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Ramón Arellano Félix

Ramon Arellano Félix was a Mexican drug trafficker whom authorities linked to the Tijuana drug cartel. At 188 cm and 100 kg, Arellano Félix was one of the most ruthless members of the cartel and was a suspect in various murders. Arellano Félix had been linked by Mexican police to the 1997 massacre of twelve members of a family outside of Ensenada, Baja California; the family was related to a drug dealer. On September 18, 1997, Ramon Arellano Félix became the 451st fugitive to be placed on the Ten Most Wanted list. Leading to his Most Wanted Fugitive listing in the United States, he had been charged in a sealed indictment in the United States District Court for the Southern District of California, with Conspiracy to Import Cocaine and Marijuana in drug trafficking. On 1 June 2000, the United States Department of the Treasury sanctioned Ramón under the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act, for his involvement in drug trafficking, along with eleven other international criminals; the act prohibited U.

S. citizens and companies from doing any kind of business activity with him, froze all his assets in the U. S. On February 10, 2002, Arellano Félix was killed in a gun fight in Mazatlán, where he was stopped due to a traffic infraction by a Mexican police officer who did not know at the time who Arellano Félix was. Arellano Félix drew his gun and shot the police officer, who shot him back while falling to the ground. According to Jesús Zambada García, Joaquín "El Chapo" Guzmán ordered his execution. Arellano's older brother, Benjamín Arellano Félix, the cartel's mastermind, was arrested weeks on March 9. On August 14, 2006, the youngest of the Arellano brothers, Francisco Javier Arellano Félix, was arrested with some associates at sea, by the United States Coast Guard, they were in international waters 25 km off the coast of Baja California Sur. Francisco was extradited to the U. S. on September 16, 2006. The only brother of the Arellano Félix cartel at large, Eduardo Arellano Félix, was captured by the Mexican Army on October 26, 2008.

At the time, the US State Department had been offering a reward of up to US$5 million for information leading to his arrest. According to a Mexican official, at the time of Eduardo Arellano Félix's capture, control of the cartel passed to Luis Fernando Sánchez Arellano, a son of Eduardo Arellano Félix's sister Alicia. In the 2017 Netflix and Univision series, El Chapo, Rolf Petersen plays Ramón Avendaño. Arellano Félix is portrayed by Manuel Masalva in Narcos: Mexico. Mexican Drug War Illegal drug trade Mérida Initiative Felix' FBI top ten most wanted poster at the Wayback Machine U. S. Department of State rewards page for Ramón Arellano Félix

Iris tuberosa

Iris tuberosa is a species of non-rhizomatous plant of the genus Iris, with the common names snake's-head, snake's-head iris, widow iris, black iris, or velvet flower-de-luce. A native of the Mediterranean region, it is found in the northern Mediterranean littoral and western Europe, it is grown from tuberous bulbs planted in the autumn. It grows best in full sun to partial shade, requires well-drained soil. In grows well in rock gardens or containers, it is a common ornamental garden plant. It is rather tender in the UK. After being split off from the genus Iris in the nineteenth century into a separate genus, Hermodactylus, it has most been returned to the genus Iris, following molecular studies at Kew. According to the proposed molecular classification of irises of Tillie and Hall, this species is now best seen as a member of the subgenus Hermodactyloides, the reticulate-bulbed bulbous irises. Telegraph: How to grow Hermodactylus Manning, John; the Iris Family: Natural History & Classification.

Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. Pp. 204–207. ISBN 978-0-88192-897-6. Goldblatt, P. Phylogeny and classification of Iridaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77:607-627. Reeves, G. Chase, M. W. Goldblatt, P. Rudall, P. Fay, M. F. Cox, A. V. LeJeune, B. & Souza-Chies, T.. Molecular systematics of Iridaceae: Evidence from four plastid DNA regions. Am. J. Bot. 88:2074-2087. Iridaceae: in L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz; the families of flowering plants: descriptions, identification, information retrieval

Crepis pleurocarpa

Crepis pleurocarpa is a North American species of flowering plant in the daisy family known by the common name nakedstem hawksbeard. It is native to the western United States (Washington, northern California and western Nevada. Crepis pleurocarpa grows in wooded or open habitat, sometimes on serpentine soils, it is a taprooted perennial herb producing a branching stem up to 60 centimeters in height. The lance-shaped leaves are lobed and long near the base of the plant, approaching 30 centimeters in length, smaller and sometimes unlobed farther up the stem; the inflorescence is an open array of many flower heads, each with pointed phyllaries with thick midribs and thinner, hair-lined edges. Each flower head has 5 to 8 golden yellow ray florets but no disc florets; the fruit is a ribbed achene with a whitish pappus. Calflora Database: Crepis pleurocarpa Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Crepis pleurocarpa USDA Plants Profile for Crepis pleurocarpa UC CalPhotos gallery of Crepis pleurocarpa

Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598)

The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, a second invasion in 1597. The conflict ended in 1598 with the withdrawal of the Japanese forces from the Korean Peninsula after a military stalemate in Korea's southern coastal provinces.. The invasions were launched by Toyotomi Hideyoshi with the intent of conquering the Korean Peninsula and China, which were ruled by the Joseon and Ming dynasty. Japan succeeded in occupying large portions of the Korean Peninsula, but the contribution of reinforcements by the Ming, as well as the disruption of Japanese supply fleets along the western and southern coasts by the Joseon Navy forced a withdrawal of Japanese forces from Pyongyang and the northern provinces to the south, in Busan and nearby southern regions. Afterwards, with guerrilla warfare waged against the Japanese by righteous armies and supply difficulties hampering both sides, neither the Japanese nor the combined Ming and Joseon forces were able to mount a successful offensive or gain any additional territory, resulting in a military stalemate.

The first phase of the invasion lasted from 1592 until 1596, was followed by unsuccessful peace negotiations between Japan and the Ming between 1596 and 1597. In 1597, Japan renewed its offensive by invading Korea a second time; the pattern of the second invasion mirrored that of the first. The Japanese had initial successes on land, capturing several cities and fortresses, only to be halted and forced to withdraw to the southern coastal regions of the peninsula; the pursuing Ming and Joseon forces, were unable to dislodge the Japanese from their remaining fortresses and entrenched positions in the southern coastal areas, where both sides again became locked in a ten-month long military stalemate. With Hideyoshi's death in 1598, limited progress on land, continued disruption of supply lines by the Joseon navy, the Japanese forces in Korea were ordered to withdraw back to Japan by the new governing Council of Five Elders. Final peace negotiations between the parties followed afterwards and continued for several years resulting in the normalization of relations.

In Korean, the first invasion is called the "Japanese Disturbance of Imjin". The second invasion is called the "Second War of Jeong-yu". Collectively, the invasions are referred to as the Imjin War. In Chinese, the wars are referred to as the "Wanli Korean Campaign", after the reigning Chinese emperor, or the "Renchen War to Defend the Nation", where renchen is the Chinese reading of imjin. In Japanese, the war is called Bunroku no eki. Bunroku referring to the Japanese era name of Emperor Go-Yōzei, spanning the period from 1592 to 1596; the second invasion is called "Keichō no eki". During the Edo period, the war was called "Kara iri", because Japan's ultimate purpose at the commencement of the invasion was the conquest of Ming China, although with the reality that the conflict was confined to the Korean Peninsula for the duration of the war, the armies of Toyotomi Hideyoshi would alter their immediate objectives during the course of the campaign. In 1592, with an army of 158,000 troops, Toyotomi Hideyoshi launched what would end up being the first of two invasions of Korea, with the intent of conquering Joseon Korea and Ming-dynasty China.

The Japanese forces saw overwhelming success on land, capturing both Hanseong, the capital of Korea, Pyongyang, completing the occupation of large portions of the Korean Peninsula in three months. The Japanese forces, well trained and experienced after the numerous battles and conflicts of the Sengoku period held the field in most land engagements; this success on land, was constrained by the naval campaigns of the Korean navy which would continue to raid Japanese supply fleets in its coastal waters, hampering the Japanese advances as supply lines were disrupted along the Western Korean coast and Japanese naval reinforcements were repelled. These trends, with some exceptions on both sides, held true throughout much of the conflict. Under the rule of the Wanli Emperor, Ming China interpreted the Japanese invasions as a challenge and threat to the Imperial Chinese tributary system; the Ming's interest was to keep the war confined to the Korean peninsula and out of its own territory. In the engagements that followed, the majority of the Joseon army was focused on defending the northern provinces from Japanese offensives, while supporting Ming army campaigns to recapture territory occupied by the Japanese.

It was the combination of these Ming-led land campaigns and Joseon-led naval warfare that forced the Japanese army to withdraw from Pyongyang to the south, where the Japanese continued to occupy Hanseong and the southern regions with the exception of the southwestern Jeolla Province. The pursuing Ming and Joseon armies attempted to advance further into the south, but were halted by the Japanese army at the Battle of Byeokjegwan. Subsequently, the Japanese armies launched a counterattack in an attempt to reoccupy the northern provinces but were repelled by the defending Joseon army at Haengju fortress. Additionally, Joseon's civilian-led righteous armies waged guerrilla warfare against the Japanese forces in the south, which weakened the Japanese hold in the cities they occupied. Afterwards, with supply difficulties hampering both sides

