Hagerstown is a town in Jefferson Township, Wayne County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,787. Hagerstown was laid out and platted in 1832; the town was named after the city of Maryland. The Hagerstown post office has been in operation since 1836; the Whitewater Canal, built in the mid-19th century and extends to Lawrenceburg, has its northern terminus in Hagerstown. This section was funded by the Hagerstown Canal Company; the Hagerstown I. O. O. F. Hall and John and Caroline Stonebraker House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Hagerstown is located at 39°54′41″N 85°9′38″W; the town lies 61 miles ENE of Indianapolis, Indiana, 17 miles NW of Richmond, 63 miles WNW of Dayton, Ohio in the Midwestern region of the United States. Terrain surrounding Hagerstown consists of flat land at an elevation of 1000 feet above sea level, used for agriculture. According to the 2010 census, Hagerstown has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,787 people, 751 households, 467 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,333.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 826 housing units at an average density of 616.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.7% White, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 751 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.8% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the town was 37.9 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,768 people, 787 households, 498 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,276.0 people per square mile. There were 832 housing units at an average density of 600.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.26% White, 0.28% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.34% of the population. There were 787 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.86. The population has 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $36,691, the median income for a family was $48,864. Males had a median income of $35,536 versus $25,913 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,901. About 0.8% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. Hartley Hills Country Club Abbott's Candy - Candy factory Nettle Creek Valley Museum Hagerstown Park - Playground, hiking trails, sport fields, picnic areas Hagerstown Nature Preserve Near Hagerstown and Millville, Indiana is the Wilbur Wright Birthplace and Museum. Tedco Toys, an education and science toy manufacturer; the company is the world's largest maker of the toy. The American Communications Network/Brian Bex Report operates in Hagerstown. Hagerstown Elementary and Hagerstown Jr./Sr. High School provide education for smaller communities nearby. Hagerstown Jr./Sr. High School occupies a large campus which includes sporting facilities.
The town has the Hagerstown-Jefferson Township Public Library. Charles H. Black, automobile pioneer Omer Madison Kem, American politician. Ralph Teetor, inventor of cruise control and president of the Perfect Circle Corporation. WBSH: Repeater for National Public Radio affiliated station owned by Ball State University. Hagerstown is situated on State Road 38, which passes through the town and intersects with State Road 1. Directly south of the town is Interstate 70, enabling travel and commuting to larger cities such as Indianapolis or Richmond. By air, Hagerstown is served by the Hagerstown Airport; this utilizes a grass runway. The nearest commercial airport is Dayton International Airport in Ohio; the nearest rail link is the Amtrak station located in Indiana. Hagerstown, Maryland, U. S. Town of Hagerstown, Indiana website Hagerstown on waynet.org Hagerstown City Data w/ Photos Story of Perfect Circle Airplane Museums in Indiana Current Hagerstown Weather Whitewater Canal
Dearborn is a city in the State of Michigan. It is part of the Detroit metropolitan area. Dearborn is the eighth largest city in the State of Michigan; as of the 2010 census, it had a population of 98,153 and is home to the largest Muslim population in the United States. First settled in the late 18th century by French farmers in a series of ribbon farms along the Rouge River and the Sauk Trail, the community grew with the establishment of the Detroit Arsenal on the Chicago Road linking Detroit and Chicago, it developed as a major manufacturing hub for the automotive industry, as Henry Ford built his Rouge River Ford Complex here. Henry Ford was born on a farm here and established an estate in Dearborn, as well as his River Rouge Complex, the largest factory of his Ford empire, he developed mass production of automobiles, based the world headquarters of the Ford Motor Company here. The city has a campus of the University of Michigan as well as Henry Ford College; the Henry Ford, the United States' largest indoor-outdoor historic museum complex and Metro Detroit's leading tourist attraction, is located here.
Dearborn residents are Americans of European or Middle Eastern ancestry, descendants of 19th and 20th-century immigrants. Because of new waves of immigration from the Middle East in the late 20th century, the largest ethnic grouping is now composed of descendants of various nationalities of that area: Christians from Lebanon and Palestine, as well as Muslim immigrants from Syria and Yemen; the primary European ethnicities as identified by respondents to the census are German, Polish and Italian. Before European encounter, the area had been inhabited for thousands of years by varying indigenous peoples. Historical tribes belonged to the Algonquian-language family the Council of Three Fires, the Potawatomi and related peoples. In contrast, the Huron were Iroquoian speaking. French colonists had a trading post at Fort Detroit and a settlement developed there in the colonial period, as well as on the south side of the Detroit River in what is now southwestern Ontario. France ceded all of its territory east of the Mississippi River to Britain in 1763 after losing to the English in the Seven Years' War.
Beginning in 1786, after the United States gained independence in the American Revolutionary War, more European Americans entered the region, settling in Detroit and the Dearborn area. With population growth, Dearborn Township was formed in 1833 and the village of Dearbornville in 1836, each named after patriot Henry Dearborn, a general in the American Revolution who served as Secretary of War under President Thomas Jefferson; the town of Dearborn was incorporated in 1893. Through much of the 19th century, the area was rural. Stimulated by industrial development in Detroit and within its own limits, in 1927 Dearborn was established as a city, its current borders result from a 1928 consolidation vote that merged Dearborn and neighboring Fordson, which feared being absorbed into expanding Detroit. According to historian James W. Leuwen, in his book Sundown Towns, many of Dearborn's residents "took pride in the saying,'The sun never set on a Negro in Dearborn'". According to segregationist Orville Hubbard, mayor of Dearborn from 1942 to 1978, "as far as he was concerned, it was against the law for a Negro to live in his suburb."The area between Dearborn and Fordson was undeveloped, still remains so in part.
Once farm land, considerable property was bought by Henry Ford for his estate, Fair Lane, the Ford Motor Company World Headquarters. Developments in this corridor were the Ford airport, other Ford administrative and development facilities. More recent additions are The Henry Ford, the Henry Ford Centennial Library, the super-regional shopping mall Fairlane Town Center, the Ford Performing Arts Center; the open land is planted with sunflowers and with Ford's favorite crop of soybeans. The crops are never harvested. With the growth and achievements of the Arab-American community, they developed and in 2005 opened the Arab American National Museum, the first museum in the world devoted to Arab-American history and culture. Arab Americans in Dearborn include descendants of Lebanese Christians who immigrated in the early twentieth century to work in the auto industry, as well as more recent Arab immigrants and their descendants from other nations. In January of 2019, Dearborn Mayor John "Jack" O'Reilly, Jr. terminated the contract of Bill McGraw, new editor of the Dearborn Historian, a city publication, has refused to allow the Autumn, 2018 issue to be distributed to subscribers.
That issue, on the 100th anniversary of Henry Ford's acquisition of the Dearborn Independent newspaper, discussed the influential anti-Semitism of Dearborn's most famous resident. This decision of the mayor received national publicity; the Dearborn Historical Commission held an emergency meeting and passed a resolution calling for the mayor to reverse these actions. The suppressed article may be read here. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 24.5 square miles, of which 24.4 square miles is land and 0.1 square miles is water. The city developed on both sides of the Rouge River. An artificial waterfall/low head dam was constructed by Henry Ford on his estate to power its powerhouse; the Upper and Lower Branches of the river come together in Dearborn. The river channeled near the Rouge Plant to allow lake freighter access. Fordson Island is an 8.4 acres island about three miles (5
Dana Incorporated is an American worldwide supplier of drivetrain and thermal-management technologies. Founded in 1904 and based in Maumee, the company employs nearly 36,000 people in 33 countries on six continents. In 2018, Dana generated sales of $8.1 billion. The company is included in the Fortune 500. 1904 Clarence W. Spicer, engineer and founder of the company, began manufacturing universal joints in Plainfield, New Jersey; the first C. W. Spicer "u-joints" are shipped to Corbin Motor Company in Connecticut.1905 Spicer Universal Joint Manufacturing Company incorporated.1906 Customer roster grows to include Buick. Olds Motor Works, Kelly-Springfield. and American Motors.1909 Company changed name to Spicer Manufacturing Company.1910 Spicer Manufacturing Company relocated to South Plainfield, New Jersey.1914 Charles Dana joined the company.1916 Charles Dana becomes president and treasurer.1919 With an eye on growth beyond universal joints, Charles Dana completes acquisitions of frame and axle manufacturers.
