Hard rock is a loosely defined subgenre of rock music that began in the mid-1960s, with the garage and blues rock movements. It is typified by a heavy use of aggressive vocals, distorted electric guitars, bass guitar and accompanied with keyboards. Hard rock developed into a major form of popular music in the 1970s, with notable bands such as AC/DC, the Who, Led Zeppelin, Deep Purple, Aerosmith and Van Halen. During the 1980s, some hard rock bands moved away from their hard rock roots and more towards pop rock, while others began to return to a hard rock sound. Established bands made a comeback in the mid-1980s and it reached a commercial peak in the 1980s, with glam metal bands like Bon Jovi and Def Leppard and the rawer sounds of Guns N' Roses, which followed up with great success in the part of that decade. Hard rock began losing popularity with the commercial success of R&B, hip-hop, urban pop and Britpop in the 1990s. Despite this, many post-grunge bands adopted a hard rock sound and in the 2000s there came a renewed interest in established bands, attempts at a revival, new hard rock bands that emerged from the garage rock and post-punk revival scenes.
Out of this movement came garage rock bands like the White Stripes, the Strokes, Interpol and on, the Black Keys. In the 2000s, only a few hard rock bands from the 1970s and 1980s managed to sustain successful recording careers. Hard rock is a form of aggressive rock music; the electric guitar is emphasised, used with distortion and other effects, both as a rhythm instrument using repetitive riffs with a varying degree of complexity, as a solo lead instrument. Drumming characteristically focuses on driving rhythms, strong bass drum and a backbeat on snare, sometimes using cymbals for emphasis; the bass guitar works in conjunction with the drums playing riffs, but providing a backing for the rhythm and lead guitars. Vocals are growling, raspy, or involve screaming or wailing, sometimes in a high range, or falsetto voice. Hard rock has sometimes been labelled cock rock for its emphasis on overt masculinity and sexuality and because it has been predominantly performed and consumed by men: in the case of its audience white, working-class adolescents.
In the late 1960s, the term heavy metal was used interchangeably with hard rock, but began to be used to describe music played with more volume and intensity. While hard rock maintained a bluesy rock and roll identity, including some swing in the back beat and riffs that tended to outline chord progressions in their hooks, heavy metal's riffs functioned as stand-alone melodies and had no swing in them. Heavy metal took on "darker" characteristics after Black Sabbath's breakthrough at the beginning of the 1970s. In the 1980s it developed a number of subgenres termed extreme metal, some of which were influenced by hardcore punk, which further differentiated the two styles. Despite this differentiation, hard rock and heavy metal have existed side by side, with bands standing on the boundary of, or crossing between, the genres; the roots of hard rock can be traced back to the 1950s electric blues, which laid the foundations for key elements such as a rough declamatory vocal style, heavy guitar riffs, string-bending blues-scale guitar solos, strong beat, thick riff-laden texture, posturing performances.
Electric blues guitarists began experimenting with hard rock elements such as driving rhythms, distorted guitar solos and power chords in the 1950s, evident in the work of Memphis blues guitarists such as Joe Hill Louis, Willie Johnson, Pat Hare, who captured a "grittier, more ferocious electric guitar sound" on records such as James Cotton's "Cotton Crop Blues". Other antecedents include Link Wray's instrumental "Rumble" in 1958, the surf rock instrumentals of Dick Dale, such as "Let's Go Trippin'" and "Misirlou". In the 1960s, American and British blues and rock bands began to modify rock and roll by adding harder sounds, heavier guitar riffs, bombastic drumming, louder vocals, from electric blues. Early forms of hard rock can be heard in the work of Chicago blues musicians Elmore James, Muddy Waters, Howlin' Wolf, the Kingsmen's version of "Louie Louie" which made it a garage rock standard, the songs of rhythm and blues influenced British Invasion acts, including "You Really Got Me" by the Kinks, "My Generation" by the Who, "Shapes of Things" by the Yardbirds, "Inside Looking Out" by the Animals, " Satisfaction" by the Rolling Stones.