Freaky Chakra

Freaky Chakra is a 2003 Bollywood comedy-drama film directed by V. K. Prakash and Ziba Bhagwagar; the film stars Sachin Khedekar. The film was India's official entry for Toronto Reel Asian International Film Festival, received recognition by the International Federation of Film Critics at the 2003 Mumbai International Film Festival. Principal photography began in Bangalore over a 21-day shoot schedule, actress Deepti Naval stated that the film had been cut for the Indian film market to remove shots where her character took the lead in lovemaking; the film was India's official entry for Toronto Reel Asian International Film Festival, was released on 7 February 2003. The film is the only Hindi project. Writer introduces the story characters one-by-one in a narrative style. Ms. Thomas now works as a mortician. After her medical skills failed to save her husband, she decided to keep to herself; however various events continue to keep her at odds with reality: she receives phone calls from a crank caller who speaks to her in a raunchy manner.

In her routine, she begins to look forward to each distraction. When an uninvited guest takes up residence in her home, the two have a romantic affair, changing her life and her outlook. Deepti Naval as Ms. Thomas Ranvir Shorey as The writer Sachin Khedekar as The caller Pranam Janney as Mocking guy Sunil Raoh as Unannounced Guest Rajeev Ravindranathan as Ticket clerk Because of its dealing with relationships between four persons, Times of India referred to the film as "rectangular love story", as opposed to "the cliched regular or triangular romantic stories that Bollywood churns out." The film created a stir after its release due to its dealing with one of the long time taboo subjects, age disparity in relationships with a woman on the older side. After its release, Times of India made note of a growing trend to depict such relationships more openly: Using the characters of Deepti Naval's Ms. Thomas in Prakash's Freaky Chakra, Juhi Chawla's Chandrika in Nagesh Kukunoor's 3 Deewarein, Shabana Azmi's Radha in Deepa Mehta's Fire as examples of a changing trend in Indian cinema, they wrote that "Bollywood is now bent on giving the fairer sex a fair deal in sex."Outlook India panned the film, offering that "Prakash's experiment with story-telling might sound promising on paper but fails to deliver on celluloid."

They felt this was due to Ranvir Shorey's character of The Writer becoming an intrusive and "annoying obstruction" that hampered the film's action. They felt that the characters were not fleshed out, writing they "don't get a life beyond their sentence-long descriptions", that the relationships of the various characters are not allowed to grow, leaving the viewer with questions, they concluded. It's meant to be fun, but doesn't manage to elicit a smile. A joke of a film, a bad joke at that."Rediff wrote of the film, "You wonder why the film was made", noting that the storyline wasn't suitable for a Deepti Naval film, that as the musical was "a fusion of classical and Western tunes," it would not appeal, offering only that the Hindi song Yeh dil ne kuch kaha hai was "beautifully rendered." They further felt the storyline and screenplay were too unconventional to attract a wide audience, noted that the narrative of Ranvir Shorey as The Writer "tends to grate on your nerves at times." They granted that the Deepti Naval's character was "the most interesting" and that she "deserves credit" for her ability to have her acting speak louder than scripted words.

They noted that Sunil Raoh did a "decent job" and that Sachin Khedekar gave "a brilliant performance." But while acknowledging these points, they concluded "For all the performances, the characters are shallow and unexplained."Conversely Planet Bollywood praised Freaky Chakra, offering that the first part of the film was "superb" and making note of Ranvir Shorey’s narration, writing "The deliberate pacing, excellent repetition of background music, the continuous visual references to wheels and charkas in the first few segments is brilliantly handled." They offered that the rest of the film was nearly as good, with Sunil's character "instantly likeable" and the development of his relationship with Deepti Naval's character of Ms. Thomas "flows naturally." They praised the transition of her transformation into an upbeat personality, wrote it was "brilliantly contrasted with the degeneration of the pervert and the writer." The only flaw they found was in the film's ending, writing "The drawback is the abrupt and unfulfilling ending of the film.

The poorly devised ending slaps the film on its own face, trivializes the plot up until that point." 2003, Won FIPRESCI Prize "For the extraordinarily light treatment of serious emotions and aspirations through the rich and innovative use of film language" at Mumbai International Film Festival Freaky Chakra on IMDb


Sarmienta scandens, the Chilean pitcher flower, is a species of flowering plant, the sole member of its genus, in the family Gesneriaceae. It is native to the cool South Chilean rainforest; the Latin specific epithet scandens means “climbing”. Reaching just 10 cm tall by 50 cm broad, it is a creeping evergreen perennial with small oval leaves and pendent scarlet pitcher-shaped flowers in summer. In temperate regions it is grown under glass, either epiphytically or using a specialist potting medium containing leaf mould or sphagnum moss, it may be placed outside during the summer months, in a warm sheltered spot where the temperature does not fall below 5 °C. It may however survive brief periods down to 0 °C; the plant is still advertised as Sarmienta repens, a name, now regarded as illegitimate. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit