Newport, New Hampshire
Newport is a town in and the county seat of Sullivan County, New Hampshire, United States. It is 43 miles west-northwest of Concord; the population was 6,507 at the 2010 census. A covered bridge is in the northwest; the area is noted for maple apple orchards. Prior to county division in 1827, Newport was in Cheshire County; the central part of town, where 4,769 people resided at the 2010 census, is defined as the Newport census-designated place and is located next to the Sugar River at the junction of New Hampshire routes 10 and 11. The town includes the villages of Kelleyville and North Newport. Granted in 1753 by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth, the town was named "Grenville" after George Grenville, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and brother-in-law of William Pitt, but ongoing hostilities during the French and Indian War, as close as the Fort at Number 4 at Charlestown, delayed settlement. In 1761 the town was incorporated as "Newport", for Henry Newport, a distinguished English soldier and statesman.
It was first settled in 1763 by pioneers from Connecticut. Absalom Kelsey was one of the earliest settlers; the first blow in clearing the forests in the new town was struck by Absalom Kelsey on the D. F. Pike farm at the foot of Claremont Hill. At that time, the Connecticut River was the only route for travel, until a road was cut through the wilderness to Charlestown in 1767; the following year, the first gristmill was established. But dissatisfied with treatment by the state government far beyond the mountains, Newport in 1781 joined 33 other towns along the Connecticut River and seceded from New Hampshire to join Vermont. George Washington, dissolved their union with Vermont in 1782, the towns rejoined New Hampshire. With excellent soil for farming, abundant water power from the Sugar River and its South Branch to run mills, Newport grew prosperous; the first cotton mill was established by Colonel James D. Wolcott in 1813. Local cabinet making flourished, and in 1817 inspired by the Erie Canal, businessmen proposed digging a canal to connect the Connecticut and Merrimack rivers—beginning with the Sugar River, using its source, Lake Sunapee, as a reservoir.
The plan was abandoned. In 1871, the Sugar River Railroad connected to Newport from Bradford, but the river was recognized as central to industrial development, in 1820, mill owners from Claremont and Newport united to create the Sunapee Dam Corporation, which built a dam to regulate the Sugar River's flow, running mill machinery during drought. This plan worked, over 120 water wheels would turn along the stream's course. By 1859, when the population was 2,020, Newport had two tanneries, it had the Sibley Scythe Company, established in 1842, which manufactured the scythes that cleared jungle during construction of the Panama Canal. It closed in 1929; the venerable mill town has significant architectural landmarks, including the 1823 South Congregational Church designed by Elias Carter, the Newport Opera House built in 1886, the Richards Free Library, built as the home of Colonel Seth Mason Richards in 1898. Photos from the early 20th century: During the summer and fall of 1765, six young men came to Newport from Killingworth, cleared six acres of land each, after getting in a crop of rye, returned home and spent the winter.
The following year, in June 1766, these men having an addition of two to their number, making eight in all, five having families and made the first permanent settlement. No record or tradition is found showing the precise day of their arrival. All accounts agree; the following were among the first five having families. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 43.7 square miles, of which 43.6 sq mi is land and 0.1 sq mi is water, comprising 0.18% of the town. Besides the central village of Newport, other settlements within the town include North Newport, Kelleyville and Wendell, on the town's eastern border with Sunapee. Newport is drained by the Sugar River and its South Branch, with the town center at their confluence; the North Branch joins east of North Newport. The highest point in town is along its southern border, where an unnamed ridge has an elevation of 1,920 feet above sea level; the town is served by state routes 10, 11 and 103. Newport is home to Parlin Field Airport.
Photos from the early 21st century: As of the census of 2010, there were 6,507 people, 2,629 households, 1,706 families residing in the town. There were 2,938 housing units, of which or 10.5 %, were vacant. The racial makeup of the town was 97.2% white, 0.3% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander, 0.3% some other race, 1.6% from two or more races. 1.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Of the 2,629 households, 31.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.1% were headed by married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.1% were non-families. 27.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.9% were someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43, th
The Native American Party, renamed the American Party in 1855 and known as the Know Nothing movement, was an American nativist political party that operated nationally in the mid-1850s. It was anti-Catholic and hostile to immigration, starting as a secret society; the movement emerged as a major political party in the form of the American Party. Adherents to the movement were to reply "I know nothing" when asked about its specifics by outsiders, thus providing the group with its common name; the Know Nothings believed a "Romanist" conspiracy was afoot to subvert civil and religious liberty in the United States and sought to politically organize native-born Protestants in what they described as a defense of their traditional religious and political values. It is remembered for this theme because of fears by Protestants that Catholic priests and bishops would control a large bloc of voters. In most places, Know Nothingism lasted only a year or two before disintegrating because of weak local leaders, few publicly declared national leaders and a deep split over the issue of slavery.
In the South, the party did not emphasize anti-Catholicism, but was the main alternative to the dominant Democratic Party. The collapse of the Whig Party after the passage of the Kansas–Nebraska Act left an opening for the emergence of a new major party in opposition to the Democrats; the Know Nothings elected congressman Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts and several other individuals in the 1854 elections and created a new party organization known as the American Party. In the South, the American Party served as a vehicle for politicians opposed to the Democratic Party. Many hoped that it would seek a middle ground between the pro-slavery positions of many Democratic politicians and the anti-slavery positions of the emerging Republican Party; the American Party nominated former President Millard Fillmore in the 1856 presidential election, although he kept quiet about his membership. Fillmore received 21.5% of the popular vote in the 1856 presidential election, finishing behind the Democratic and Republican nominees.
The party declined after the 1856 election. The 1857 Dred Scott v. Sandford decision further aroused opposition to slavery in the North, where many Know Nothings joined the Republicans. Most of the remaining members of the party supported the Constitutional Union Party in the 1860 presidential election. Anti-Catholicism had been a factor in colonial America but played a minor role in American politics until the arrival of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics in the 1840s, it reemerged in nativist attacks on Catholic immigration. It appeared in New York politics as early as 1843 under the banner of the American Republican Party; the movement spread to nearby states using that name or Native American Party or variants of it. They succeeded in a number of local and Congressional elections, notably in 1844 in Philadelphia, where the anti-Catholic orator Lewis Charles Levin, who went on to be the first Jewish congressman, was elected Representative from Pennsylvania's 1st district. In the early 1850s, numerous secret orders grew up, of which the Order of United Americans and the Order of the Star Spangled Banner came to be the most important.
They merged in New York in the early 1850s as a secret order that spread across the North, reaching non-Catholics those who were lower middle class or skilled workmen. The name "Know Nothing" originated in the semi-secret organization of the party; when a member was asked about his activities, he was supposed to reply, "I know nothing." Outsiders derisively called them "Know Nothings," and the name stuck. In 1855, the Know Nothings first entered politics under the American Party label; the immigration of large numbers of Irish and German Catholics to the United States in the period between 1830 and 1860 made religious differences between Catholics and Protestants a political issue. Violence erupted at the polls. Protestants alleged that Pope Pius IX had put down the failed liberal Revolutions of 1848 and that he was an opponent of liberty and republicanism. One Boston minister described Catholicism as "the ally of tyranny, the opponent of material prosperity, the foe of thrift, the enemy of the railroad, the caucus, the school".
These fears encouraged conspiracy theories regarding papal intentions of subjugating the United States through a continuing influx of Catholics controlled by Irish bishops obedient to and selected by the Pope. In 1849, an oath-bound secret society, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner, was created by Charles B. Allen in New York City. At its inception, the Order of the Star Spangled Banner only had about 36 members. Fear of Catholic immigration led to a dissatisfaction with the Democratic Party, whose leadership in many cities included Catholics of Irish descent. Activists formed secret groups, coordinating their votes and throwing their weight behind candidates sympathetic to their cause: Immigration during the first five years of the 1850s reached a level five times greater than a decade earlier. Most of the new arrivals were poor Catholic peasants or laborers from Ireland and Germany who crowded into the tenements of large cities. Crime and welfare costs soared. Cincinnati's crime rate, for example, tripled between 1846 and 1853 and its murder rate increased sevenfold.
