Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
Fort Leavenworth is a United States Army installation located in Leavenworth County, Kansas, in the city of Leavenworth since it was annexed on April 12, 1977, in the northeast part of the state. Built in 1827, it is the oldest active United States Army post west of Washington, D. C. and the oldest permanent settlement in Kansas. Fort Leavenworth has been known as the "Intellectual Center of the Army."Fort Leavenworth was the base of African-American soldiers of the U. S. 10th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, formed on 21 September 1866 at Fort Leavenworth. They became known as Buffalo Soldiers, nicknamed by the Native American tribes; the term was applied to all of the African-American regiments formed in 1866. During the country's westward expansion, Fort Leavenworth was a forward destination for thousands of soldiers, immigrants, American Indians and settlers who passed through. On August 1, 1846, a Mormon Battalion, led by Col. James Allen, arrived at Fort Leavenworth. Colonel Allen died at the fort.
Today, the garrison supports the US Army Training and Doctrine Command by managing and maintaining the home of the US Army Combined Arms Center. CAC's mission involves collective training, Army doctrine and battle command. Fort Leavenworth is home to the Military Corrections Complex, consisting of the United States Disciplinary Barracks, the Department of Defense's only maximum security prison and the Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility. In addition, the Fort Leavenworth Garrison supports numerous tenant organizations that directly and indirectly relate to the functions of the CAC, including the United States Army Command and General Staff College and the Foreign Military Studies Office; the fort occupies 7,000,000 sq ft of space in 1,000 buildings and 1,500 quarters. It is located on the Frontier Military Scenic Byway, a military road connecting to Fort Scott and Fort Gibson; the garrison commander is a colonel reporting via IMCOM West to the Installation Management Command. The fort is nicknamed the "intellectual center" of the Army because much of its mission involves training.
Major tenants include: United States Army Combined Arms Center which among its various responsibilities is the United States Army Command and General Staff College, which includes a degrees granting graduate school for U. S. and allied officers. The school trains all of the army's majors. All modern five-star army generals have passed through the college including George Marshall, Douglas MacArthur, Dwight Eisenhower, Henry "Hap" Arnold, Omar Bradley. Since 1978 it has been commanded by a Lieutenant General. In 2007, its commander was David Petraeus, it reports to the United States Army Doctrine Command. United States Disciplinary Barracks, the only maximum security prison for military personnel of all branches. Since a 2007 reorganization, its commander is a colonel who reports to the United States Army Corrections Command. Midwest Joint Regional Correctional Facility, a low security prison. Reports to the United States Army Corrections Command. Foreign Military Studies Office Munson Army Health Center University of Foreign Military and Cultural Studies Sherman Army Airfield—the base airport Fort Leavenworth National Cemetery TRADOC Analysis Center Headquarters of the National Guard's 35th Infantry Division Mission Command Training Program is the focal point for National Guard of the United States division and brigade staff training and development.
Army/ACE Registry Transcript Systems See Fort Leavenworth School District The Fort Leavenworth Lamp newspaper serves the military community living on post. The fort is 10 miles south of the 18th century French Fort de Cavagnal, the farthest west fort in Louisiana, its commandant was François Coulon de Villiers, a brother to Louis Coulon de Villiers, the only military commander to force George Washington to surrender. The French abandoned the fort after ceding its territory to Louisiana at the conclusion of the French and Indian War. Early American explorers on the Missouri River to visit the area of Fort de Cavagnal include Lewis and Clark on 26–29 June 1804 and Stephen Harriman Long in 1819; the fort location had been chosen because of its proximity to a large Kansa tribe village. Colonel Henry Leavenworth, with the officers and men of the 3rd Infantry Regiment from Jefferson Barracks at St. Louis, established Fort Leavenworth in 1827 to be a forward base protecting the Santa Fe Trail. Leavenworth's instructions had been the following: Colonel Leavenworth of the 3d Infantry, with four companies of his regiment will ascend the Missouri and when he reaches a point on its left band near the mouth of Little Platte River and within a range of twenty miles above or below its confluence, he will select such position as in his judgment is best calculated for the site of a permanent cantonment.
The spot being chosen, he will construct with the troops of his command comfortable, though temporary quarters sufficient for the accommodation of four companies. This movement will be made as early. Leavenworth
United States Army Command and General Staff College
The United States Army Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, is a graduate school for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, international military officers. The college was established in 1881 by William Tecumseh Sherman as the School of Application for Infantry and Cavalry, a training school for infantry and cavalry officers. In 1907 it changed its title to the School of the Line; the curriculum expanded throughout World War I, World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War and continues to adapt to include lessons learned from current conflicts. In addition to the main campus at Fort Leavenworth, the college has satellite campuses at Fort Belvoir, Virginia; the satellite campuses provide non-residential distance learning opportunities. The United States Army Command and General Staff College educates and develops leaders for full spectrum joint and multinational operations; the college consists of four schools: Command and General Staff School provides Intermediate Level Education for United States Army and sister service officers, interagency representatives, international military officers.
ILE is a ten-month graduate-level program. There is one ILE class per year. About 1,200 US military and international officers make up the class. In addition to the ILE curriculum, a graduate masters program exists for students who may qualify to complete a thesis-level research paper and receive a Master of Military Arts and Sciences degree at the School of Advanced Military Studies; the Masters program is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the accrediting body for collegiate institutions in the midwestern United States. ILE students are mid-career field-grade officers preparing for battalion command or staff positions at the division, brigade, or battalion level. In addition to CGSS at Fort Leavenworth, the school operates satellite campuses at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Students at the satellite campuses complete the ILE Common Core, a condensed ninety-day program without the MMAS option, in lieu of the traditional ten-month program. School of Advanced Military Studies provides post-ILE instruction on complex military issues at the strategic and operational levels.
Students who complete the curriculum receive a Master of Military Arts and Sciences and are assigned as high-level military planners. The Masters program is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission, the accrediting body for collegiate institutions in the midwestern United States. School for Command Preparation provides instruction for colonels, lieutenant colonels, command sergeants major who have been selected for brigade or battalion command. Courses are three to four weeks and focus on special topics unique to assumption of command at the levels indicated. School of Advanced Leadership and Tactics provides officer continuing education towards developing the Scholar-Warrior-Leader from first lieutenant to selection for major; the result is mastery of branch-specific technical and tactical skills, staff processes in battalions and brigades, direct leadership and command competencies, initial broadening opportunities. During World War I, the CGSC at Ft. Leavenworth was closed, from 1916 until 1920.
Most of the school staff was sent to Langres, France, to open and conduct the Army General Staff College, which operated from November 1917 to December 1918. This compressed-curriculum school was needed to provide command and staff officers for the exponentially growing number of Army units; the college reports that 7,000 international students representing 155 countries have attended CGSC since 1894 and that more than 50 percent of CGSC International Military Student graduates attain the rank of general. Prime Minister and General Kriangsak Chomanan of Thailand General Alfredo M. Santos of the Philippines Lieutenant General Rafael Ileto of the Philippines Major General Edmund E. Dillon of Trinidad and Tobago Defence Force Prime Minister and General Tran Thien Khiem of South Vietnam General Do Cao Tri of South Vietnam Colonel Le Huy Luyen of South Vietnam General Hau Pei-tsun of the Republic of China President Paul Kagame of Rwanda General Katumba Wamala of Uganda Brigadier General Muhoozi Kainerugaba son of Ugandan president, 2007–08.
General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq of Pakistan General Rahimuddin Khan of Pakistan General Jehangir Karamat of Pakistan General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani of Pakistan Brigadier Abdul Shakur Malik, Force Commander for the Northern Areas, Acting Director-General Military Training, of Pakistan General Eiji Kimizuka of Japan General Hisham Jaber of Lebanon General Krishnaswamy Sundarji of Indian Army Prime Minister and Brigadier-General Lee Hsien Loong of Singapore General Dieudonné Kayembe Mbandakulu of the Democratic Republic of the Congo President Gaafar Nimeiry of Sudan Lt. Col Anastasio Somoza Portocarrero of the Guardia Nacional de Nicaragua General Nguyễn Hợp Đoàn of South Vietnam General Nguyễn Khánh of South Vietnam General Phạm Văn Đồng of South Vietnam Ministry/Chief of Army General Staff and General Ahmad Yani of Indonesia President and General Susilo
Chorrillos is a district of the Lima Province in Peru and part of the city of Lima. It gets its name from the Spanish word for "trickle of water"; the district was founded as San Pedro de los Chorrillos and served as a deluxe beach resort until the late 19th century, when it was completely destroyed by Chilean forces during the War of the Pacific. The current mayor of Chorrilos is Augusto Miyashiro Ushikobo; the district has a total land area of 38.94 km². Its administrative center is located 37 meters above sea level. Morro Solar is situated in Chorrillos District. North: Barranco and Santiago de Surco East: Santiago de Surco South and west: Pacific Ocean According to the 2005 census by the INEI, the district has 262,595 inhabitants, a population density of 6,743.6 persons/km² and 60,353 households. It is famous for its beach resorts at La Herradura, its restaurants the picanterías. A planetarium is located here. From Chorrillos, you can enjoy a panoramic view of the bay of Lima and out to La Punta and the San Lorenzo Island in Callao.