One of these companies, Salisbury Axle, in 1995 becomes the Spicer Axle Division of Dana.1922 Spicer is listed on the New York Stock Exchange.1923 Profits rise due to increased production of automobiles priced under $1,000 and truck demand by the U. S. government.1925 Spicer expands internationally taking a holding in licensee in England, renamed Hardy Spicer.1928 Spicer relocates its headquarters and most operations to Toledo, closer to the center of the U. S. automotive industry.1931 The Great Depression and lower vehicle production volumes hit Spicer's sales and earnings. The company returns to profitability in 1933.1938 Clarence Spicer's last of 40 patents is issued Dec. 20, less than a year before he dies. Sales of cars and buses hit their lowest point in the Depression era, but Spicer remains profitable.1940 As the U. S. begins war mobilization, the company retools for production of military vehicles and other war materials throughout WWII.1946 Dana became president and treasurer, the company was renamed the Dana Corporation in recognition of Charles Dana's 32 years of leadership.
Spicer becomes the brand name for the company's driveline products. 50th anniversary, Dana employs 3,500 people.1954 Dana expands international operations to South America.1956 New York Times declares Dana's Powr-Lok® differential to be "among the more significant engineering improvements" in automotive history.1957 Company introduces the first cruise control on 1958 Chrysler models. Company expands business to the heavy truck and off-highway and markets.1961 Global operations are now located in Argentina, Japan, South Africa, Spain.1962 "Spicer Search" contest seeks the company's oldest transmission still in operation. A 1919 Model 50 Brown-Lipe transmission, still in service on a truck, takes the grand prize.1966 Dana acquires the Victor Gasket Manufacturing Company, founded in 1909. Charles Dana retires as Chairman and CEO after 53 years of continuous service.1967 Dana conducts experiments of driveline concepts for electrical vehicles, decades before the production of hybrid and electric cars.1971 Dana exports products to 123 countries.1974 Dana breaks the $1 billion sales barrier.1978 Charles Dana is inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame.
Dana exceeds $2 billion in annual sales.1979 Dana celebrates its 75th anniversary.1980 Dana grows in the fields of electronic and fluid power.1982 Spicer Driveshaft Division develops the industry's first all-aluminum driveshaft which debuts on the 1984 Chevrolet Corvette.1985 Dana exceeds $3 billion in annual sales.1987 Dana exceeds $4 billion in annual sales.1993 Dana acquires the Reinz Company, founded in 1920 and forms the new Victor Reinz brand for its gaskets, sealing products, heat shields.1995 Clarence Spicer is inducted into the Automotive Hall of Fame. Dana acquires axle group of GKN Driveline UK in exchange for part of joint ventures in Argentina and Colombia. Dana has 3,500 employees in Asia. Volvo honors Dana with the Award of Excellence. GM honors Dana as a 2002 Supplier of the Year for its fuel cell technology.2003 Dana celebrates its 100th anniversary. A 180,000-square-foot engineering center opens in Toledo, Ohio.2004 Dana celebrates its 100th anniversary.2006 Dana filed for bankruptcy.2007 Dana canceled 150 million shares of stock during bankruptcy.2009 Dana sells its structural products business which includes 10 manufacturing plants to Metalsa 2,800 workers were shifted to Metalsa.2010 Dana extends its leadership position in the commercial vehicle driveline market with a 50-percent stake in Dongfeng Dana Axle Co. Ltd.