From the late 1960s, it became common to divide mainstream rock music that emerged from psychedelia into soft and hard rock. Soft rock was derived from folk rock, using acoustic instruments and putting more emphasis on melody and harmonies. In contrast, hard rock was most derived from blues rock and was played louder and with more intensity. Blues rock acts that pioneered the sound included Cream, the Jimi Hendrix Experience, the Jeff Beck Group. Cream, in songs like "I Feel Free" combined blues rock with pop and psychedelia in the riffs and guitar solos of Eric Clapton. Jimi Hendrix produced a form of blues-influenced psychedelic rock, which combined elements of jazz and rock and roll. From 1967 Jeff Beck brought lead guitar to new heights of technical virtuosity and moved blues rock in the direction of heavy rock with his band, the Jeff Beck Group. Dave Davies of the Kinks, Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones, Pete Townshend of the Who, Hendrix and Beck all pioneered the use of new guitar effects like phasing and distortion.
The Beatles began producing songs in the new
Russell John Parrish, better known by the stage name Satchel, is an American musician. He is best known as a guitarist in the comedic glam metal band Steel Panther. Russ Parrish graduated from The Guitar Institute of Technology at Hollywood's Musician's Institute in 1989. After graduating, Parrish became an instructor through the early 90's while playing with Racer X offshoot Bad Dog with vocalist Jeff Martin and The Electric Fence with Martin on drums and Paul Gilbert alternating guitar and bass; when Paul Gilbert joined Mr. Big, Parrish rented a room in Gilbert's Los Angeles home and house-sat for him when Gilbert would go on tour recording demos in Gilbert's home studio, he has writing credits on several Paul Gilbert tracks. Parrish is seen playing bass in the tuning section of Gilbert's "Terrifying Guitar Trip" video, he played guitar for Jeff Pilson's band, War & Peace, appearing on the Time Capsule album, a collection of demos released on Shrapnel Records. After the break-up of War & Peace, Parrish was playing in a Thin Lizzy cover band when Jeff Martin introduced him to Judas Priest singer Rob Halford, resulting in Parrish joining Halford's band Fight and recording the War of Words album.
Upon exiting Fight he joined Cleveland's Outta The Blue, a local glam metal band that closed their show with Racer X covers, who became The Szuters. In 1995, Parrish played guitar in Kevin Gilbert's touring band in support of Gilbert's Thud album, he can be seen performing with Gilbert on Welcome to Joytown – Thud Live at the Troubadour, a DVD and CD released in 2009, documenting the band's 1995 concert at The Troubador in Los Angeles. In 1996, Parrish played guitar with Sebastian Bach on the song "Rock Bottom" for an Ace Frehley tribute album, Spacewalk. From 2002 to 2006, he played guitar in a Van Halen tribute band with Ralph Saenz called The Atomic Punks. Around the same time, he was in a Rush cover band called Moving Pictures with Atomic Punks drummer Scott Patterson. Russ Parrish appeared with Corey Taylor in the Ronnie James Dio tribute album entitled "This Is Your Life" on the track "Rainbow In The Dark". In the early 2000s, he was the leader of his own band, The Thornbirds, with Darren Leader, Jeff Duncan, Dean Cameron.
In 2000, Parrish was playing in various bands and acting in the production "Rockalypse Now", a play written by future Thornbirds bassist and occasional Steel Panther songwriter Dean Cameron. Around this time, he and Ralph Saenz started glam metal cover band Metal Shop as the characters Rikki Ratchet and Michael Diamond and appeared in a Discover card commercial as "Danger Kitty", a fictional one-hit-wonder band that spends all their royalty money on opulence and goes bankrupt. In 2003, Metal Shop released their debut album, Hole Patrol, began incorporating original songs into their live sets; the "classic" Steel Panther lineup was cemented by this point, with Travis Haley on bass and Darren Leader on drums, with the Rikki Ratchet and Michael Diamond aliases being replaced with Satchel and Michael Starr, respectively. Six years the band renamed to Steel Panther and released their first album under the name, entitled Feel the Steel. In his early days, Parrish used a white Ibanez RG770 with sharktooth inlays as his primary guitar.
During the Fight era, he played a Heartfield/Fender Talon and was endorsed by Fender alongside Vinnie Moore, John Norum, Richie Sambora, Joe Holmes. Since his work in Steel Panther, Parrish endorses Kramer Guitars, he plays. He runs his Kramer Pacer to his amp through a Line 6 G90 Wireless Relay system. For pedals, he is using a Boss TU-3 Tuner, a Boss Turbo Distortion, an MXR Carbon Copy Analog Delay Pedal – all powered by a Voodoo Labs Pedal Power. In the past, he used Marshall JCM 2000 amps, both Peavey 5150 and Triple X amplifiers, he occasionally uses Yamaha THR amplifiers offstage. He uses custom printed Tortex TIII 1.14mm picks. The Kramer Pacers that Satchel plays are made with US-manufactured parts rather than off-the-shelf Kramer Pacer guitars manufactured in Korea and/or Indonesia; the most noticeable difference is the bubinga skunk stripe on the back of the necks on all of his guitars. He uses a Seymour Duncan JB TB-4 pickup in the bridge, a Seymour Duncan 59' in the neck, an original Floyd Rose tremolo with an EVH D-Tuna is fitted to all his guitars.
As of 2016, he has stopped using the D-Tuna and instead has a single dedicated guitar for Drop D tuning. He uses D-Addario EXL Super Light gauge strings tuned a half-step down to E flat. In 2014 Kramer released a signature model featuring both a yellow leopard paint and purple leopard paint, it has the same body as a pacer vintage but has one volume knob, a Seymour Duncan SH-4 and SH-2. While endorsing and playing Kramer guitars, Satchel has occasionally used other guitar brands as well on some occasions, including Pacifica series guitars by Yamaha as well as various acoustic guitars, his primary acoustic guitar is a Gibson SJ-200 in Antique Natural. Satchel has been seen playing a Charvel guitar since 2016, it has been speculated that Satchel will be shifting his endorsement to Charvel, that possible signature models may become available. On March 29, 2017, Charvel posted an article talking about his Custom Charvel Dinky Bengal Striped guitar, the new album, the latest music video. In July 2018, the "Pussy Melter", a delay pedal preset, manufactured by TC Electronic in an endorsement deal with Satchel, was removed from sale and disco
Spaniards, or the Spanish people, are a Romance ethnic group that are indigenous to Spain. They share a common Spanish culture, history and language. Within Spain, there are a number of nationalisms and regionalisms, reflecting the country's complex history and diverse culture. Although the official language of Spain is known as "Spanish", it is only one of the national languages of Spain, is less ambiguously known as Castilian, a standard language based on the medieval romance speech of the Kingdom of Castile in north and central Spain; the Spanish people's heritage includes the pre-Celts and Celts. There are several spoken regional languages, most notably Basque and Galician. There are many populations outside Spain with ancestors who emigrated from Spain and who share a Hispanic culture; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin; the Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial conquered the peninsula in 409 AD.
In turn, the Visigoths established themselves in Spain. The Iberian Peninsula was conquered and brought under the rule of the Arab Umayyads in 711 and by the Berber North African dynasties the Almohads and the Almoravids in the 11th and 12th centuries. Following the eight century Christian Reconquista against the Moors, the modern Spanish state was formed with the union of the Kingdoms of Castille and Aragon, the conquest of the last Muslim Nasrid Kingdom of Granada and the Canary Islands in the late 15th century. In the early 16th century the Kingdom of Navarre was conquered; as Spain expanded its empire in the Americas, religious minorities in Spain such as Jews and Muslims were either converted or expelled and the Catholic church fiercely persecuted heresy during a period known as the Spanish Inquisition. A small number of Spaniards descend from converted Jewish and North Africans, as a result of the 800 years of Moorish occupation of the Iberian Peninsula. In parallel, a wave of emigration to the Americas began, with over 1.86 million Spaniards emigrating to the Spanish Americas during the colonial period and the population of the Spanish Empire had risen to 16.8 million by the end of the 18th century In the post-colonial period, a further 3.5 million Spanish left for the Americas Argentina, Mexico, Chile, Puerto Rico and Cuba.