Boston's expenditures for poor relief rose threefold during the same period. In spring 1854, the Know Nothings carried Boston and other New England cities, they swept the state of Massachusetts in the fall their biggest victory. The Whig candidate for mayor of Philadelphia, editor Robert T. Conrad, was soon revealed as a Know Nothing as he promised to crack down on crime, close saloons on Sund
Sullivan County, New Hampshire
Sullivan County is a county in the U. S. state of New Hampshire. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,742, making it the second-least populous county in New Hampshire, its county seat is Newport. Sullivan County is included in NH-VT Micropolitan Statistical Area. Sullivan County was organized at Newport in 1827 and is named for John Sullivan, the Revolutionary War hero and a former governor, it was formed from the northern part of Cheshire County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 552 square miles, of which 537 square miles is land and 15 square miles is water, it is the third-smallest county in New Hampshire by area. Grafton County Merrimack County Hillsborough County Cheshire County Windham County, Vermont Windsor County, Vermont Saint-Gaudens National Historic Site At the 2000 census, there were 40,458 people, 16,530 households and 11,174 families residing in the county; the population density was 29/. There were 20,158 housing units at an average density of 38 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 97.99% White, 0.24% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 0.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.9% were of English, 14.7% French, 11.7% French Canadian, 10.7% American, 10.0% Irish, 6.2% German and 5.1% Italian ancestry. 96.1% spoke English and 1.6% French as their first language. There were 16,530 households of which 29.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.70% were married couples living together, 8.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 25.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.88. 23.90% of the population were under the age of 18, 6.40% from 18 to 24, 28.00% from 25 to 44, 25.90% from 45 to 64, 15.80% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.50 males. The median household income was $40,938 and the median family income was $48,516. Males had a median income of $32,185 versus $24,615 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,319. About 5.20% of families and 8.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 9.50% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 43,742 people, 18,126 households, 12,025 families residing in the county; the population density was 81.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 22,341 housing units at an average density of 41.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.0% white, 0.6% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.3% American Indian, 0.3% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 23.9% were English, 16.3% were Irish, 9.2% were German, 7.1% were Italian, 6.0% were French Canadian, 5.2% were Scottish, 5.1% were Polish, 4.4% were American.
Of the 18,126 households, 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 9.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.7% were non-families, 26.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age was 43.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $50,689 and the median income for a family was $61,959. Males had a median income of $44,408 versus $34,233 for females; the per capita income for the county was $26,322. About 7.5% of families and 10.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.6% of those under age 18 and 7.9% of those age 65 or over. The executive power of Sullivan County's government is held by three county commissioners, each representing one of the three commissioner districts within the county. In addition to the County Commission, there are five directly-elected officials: they include County Attorney, Register of Deeds, County Sheriff, Register of Probate, County Treasurer.
The legislative branch of Sullivan County is made up of all of the members of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from the county. In total, as of August 2018 there are 13 members from 11 different districts. Claremont Charlestown Newport Plainfield Balloch Cornish Flat East Lempster Georges Mills Guild Meriden South Acworth The Sullivan County Department of Corrections operates the county prison in the town of Unity. National Register of Historic Places listings in Sullivan County, New Hampshire Sullivan County official website
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783. The American Patriots in the Thirteen Colonies won independence from Great Britain, becoming the United States of America, they defeated the British in the American Revolutionary War in alliance with others. Members of American colonial society argued the position of "no taxation without representation", starting with the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, they rejected the authority of the British Parliament to tax them because they lacked members in that governing body. Protests escalated to the Boston Massacre in 1770 and the burning of the Gaspee in Rhode Island in 1772, followed by the Boston Tea Party in December 1773, during which Patriots destroyed a consignment of taxed tea; the British responded by closing Boston Harbor followed with a series of legislative acts which rescinded Massachusetts Bay Colony's rights of self-government and caused the other colonies to rally behind Massachusetts. In late 1774, the Patriots set up their own alternative government to better coordinate their resistance efforts against Great Britain.
Tensions erupted into battle between Patriot militia and British regulars when the king's army attempted to capture and destroy Colonial military supplies at Lexington and Concord on April 19, 1775. The conflict developed into a global war, during which the Patriots fought the British and Loyalists in what became known as the American Revolutionary War; each of the thirteen colonies formed a Provincial Congress that assumed power from the old colonial governments and suppressed Loyalism, from there they built a Continental Army under the leadership of General George Washington. The Continental Congress determined King George's rule to be tyrannical and infringing the colonists' rights as Englishmen, they declared the colonies free and independent states on July 2, 1776; the Patriot leadership professed the political philosophies of liberalism and republicanism to reject monarchy and aristocracy, they proclaimed that all men are created equal. The Continental Army forced the redcoats out of Boston in March 1776, but that summer the British captured and held New York City and its strategic harbor for the duration of the war.
The Royal Navy blockaded ports and captured other cities for brief periods, but they failed to defeat Washington's forces. The Patriots unsuccessfully attempted to invade Canada during the winter of 1775–76, but captured a British army at the Battle of Saratoga in October 1777. France now entered the war as an ally of the United States with a large army and navy that threatened Britain itself; the war turned to the American South where the British under the leadership of Charles Cornwallis captured an army at Charleston, South Carolina in early 1780 but failed to enlist enough volunteers from Loyalist civilians to take effective control of the territory. A combined American–French force captured a second British army at Yorktown in the fall of 1781 ending the war; the Treaty of Paris was signed September 3, 1783, formally ending the conflict and confirming the new nation's complete separation from the British Empire. The United States took possession of nearly all the territory east of the Mississippi River and south of the Great Lakes, with the British retaining control of Canada and Spain taking Florida.
Among the significant results of the revolution was the creation of the United States Constitution, establishing a strong federal national government that included an executive, a national judiciary, a bicameral Congress that represented states in the Senate and the population in the House of Representatives. The Revolution resulted in the migration of around 60,000 Loyalists to other British territories British North America; as early as 1651, the English government had sought to regulate trade in the American colonies. On October 9, the Navigation Acts were passed pursuant to a mercantilist policy intended to ensure that trade enriched only Great Britain, barring trade with foreign nations; some argue that the economic impact was minimal on the colonists, but the political friction which the acts triggered was more serious, as the merchants most directly affected were most politically active. King Philip's War ended in 1678, much of it was fought without significant assistance from England.
This contributed to the development of a unique identity from that of the British people. In the 1680s, King Charles II determined to bring the New England colonies under a more centralized administration in order to regulate trade more effectively, his efforts were fiercely opposed by the colonists, resulting in the abrogation of their colonial charter by the Crown. Charles' successor James II finalized these efforts in 1686, establishing the Dominion of New England. Dominion rule triggered bitter resentment throughout New England. New Englanders were encouraged, however, by a change of government in England that saw James II abdicate, a populist uprising overthrew Dominion rule on April 18, 1689. Colonial governments reasserted their control in the wake of the revolt, successive governments made no more attempts to restore the Dominion. Subsequent English governments continued in their efforts to tax certain goods, passing acts regulating the trade of wool and molasses; the Molasses Act of 1733 in particular was egregious to the colonists, as a significant part of colonial trade relied on the product.
The taxes damaged the N
Binghamton, New York
Binghamton is a city in, the county seat of, Broome County, New York, United States. It lies in the state's Southern Tier region near the Pennsylvania border, in a bowl-shaped valley at the confluence of the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers. Binghamton is the principal city and cultural center of the Binghamton metropolitan area, home to a quarter million people; the population of the city itself, according to the 2010 census, is 47,376. From the days of the railroad, Binghamton was a transportation crossroads and a manufacturing center, has been known at different times for the production of cigars and computers. IBM was founded nearby, the flight simulator was invented in the city, leading to a notable concentration of electronics- and defense-oriented firms; this sustained. However, following cuts made by defense firms after the end of the Cold War, the region has lost a significant portion of its manufacturing industry. Today, while there is a continued concentration of high-tech firms, Binghamton is emerging as a healthcare- and education-focused city, with the presence of Binghamton University acting as much of the driving force behind this revitalization.
The first known people of European descent to come to the area were the troops of the Sullivan Expedition in 1779, during the American Revolutionary War, who destroyed local villages of the Onondaga and Oneida tribes. The city was named after William Bingham, a wealthy Philadelphian who bought the 10,000 acre patent for the land in 1786 consisting of portions of the towns of Union and Chenango. Joshua Whitney, Jr. Bingham's land agent, chose land at the junction of the Chenango and Susquehanna Rivers to develop a settlement named Chenango Point, helped build its roads and erect the first bridge. Significant agricultural growth led to the incorporation of the village of Binghamton in 1834; the Chenango Canal, completed in 1837, connected Binghamton to the Erie Canal, was the impetus for the initial industrial development of the area. This growth accelerated with the completion of the Erie Railroad between Binghamton and New York City in 1849. With the Delaware and Western Railroad arriving soon after, the village became an important regional transportation center.
Several buildings of importance were built at this time, including the New York State Inebriate Asylum, opened in 1858 as the first center in the United States to treat alcoholism as a disease. Binghamton incorporated as a city in 1867 and, due to the presence of several stately homes, was nicknamed the Parlor City. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many immigrants moved to the area, finding an abundance of jobs. During the 1880s, Binghamton grew to become the second-largest manufacturer of cigars in the United States. However, by the early 1920s, the major employer of the region became Endicott Johnson, a shoe manufacturer whose development of welfare capitalism resulted in many amenities for local residents. An larger influx of Europeans immigrated to Binghamton, the working class prosperity resulted in the area being called the Valley of Opportunity. In 1913, 31 people perished in the Binghamton Clothing Company fire, which resulted in numerous reforms to the New York fire code. Major floods in 1935 and 1936 resulted in a number of deaths, washed out the Ferry Street Bridge.
The floods were devastating, resulted in the construction of flood walls along the length of the Susquehanna and Chenango Rivers. During the Second World War and corporate generosity continued as IBM, founded in greater Binghamton, emerged as a global technology leader. Along with Edwin Link's invention of the flight simulator in Binghamton, IBM transitioned the region to a high-tech economy. Other major manufacturers included General Electric; until the Cold War ended, the area never experienced an economic downfall, due in part to its defense-oriented industries. The population of the city of Binghamton peaked at around 85,000 in the mid-1950s. Post-war suburban development led to a decline in the city population, as the towns of Vestal and Union experienced rapid growth; as in many other Rust Belt cities, traditional manufacturers saw steep declines, though Binghamton's technology industry limited this impact. In an effort to reverse these trends, urban renewal dominated much of the construction during the 1960s and early 1970s, with many ornate city buildings torn down during this period.
The construction included the creation of Government Plaza, the Broome County Veterans Memorial Arena, the Brandywine Highway. As was typical of urban renewal, these projects failed to stem most of the losses, though they did establish Binghamton as the government and cultural center of the region; the city's population declined from 64,000 in 1969 to 56,000 by the early 1980s. As the Cold War came to a close in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union, the defense-related industries in the Binghamton area began to falter, resulting in several closures and widespread layoffs These were most notable at IBM, which sold its Federal Systems division and laid off several thousands of workers; the local economy went into a deep recession, the long-prevalent manufacturing jobs dropped by 64% from 1990 to 2013. A mass shooting took place on April 3, 2009, at the American Civic Association, leaving 14 dead, including the gunman. In the 21st century, the city has attempted to diversify its economic base in order to spur revitalization.
The local economy has transitioned towards a focus on services and healthcare. Major emphasis has been placed on Binghamton University, which built a downtown cam
Levi Woodbury was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, a U. S. Senator, the 9th Governor of New Hampshire, cabinet member in three administrations. Born in Francestown, New Hampshire, he established a legal practice in Francestown in 1812. After serving in the New Hampshire Senate, he was appointed to the New Hampshire Supreme Court in 1817, he served as Governor of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1824 and represented New Hampshire in the Senate from 1825 to 1831, becoming affiliated with the Democratic Party of Andrew Jackson. He served as the United States Secretary of the Navy under President Jackson and as the United States Secretary of the Treasury under Jackson and President Martin Van Buren, he served another term representing New Hampshire in the Senate from 1841 to 1845, when he accepted President James K. Polk's appointment to the Supreme Court. Woodbury was the first Justice to have attended law school, he received significant support for the presidential nomination at the 1848 Democratic National Convention among New England delegates, but the nomination went to Lewis Cass of Michigan.
Woodbury served on the court until his death in 1851. Woodbury was born in the son of Mary and Peter Woodbury, he began his education at Atkinson Academy. He graduated from Dartmouth College, Phi Beta Kappa, in 1809 attended Tapping Reeve Law School in Litchfield and read law to be admitted to the New Hampshire Bar in 1812, he became the first Supreme Court justice to attend law school. He was in private practice in Francestown from 1812 to 1816, he joined the Freemasons. His education contributed to his early start in law, which led to his political positions, he began practicing law in his hometown. During his time in Francestown, he wrote the Hillsborough Resolves to defend the Madison administration for their decisions in the War of 1812, which marked the beginning of his political involvement. Following the publication of his defense, he gained the recognition he needed to receive an appointment to the state senate in 1816. In quick succession, he was appointed to the state supreme court a year and in 1823, he was elected as the Governor of New Hampshire.
During the time of his gubernatorial election, there was factionalism within the party. The caucus chose Samuel Dinsmoor as the candidate for governor, but an "irregular" public convention elected Woodbury as the other candidate. Woodbury defeated Dinsmoor by a wide margin, he did not make a lot of progress. He became a U. S. Senator from New Hampshire, during which time he served as the Chairman of the Senate Commerce Committee. Throughout Woodbury's political career, he was characterized as being independent and moderate, which some scholars interpret as indecisiveness and hesitancy. Woodbury was a clerk of the New Hampshire State Senate from 1816 to 1817, a Justice of New Hampshire Superior Court of Judicature from 1817 to 1823, he was Governor of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1824 and was Speaker of the New Hampshire House of Representatives, 1825. Woodbury served as a United States Senator from New Hampshire from 1825 to 1831. Elected to serve in New Hampshire State Senate in 1831, Woodbury did not take office due to his appointment as United States Secretary of the Navy under President Andrew Jackson, from 1831 to 1834.
At the beginning of this term, he was instrumental in the appointment of fellow New Hampshireman Edmund Roberts as special agent and envoy to the Far East. Woodbury served as Secretary of the Treasury under Jackson and Martin Van Buren from 1834 to 1841, served again as Senator from New Hampshire from 1841 to 1845, he was a Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court, 1845 to 1851; as a U. S. Senator, Woodbury was a dependable Jackson Democrat, President Jackson appointed him Secretary of the Navy and Secretary of the Treasury. Woodbury worked to end the Second Bank of the United States. In retrospect, the financial Panic of 1837 and the collapse of speculative land prices were legacies of Woodbury's tenure. After the Panic, Woodbury realised that the U. S. Treasury needed a more secure administration of its own funds than commercial banks supplied, he backed the act for an "Independent Treasury System" passed by Congress in 1840, it was repealed under the new administration the following year, but the foundation was laid for an independent U.
S. Treasury established in 1846, under President James K. Polk. Woodbury served as chairman of the U. S. Senate Committee on Finance during a Special Session of the 29th Congress, his ten-day chairmanship is the shortest on record. In the 1844 presidential election and the Jackson Democrats supported the Democrats' nomination of Polk. In that year, Woodbury delivered a Phi Beta Kappa Address at his alma mater, Dartmouth College, titled "Progress." The address discussed Thomas Cole's series of The Course of Empire. Woodbury believed that, unlike Cole's depiction of a cycle of rise and decline, in the United States there would only be a rise. On September 20, 1845, Polk gave Woodbury a recess appointment to the seat on the U. S. Supreme Court vacated by Joseph Story. Formally nominated on December 23, 1845, Woodbury was confirmed by the United States Senate on January 3, 1846, received his commission the same day, he was promoted as a candidate for president at the 1848 Democratic National Convention, his support was centered in New England.
He remained on the Cou