Completes strategic agreement with SIFCO S. A. making Dana the leading supplier of complete drivelines in South America.2011 Dana introduces Spicer® Pro-40™ tandem drive axles with reduced weight and improved power density for heavy trucks. Dana partners with Bosch Rexroth AG to develop a hydromechanical variable transmission to reduce fuel consumption in off-highw
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies engineering, engineering mathematics, materials science principles to design, analyze and maintain mechanical systems. It is one of the broadest of the engineering disciplines; the mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of core areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis, electricity. In addition to these core principles, mechanical engineers use tools such as computer-aided design, computer-aided manufacturing, product life cycle management to design and analyze manufacturing plants, industrial equipment and machinery and cooling systems, transport systems, watercraft, medical devices and others, it is the branch of engineering that involves the design and operation of machinery. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century. In the 19th century, developments in physics led to the development of mechanical engineering science.
The field has continually evolved to incorporate advancements. It overlaps with aerospace engineering, metallurgical engineering, civil engineering, electrical engineering, manufacturing engineering, chemical engineering, industrial engineering, other engineering disciplines to varying amounts. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology, modelling of biological systems; the application of mechanical engineering can be seen in the archives of various ancient and medieval societies. In ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine. In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, Ma Jun invented a chariot with differential gears; the medieval Chinese horologist and engineer Su Song incorporated an escapement mechanism into his astronomical clock tower two centuries before escapement devices were found in medieval European clocks.
He invented the world's first known endless power-transmitting chain drive. During the Islamic Golden Age, Muslim inventors made remarkable contributions in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and presented many mechanical designs. Al-Jazari is the first known person to create devices such as the crankshaft and camshaft, which now form the basics of many mechanisms. During the 17th century, important breakthroughs in the foundations of mechanical engineering occurred in England. Sir Isaac Newton formulated Newton's Laws of Motion and developed Calculus, the mathematical basis of physics. Newton was reluctant to publish his works for years, but he was persuaded to do so by his colleagues, such as Sir Edmond Halley, much to the benefit of all mankind. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during this time period. During the early 19th century industrial revolution, machine tools were developed in England and Scotland.
This allowed mechanical engineering to develop as a separate field within engineering. They brought with them manufacturing machines and the engines to power them; the first British professional society of mechanical engineers was formed in 1847 Institution of Mechanical Engineers, thirty years after the civil engineers formed the first such professional society Institution of Civil Engineers. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, Germany in 1848. In the United States, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers was formed in 1880, becoming the third such professional engineering society, after the American Society of Civil Engineers and the American Institute of Mining Engineers; the first schools in the United States to offer an engineering education were the United States Military Academy in 1817, an institution now known as Norwich University in 1819, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1825. Education in mechanical engineering has been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science.
Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at various universities worldwide. Mechanical engineering programs take four to five years of study and result in a Bachelor of Engineering, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science Engineering, Bachelor of Technology, Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering, or Bachelor of Applied Science degree, in or with emphasis in mechanical engineering. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B. Tech. Programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is "Mechanical Engineer", the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, training, but in order to qualify as an Engineer one has to pass a state exam at the end of the course. In Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a'Diploma' Thesis, which upon completion a'Diploma' is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In the United States, most undergraduate mechanical engineering programs are accredited by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology to ensure similar course requirements and standards a
Chrysler is one of the "Big Three" automobile manufacturers in the United States, headquartered in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The original Chrysler Corporation was founded in 1925 by Walter Chrysler from the remains of the Maxwell Motor Company. In 1998, it was acquired by Daimler-Benz, the holding company was renamed DaimlerChrysler. After Daimler divested Chrysler in 2007, the company existed as Chrysler LLC and Chrysler Group LLC before merging in 2014 with Fiat S.p. A. and becoming a subsidiary of its successor Fiat Chrysler Automobiles. In addition to the Chrysler brand, FCA sells vehicles worldwide under the Dodge and Ram nameplates. Furthermore, the subsidiary includes Mopar, its automotive parts and accessories division, SRT, its performance automobile division. After founding the company, Walter Chrysler used the General Motors brand diversification and hierarchy strategy that he had seen working for Buick, acquired Fargo Trucks and Dodge Brothers, created the Plymouth and DeSoto brands in 1928.