Spain is home to one of the largest communities of Romani people. The Government's statistical agency CIS estimated in 2007 that the number of Gitanos present in Spain is around one million; the Spanish Roma, which belong to the Iberian Kale subgroup, are a formerly-nomadic community, which spread across Western Asia, North Africa, Europe, first reaching Spain in the 15th century. The population of Spain is becoming diverse due to recent immigration. From 2000 to 2010, Spain had among the highest per capita immigration rates in the world and the second highest absolute net migration in the World and immigrants now make up about 10% of the population; the prolonged economic crisis between 2008 and 2015 reduced both immigration rates and the total number of foreigners in the country, Spain becoming once more a net emigrant country. The earliest modern humans inhabiting Spain are believed to have been Neolithic peoples who may have arrived in the Iberian Peninsula as early as 35,000–40,000 years ago.
In more recent times the Iberians are believed to have arrived or developed in the region between the 4th millennium BC and the 3rd millennium BC settling along the Mediterranean coast. Celts settled in Spain during the Iron Age; some of those tribes in North-central Spain, which had cultural contact with the Iberians, are called Celtiberians. In addition, a group known as the Tartessians and Turdetanians inhabited southwestern Spain and who are believed to have developed a separate civilization of Phoenician influence; the seafaring Phoenicians and Carthaginians successively founded trading colonies along the Mediterranean coast over a period of several centuries. The Second Punic War between the Carthaginians and Romans was fought in what is now Spain and Portugal; the Roman Republic conquered Iberia during the 2nd and 1st centuries BC transformed most of the region into a series of Latin-speaking provinces. As a result of Roman colonization, the majority of local languages, with the exception of Basque, stem from the Vulgar Latin, spoken in Hispania, which evolved into the modern languages of the Iberian Peninsula, including Castilian, which became the main lingua franca of Spain, is now known in most countries as Spanish.
Hispania emerged as an important part of the Roman Empire and produced notable historical figures such as Trajan, Hadrian and Quintilian. The Germanic Vandals and Suebi, with part of the Iranian Alans under King Respendial, arrived in the peninsula in 409 AD. Part of the Vandals with the remaining Alans, now under Geiseric in personal union removed themselves to North Africa after a few conflicts with another Germanic tribe, the Visigoths, who established in Toulouse supported Roman campaigns against the Vandals and Alans in 415–19 AD and became the dominant power in Iberia for three centuries; the Visigoths were romanized in the eastern Empire and Christians, so their integration withi
David Lee Roth
David Lee Roth is an American rock vocalist, actor and former radio personality. Roth is best known as the current lead singer of hard rock band Van Halen, he is known as a successful solo artist, releasing numerous RIAA-certified Gold and Platinum albums. After more than two decades apart, Roth re-joined Van Halen in 2006 for a North American tour that became the highest grossing in the band's history and one of the highest grossing of that year. In 2012, Roth and Van Halen released the comeback album A Different Kind of Truth. In 2007, he was inducted into the Roll Hall of Fame as a member of Van Halen. Roth possesses a vocal range of three notes. Roth was born in Indiana, he is the son of art teacher Sibyl Roth and ophthalmologist Nathan Roth, a celebrated eye surgeon with a lucrative medical practice and a portfolio of astute real-estate investments. The senior Roth was featured on the TV show Lifestyles of the Rich and Famous in 1984, on which he claimed that he was Van Halen's first manager helping the group obtain gigs in the early days.
