 530 live births for obese women; the increase in cost per live birth in anovulatory overweight and obese women were 54 and 100% higher than their normal weight counterparts, for ovulatory women they were 44 and 70% higher, respectively.

Exposure to radiation poses a high risk of infertility, depending on the frequency and exposure duration. Radiotherapy is reported to cause infertility; the amount of radiation absorbed by the ovaries will determine. High doses can destroy some or all of the eggs in the ovaries and might cause infertility or early menopause. Chemotherapy poses a high risk of infertility. Chemotherapies with high risk of infertility include procarbazine and other alkylating drugs such as cyclophosphamide, busulfan, melphalan and chlormethine. Drugs with medium risk include platinum analogs such as cisplatin and carboplatin. On the other hand, therapies with low risk of gonadotoxicity include plant derivatives such as vincristine and vinblastine, antibiotics such as bleomycin and dactinomycin and antimetabolites such as methotrexate, mercaptopurine and 5-fluorouracil. Female infertility by chemotherapy appears to be secondary to premature ovarian failure by loss of primordial follicles; this loss is no