Facing postwar declines in market share and profitability, as GM and Ford were growing, Chrysler borrowed $250 million in 1954 from Prudential Insurance to pay for expansion and updated car designs. Chrysler expanded into Europe by taking control of French and Spanish auto companies in the 1960s; the company struggled to adapt to changing markets, increased U. S. import competition, safety and environmental regulation in the 1970s. It began an engineering partnership with Mitsubishi Motors, began selling Mitsubishi vehicles branded as Dodge and Plymouth in North America. On the verge of bankruptcy in the late 1970s, it was saved by $1.5 billion in loan guarantees from the U. S. government. New CEO Lee Iacocca was credited with returning the company to profitability in the 1980s. In 1985, Diamond-Star Motors was created. In 1987, Chrysler acquired American Motors Corporation, which brought the profitable Jeep brand under the Chrysler umbrella. In 1998, Chrysler merged with German automaker Daimler-Benz to form DaimlerChrysler AG.
As a result, Chrysler was sold to Cerberus Capital Management and renamed Chrysler LLC in 2007. Like the other Big Three automobile manufacturers, Chrysler was impacted by the automotive industry crisis of 2008–2010; the company remained in business through a combination of negotiations with creditors, filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on April 30, 2009, participating in a bailout from the U. S. government through the Troubled Asset Relief Program. On June 10, 2009, Chrysler emerged from the bankruptcy proceedings with the United Auto Workers pension fund, Fiat S.p. A. and the U. S. and Canadian governments as principal owners. The bankruptcy resulted in Chrysler defaulting on over $4 billion in debts. By May 24, 2011, Chrysler finished repaying its obligations to the U. S. government five years early, although the cost to the American taxpayer was $1.3 billion. Over the next few years, Fiat acquired the other parties' shares while removing much of the weight of the loans in a short period.
On January 1, 2014, Fiat S.p. A announced a deal to purchase the rest of Chrysler from the United Auto Workers retiree health trust; the deal was completed on January 2014, making Chrysler Group a subsidiary of Fiat S.p.. A. In May 2014, Fiat Chrysler Automobiles was established by merging Fiat S.p. A. into the company. This was completed in August 2014. Chrysler Group LLC remained a subsidiary until December 15, 2014, when it was renamed FCA US LLC, to reflect the Fiat-Chrysler merger; the Chrysler company was founded by Walter Chrysler on June 6, 1925, when the Maxwell Motor Company was re-organized into the Chrysler Corporation. Chrysler had arrived at the ailing Maxwell-Chalmers company in the early 1920s, hired to overhaul the company's troubled operations. In late 1923 production of the Chalmers automobile was ended. In January 1924, Walter Chrysler launched the well-received Chrysler automobile; the 6-cylinder Chrysler was designed to provide customers with an advanced, well-engineered car, was an automobile at an affordable price.
Elements of this car are traceable to a prototype, under development at Willys during Chrysler's tenure The original 1924 Chrysler included a carburetor air filter, high compression engine, full pressure lubrication, an oil filter, features absent from most autos at the time. Among the innovations in its early years were the first practical mass-produced four-wheel hydraulic brakes, a system nearly engineered by Chrysler with patents assigned to Lockheed, rubber engine mounts to reduce vibration. Chrysler developed a wheel with a ridged rim, designed to keep a deflated tire from flying off the wheel; this wheel was adopted by the auto industry worldwide. The Maxwell brand was dropped after the 1925 model year, with the new, lower-priced four-cylinder Chryslers introduced for the 1926 year being badge-engineered Maxwells; the advanced engineering and testing that went into Chrysler Corporation cars helped to push the company to the second-place position in U. S. sales by 1936, which it held until 1949.