Nathan owned a 14,000-square-foot home in Pasadena, California named "Rothwood" as well as a chateau named "Bradbury." Roth is of Jewish heritage. Several members of his family were surgeons: uncles Dave and Marty, a grandfather, his uncle, Manny Roth and owned the New York establishment Cafe Wha? in the early 1960s, which featured performers such as Bob Dylan and Jimi Hendrix. At age seven, Roth got his first taste of show business from the inside by hanging out at Cafe Wha?, as mentioned in his book Crazy from the Heat. His uncle was one of Roth's first guests on his short-lived radio show on New York's 92.3 Free-FM. After living in Bloomington and Swampscott, Roth moved to Pasadena in his teens, he "bounced around" a number of schools and saw a psychiatrist for three years attending a ranch for troubled teens where he cared for a horse to build a sense of responsibility. He attended The Webb Schools in Claremont and John Muir High School in Pasadena Pasadena City College where he met the Van Halen brothers and Alex.
During this period Roth worked as a hospital orderly. In his late teens, he was singing solo, as well as with a group called the Red Ball Jets. Roth says this name was a reference to the red dye used in food at that time, including red candy balls, which would exacerbate his hyperactivity and lead to "Monkey Hour" at the family home. Another Los Angeles group, Mammoth rented the Red Ball Jets' public-address system. Roth agreed to join Mammoth as lead singer. In 1974, when told that another act was using the name, they changed their name from Mammoth to Van Halen. Performing original and cover songs, Van Halen gained local success, becoming a regular feature at the Starwood Club. During their four-month stint there they were discovered. In 1976, Gene Simmons assisted them in producing their first demo tape. Although featuring many of the songs that would be included on their future debut album, the tape garnered little major label attention. In early 1977, Warner Brothers' Ted Templeman came to the Starwood, heard the group, signed them to a contract.
Roth is a guitarist and harmonica player. Most acoustic guitar parts in Van Halen songs, such as "Ice Cream Man," "The Full Bug," "Could This Be Magic" and many others showcase his abilities on slide guitar and acoustic guitar. All performances, in the studio and on stage, featuring acoustic guitar or harmonica were performed by David Lee Roth featured in his early years with Van Halen. Released in 1978, the debut album; the album sold more than 12 million copies by 2014. The original Van Halen released five more successful albums over the next seven years. Roth is credited with promoting Van Halen's image as the quintessential rock band, one devoted to a lifestyle described by David Fricke in Rolling Stone as "a nonstop booze-and-babes party train." Despite this wild image, Roth was a key to the band's success both as lead singer and as their principal lyricist. Roth's lyrics worked in harmony with music composed by Eddie Van Halen to create the trademark tunes that helped transform Van Halen, in Fricke's words, into "the monster rock action squad that ruled the charts and the airwaves for seven years."In early 1985, while still a member of Van Halen, Roth released Crazy from the Heat, a popular solo EP of off-beat standards.
Singles for "California Girls" and "Just a Gigolo/I Ain't Got Nobody" succeeded due to innovative music videos, which featured ridiculous characters created by Roth and his Creative Chief Director, Pete Angelus, who directed Van Halen's Roth-era videos. Despite the band's success, a creative rift developed between Eddie Van Halen early on; the former was interested in lighthearted songs about partying and sex, while the latter wanted more depth. Van Halen constructed his own recording studio at home during 1983, which led to a conflict with the rest of the band as it allowed him to create music without their input. Furthermore, he began to move towards a more radio-friendly pop direction with keyboards and synthesizers, their sixth album, 1984, was a critical and co
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, a variety of vocal techniques. A person who sings is called a vocalist. Singers perform music that can be sung without accompaniment by musical instruments. Singing is done in an ensemble of musicians, such as a choir of singers or a band of instrumentalists. Singers may perform as soloists or accompanied by anything from a single instrument up to a symphony orchestra or big band. Different singing styles include art music such as opera and Chinese opera, Indian music and religious music styles such as gospel, traditional music styles, world music, blues and popular music styles such as pop, electronic dance music and filmi. Singing arranged or improvised, it may be done as a form of religious devotion, as a hobby, as a source of pleasure, comfort or ritual, as part of music education or as a profession. Excellence in singing requires time, dedication and regular practice.
If practice is done on a regular basis the sounds can become more clear and strong. Professional singers build their careers around one specific musical genre, such as classical or rock, although there are singers with crossover success, they take voice training provided by voice teachers or vocal coaches throughout their careers. In its physical aspect, singing has a well-defined technique that depends on the use of the lungs, which act as an air supply or bellows. Though these four mechanisms function independently, they are coordinated in the establishment of a vocal technique and are made to interact upon one another. During passive breathing, air is inhaled with the diaphragm while exhalation occurs without any effort. Exhalation may be aided by lower pelvis/pelvic muscles. Inhalation is aided by use of external intercostals and sternocleidomastoid muscles; the pitch is altered with the vocal cords. With the lips closed, this is called humming; the sound of each individual's singing voice is unique not only because of the actual shape and size of an individual's vocal cords but due to the size and shape of the rest of that person's body.
Humans have vocal folds which can loosen, tighten, or change their thickness, over which breath can be transferred at varying pressures. The shape of the chest and neck, the position of the tongue, the tightness of otherwise unrelated muscles can be altered. Any one of these actions results in a change in pitch, timbre, or tone of the sound produced. Sound resonates within different parts of the body and an individual's size and bone structure can affect the sound produced by an individual. Singers can learn to project sound in certain ways so that it resonates better within their vocal tract; this is known as vocal resonation. Another major influence on vocal sound and production is the function of the larynx which people can manipulate in different ways to produce different sounds; these different kinds of laryngeal function are described as different kinds of vocal registers. The primary method for singers to accomplish this is through the use of the Singer's Formant, it has been shown that a more powerful voice may be achieved with a fatter and fluid-like vocal fold mucosa.
The more pliable the mucosa, the more efficient the transfer of energy from the airflow to the vocal folds. Vocal registration refers to the system of vocal registers within the voice. A register in the voice is a particular series of tones, produced in the same vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, possessing the same quality. Registers originate in laryngeal function, they occur. Each of these vibratory patterns appears within a particular range of pitches and produces certain characteristic sounds; the occurrence of registers has been attributed to effects of the acoustic interaction between the vocal fold oscillation and the vocal tract. The term "register" can be somewhat confusing; the term register can be used to refer to any of the following: A particular part of the vocal range such as the upper, middle, or lower registers. A resonance area such as chest voice or head voice. A phonatory process A certain vocal timbre or vocal "color" A region of the voice, defined or delimited by vocal breaks.
In linguistics, a register language is a language which combines tone and vowel phonation into a single phonological system. Within speech pathology, the term vocal register has three constituent elements: a certain vibratory pattern of the vocal folds, a certain series of pitches, a certain type of sound. Speech pathologists identify four vocal registers based on the physiology of laryngeal function: the vocal fry register, the modal register, the falsetto register, the whistle register; this view is adopted by many vocal pedagogues. Vocal resonation is the process by which the basic product of phonation is en
Van Nuys is a neighborhood in the central San Fernando Valley region of Los Angeles, California. Home to Van Nuys Airport and the Valley Municipal Building, it is the most populous neighborhood in the San Fernando Valley. In 1909 the Suburban Homes Company, a syndicate led by H. J. Whitley, general manager of the Board of Control, along with Harry Chandler, H. G. Otis, M. H. Sherman and O. F. Brandt purchased 48,000 acres of the Farming and Milling Company for $2,500,000. Henry E. Huntington, extended his Pacific Electric Railway through the Valley to Owensmouth; the Suburban Home Company laid out plans for roads and the towns of Van Nuys and Canoga Park. The rural areas were annexed into the city of Los Angeles in 1915. On April 2, 1915 H. J. Whitley purchased the Suburban Home Company so that he would have complete control for finishing the development; the town was named for Isaac Newton Van Nuys, one of its developers. It was annexed by Los Angeles on May 22, 1915, after completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct, providing it with the water required for further growth.