In 1928, the Chrysler Corporation began dividing its vehicle offerings by price function. The Plymouth brand was introduced at the low-priced end of the market. At the same time, the DeSoto brand was introduced in the medium-price field. In 1928, Chrysler bought the Dodge Brothers automobile and
MAHLE GmbH is an automotive parts manufacturer based in Stuttgart, Germany. It is one of the largest automotive suppliers worldwide; as a manufacturer of components and systems for the combustion engine and its periphery, the company is one of the three largest systems suppliers worldwide for engine systems, electrics and thermal management. In 2017, Mahle GmbH sales amounted to over €12.8 billion. As of 2017, its 78,000 employees work in 170+ production plants and thirteen research and development centers in Germany, Great Britain, United States, Japan and India. Worldwide, 5000 development engineers and technicians work as partners for MAHLE's customers on new products and systems. In 1920 the engineer and pilot Hellmuth Hirth established together with others a small workshop in Cannstatt, where he developed and constructed a two-stroke engine. 26-year-old Hermann Mahle started working for Hellmuth Hirth on 1 December 1920 as the company’s seventh employee. The workshop was called "Versuchsbau Hellmuth Hirth".
1 December 1920 is acknowledged as the birthday of today’s MAHLE Group. It soon became clear. So the need arose to build a profitable line of production. At that time, in the automobile production, pistons were made of cast iron. Versuchsbau Hellmuth Hirth decided to attempt to build light-alloy pistons for combustion engines. On 1 November 1922 Ernst Mahle, joined the factory as Head of Engineering. In 1924 the company was renamed Elektrometall GmbH. In 1927, the company developed the first controlled-expansion piston in Germany and in 1931, the world’s first aluminum ring carrier piston for Diesel engines. Following this, piston technology was improved. In 1938 the conversion into MAHLE KG took the new company logo was introduced; the company expanded. New products were produced. In 1964, the company founders Hermann and Ernst Mahle decided to waive private ownership in their companies and make the companies part of a foundation for public benefit, they renounced the largest part of their personal property and transferred the company shares to the MAHLE Foundation.
In 1976 MAHLE placed the first European aluminum engine blocks made in low-pressure die casting ready for series production. In 1988 the composite camshaft is enhanced to production standard, in 2001 MAHLE presented a cooling concept for pistons in high-speed passenger car Diesel engines; the first all-plastic oil filter in the world followed in 2003. MAHLE developed and constructed its first complete engine in the same year, applied in the Formula Student. Today, MAHLE is a predominant system supplier for components of piston systems, cylinder components, valve train systems, air management systems, liquid management systems, for all well-known automobile manufacturers. In 2010, the MAHLE Group generated sales in excess of €5.2 billion. In 2017, the MAHLE Group generated sales in excess of €12.8 billion. MAHLE GmbH is split into Business Units and Profit Centers as follows: Business Units Engine Systems and Components: This business unit supplies the global automotive industry with piston and valve train components and cylinder components.
Filtration and Engine Peripherals: Develops and produces components and systems for automotive air and liquid management. Thermal Management: Components and systems for vehicle air conditioning and engine cooling. Aftermarket: Our extensive spare parts range for vehicle maintenance and engine repair represents uncompromising OEM quality. Profit Centers Engineering Services and Special Applications: Development services. Large Engine Components: Pistons, piston rings and pins, as well as cylinder liners for large engines, which are used in the fields of power generation, marine applications, railroad transportation. Small Engine Components: Engine components for industrial applications and recreational vehicles. Industrial Filtration: Filters and filtration systems for air and pastes in industrial installations. Actuators: Mechatronic components, such as electric wastegate actuators, which are used to control the boost pressure in turbocharged engines or heating elements for fuel filters. Electric Drives and Applications 1: Innovative electric motors and electric and mechatronic drive systems.
Electric Drives and Applications 2: Electric DC motors for ABS and ESC units, BLDC motors for steering assistance and electric motors for industrial applications. Industrial Thermal Management: Products for the engine cooling and air conditioning of agricultural machinery and special vehicles. Control Units: Operator controls and power electronics for air conditioning systems. MAHLE Powertrain MAHLE Group MAHLE North America MAHLE Test Systems MAHLE Powertrain MAHLE YouTube channel