Van Nuys was the first new stop on the San Fernando Line of the Pacific Electric Railway red cars system, which boosted its early land sales and commercial success. Van Nuys became the Valley's satellite Los Angeles municipal civic center with the 1932 Art Deco Valley Municipal Building, a visual landmark and Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, starting the present-day Government Center complex of government services buildings. In 1991, Marvin Braude, a member of the Los Angeles City Council, redesignated a 45-block area of Van Nuys as a part of Sherman Oaks; this redesignated area included the community of Magnolia Woods. Some area residents had presented a petition and several original deeds that stated "Sherman Oaks" to Braude, they argued that the area was a part of Sherman Oaks until the 1960s, when ZIP Codes labeling the area as Van Nuys were established. In October 2005, the Metro Orange Line opened with two stations. In 2014, a "Great Streets" project was introduced by Mayor Eric Garcetti with Van Nuys Blvd. to be redesigned between Victory Blvd. and Oxnard Street.
Sepulveda Blvd. was resurfaced between Victory Blvd and Oxnard Street in May 2014. A new Los Angeles County family services building was built on the southwest corner of Van Nuys Blvd. and Saticoy Street in 2016. In 2017, a new Los Angeles Fire Department fire station is under construction on the northwestern corner of Oxnard St and Vesper Ave. Van Nuys is bordered on the north by North Hills, on the northeast by Panorama City, on the east by Valley Glen, on the south by Sherman Oaks, on the southwest by the Sepulveda Basin, on the west by Lake Balboa, on the northwest by Northridge, its street and other boundaries are Roscoe Boulevard on the north, Sepulveda Boulevard, the Tujunga Wash, Woodman Avenue and Hazeltine Avenue on the east, Oxnard Street on the south, the Sepulveda Basin on the southwest and Odessa and Hayvenhurst avenues and Balboa Boulevard on the west. The 2000 U. S. census counted 136,443 residents in the 8.99-square-mile Van Nuys neighborhood—or 11,542 people per square mile.
In 2000, the median age for residents was 28, considered young for city and county neighborhoods, the percentages of residents aged 10 or younger and 19 to 34 were among the highest in Los Angeles County. The neighborhood was considered "moderately diverse" ethnically within Los Angeles; the breakdown was Hispanics, 60.5%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 49.8% of the residents who were born abroad—a high percentage for Los Angeles. There were 4,917 families headed by single parents or 21.3%, considered high for both the city and the county. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was $41,134, considered average for the city, but low for the county; the percentages of households that earned $40,000 or less were high for the county. Renters occupied 73.9% of the housing stock, house- or apartment-owners held 26.1%. Van Nuys Boulevard has a long and diverse commercial district along it, as do other major streets crossing through Van Nuys. There are two Target stores in Van Nuys, one on Sepulveda and Hatteras and another on Raymer and Noble.
Van Nuys has two Asian supermarkets, one on Sherman Way and White Oak, one on Sepulveda and Victory. From 1947 until 1992, GM operated an automobile factory called Van Nuys Assembly at Van Nuys Boulevard and Arminta Street to augment their production efforts at their South Gate, California factory called South Gate Assembly, which opened in 1936; the Van Nuys location manufactured the Chevrolet Impala and Corvair and was the primary location for the Nova and the Camaro. Badge engineered versions of the Impala and Camaro were manufactured at this location. Due to air quality remediation efforts and decreasing market share of GM products, the factory was closed. Sound City Studios is a well-respected recording studio in Van Nuys. Van Nuys, along with Chatsworth, is home to numerous pornographic movie studios and manufacturers. Grupo TACA operates a Van Nuys-area TACA Center at 6710 Van Nuys Boulevard. Various parts of the movie Terminator were filmed here; some former Van Nuys neighborhoods have won approval by the Los Angeles City Council to break off from Van Nuys and join the neighboring communities of Lake Balboa, Valley Glen, Sherman Oaks in an effort to raise their property values.
City Council member Tony Cardenas "suggested the change was motivated by racism." The Los Angeles Fire Department operates Station 39, Station 90 Van Nuys Airport Area, Station 100 West Van Nuys, Station 102 East Van Nuys, serving the community. The Los An
Swedes are a North Germanic ethnic group native to Sweden. They inhabit Sweden and the other Nordic countries, in particular Finland, with a substantial diaspora in other countries the United States; the English term "Swede" has been attested in English since the late 16th century and is of Middle Dutch or Middle Low German origin. In Swedish, the term is svensk, believed to have been derived from the name of svear, the people who inhabited Svealand in eastern central Sweden, were listed as Suiones in Tacitus' history Germania from the 1st century AD; the term is believed to have been derived from the Proto-Indo-European reflexive pronominal root, *se, as the Latin suus. The word must have meant "one's own"; the same root and original meaning is found in the ethnonym of the Germanic tribe Suebi, preserved to this day in the name Swabia. Sweden enters proto-history with the Germania of Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44, 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow in both ends.
Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC. As for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has survived from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating that the people of south Scandinavia spoke Proto-Norse at the time, a language ancestral to Swedish and other North Germanic languages. In the 6th century Jordanes named two tribes, which he calls the Suehans and the Suetidi, who lived in Scandza; these two names are both considered to refer to the same tribe. The Suehans, he says, has fine horses just as the Thyringi tribe; the Icelander Snorri Sturluson wrote of the 6th-century Swedish king Adils that he had the finest horses of his days. The Suehans supplied black fox-skins for the Roman market. Jordanes names the Suetidi, considered to be the Latin form of Svitjod.
He writes that the Suetidi are the tallest of men—together with the Dani, who were of the same stock. He mentions other Scandinavian tribes as being of the same height. Originating in semi-legendary Scandza, a Gothic population had crossed the Baltic Sea before the 2nd century AD, they reaching Scythia on the coast of the Black Sea in modern Ukraine, where Goths left their archaeological traces in the Chernyakhov culture. In the 5th and 6th centuries, they became divided as the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, established powerful successor-states of the Roman Empire in the Iberian peninsula and Italy respectively. Crimean Gothic communities appear to have survived intact in the Crimea until the late-18th century; the Swedish Viking Age lasted between the 8th and 11th centuries. During this period, it is believed that the Swedes expanded from eastern Sweden and incorporated the Geats to the south, it is believed that Swedish Vikings and Gutar travelled east and south, going to Finland, the Baltic countries, Belarus, Ukraine the Black Sea and further as far as Baghdad.
Their routes passed through the Dnieper down south to Constantinople, on which they did numerous raids. The Byzantine Emperor Theophilos noticed their great skills in war and invited them to serve as his personal bodyguard, known as the varangian guard; the Swedish Vikings, called "Rus" are believed to be the founding fathers of Kievan Rus. The Arabic traveller Ibn Fadlan described these Vikings as following: I have seen the Rus as they came on their merchant journeys and encamped by the Itil. I have never seen more perfect physical specimens, tall as date palms and ruddy; each man has an axe, a sword, a knife, keeps each by him at all times. The swords are grooved, of Frankish sort; the adventures of these Swedish Vikings are commemorated on many runestones in Sweden, such as the Greece Runestones and the Varangian Runestones. There was considerable participation in expeditions westwards, which are commemorated on stones such as the England Runestones; the last major Swedish Viking expedition appears to have been the ill-fated expedition of Ingvar the Far-Travelled to Serkland, the region south-east of the Caspian Sea.
Its members are commemorated on the Ingvar Runestones. What happened to the crew is unknown, it is not known when and how the'kingdom of Sweden' was born, but the list of Swedish monarchs is drawn from the first kings who ruled both Svealand and Götaland as one province with Erik the Victorious. Sweden and Gothia were two separate nations long before that into antiquity, it is not known how long they existed, Beowulf described semi-legendary Swedish-Geatish wars in the 6th century. During the early stages of the Scandinavian Viking Age, Ystad in Scania and Paviken on Gotland, in present-day Sweden, were flourishing trade centres. Remains of what is believed to have been a large market have been found in Ystad dating from 600–700 AD. In Paviken, an important centre of trade in the Baltic region during the 9th and 10th centuries, remains have been found of a large Viking Age harbour with shipbuilding yards and handicraft industries. Between 800 and 1000, trade brought an abundance of silver to Gotland, according to some scholars, the Gotlanders of