The area around the Morro Solar was once a pre-Columbian town known as Armatambo. Following the Spanish conquest of Peru, the hillside settlement was abandoned and forgotten, as the Indians began to move down to shore; the resulting town of San Pedro de los Chorrillos was established as the District of Chorrillos on January 2, 1857. The district's territory was the setting of important episodes in the War of the Pacific against Chile; the so-called Battle of Chorrillos took place in the fields of San Juan, about 11 km away from the town on January 13, 1881. There is a nameplate inside the Fire Station that remembers the names of the Italian firemen who were executed by a Chilean firing squad for attempting to put out the fires and save the civilian population. From republican times, only a select group of the large old houses have survived, as the majority were destroyed by Chilean invaders; the Chorrillos Military School was opened here in 1898. Famous Peru national football team midfielder Roberto Palacios grew up in Chorrillos, and, why he is nicknamed El Chorrillano.
The Taekwondo Pan American Champion of Peru, Jean Carlos Gamarra grew up in Chorrillos and founded a Community Taekwondo Program for the impoverished children of "Delicias," a poor neighborhood of the district. His community program has gained the attention of Mayor Augusto Miyashiro and the Federación Deportiva Peruana de Taekwondo in the past; the Afro-Peruvian singer Susana Baca is from Chorrillos. The fisherman José Olaya, martyr during the struggle for independence and national hero, was born in Chorrillos; the former Minister of Education Ramón Miranda Ampuero was born there. Francisco Sanchez Lagomarcino singer of the reggae group Mixed Culture June: Saint Peter October: Lord of Miracles Municipalidad de Chorrillos Chorrillos.pe - Information about Chorrillos
A General Officer is an officer of high rank in the army, in some nations' air forces or marines. The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer and as a specific rank, it originates in the 16th century, as a shortening of captain general, which rank was taken from Middle French capitaine général. The adjective general had been affixed to officer designations since the late medieval period to indicate relative superiority or an extended jurisdiction. Today, the title of "General" is known in some countries as a four-star rank; however different countries use other insignia for senior ranks. It has a NATO code of OF-9 and is the highest rank in use in a number of armies, air forces and marine organizations; the various grades of general officer are at the top of the military rank structure. Lower-ranking officers in land-centric military forces are known as field officers or field-grade officers, below them are company-grade officers. There are two common systems of general ranks used worldwide.
In addition, there is a third system, the Arab system of ranks, used throughout the Middle East and North Africa but is not used elsewhere in the world. Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe, it is used in the United Kingdom, from which it spread to the Commonwealth and the United States of America. The general officer ranks are named by prefixing "general", as an adjective, with field officer ranks, although in some countries the highest general officers are titled field marshal, marshal, or captain general; the other is derived from the French Revolution, where generals' ranks are named according to the unit they command. The system used either a colonel general rank; the rank of field marshal was used by some countries as the highest rank, while in other countries it was used as a divisional or brigade rank. Many countries used two brigade command ranks, why some countries now use two stars as their brigade general insignia. Mexico and Argentina still use two brigade command ranks.
In some nations, the equivalent to brigadier general is brigadier, not always considered by these armies to be a general officer rank, although it is always treated as equivalent to the rank of brigadier general for comparative purposes. As a lieutenant outranks a sergeant major; the serjeant major was the commander of the infantry, junior only to the captain general and lieutenant general. The distinction of serjeant major general only applied after serjeant majors were introduced as a rank of field officer. Serjeant was dropped from both rank titles, creating the modern rank titles. Serjeant major as a senior rank of non-commissioned officer was a creation; the armies of Arab countries use traditional Arabic titles. These were formalized in their current system to replace the Turkish system, in use in the Arab world and the Turco-Egyptian ranks in Egypt. Other nomenclatures for general officers include the titles and ranks: Adjutant general Commandant-general Inspector general General-in-chief General of the Army General of the Air Force General of the Armies of the United States, a title created for General John J. Pershing, subsequently granted posthumously to George Washington Generaladmiral Air general and aviation general Wing general and group general General-potpukovnik Director general Director general of national defence Controller general Prefect general Master-General of the Ordnance – senior British military position.
Police Director General. Commissioner Admiral In addition to militarily educated generals, there are generals in medicine and engineering; the rank of the most senior chaplain, is usually considered to be a general officer rank. In the old European system, a general, without prefix or suffix, is the most senior type of general, above lieutenant general and directly below field marshal as a four-star rank, it is the most senior peacetime rank, with more senior ranks being used only in wartime or as honorary titles. In some armies, the rank of captain general, general of the army, army general or colonel general occupied or occupies this position. Depending on circumstances and the army in question, these ranks may be considered to be equivalent to a "full" general or to a field marshal; the rank of general came about as a "captain-general", the captain of an army in general (i.e. th
Order of the Sun of Peru
The Order of the Sun of Peru known as the Order of the Sun, is the highest award bestowed by the nation of Peru to commend notable civil and military merit. The award is the oldest civilian award in the Americas, first being established in 1821; the Order was instituted on 8 October 1821 by General José de San Martín upon reaching Lima, to recognize those who had distinguished themselves in the campaign against the Spanish Royalists. It was discontinued four years after many grantees started to use the award as a nobility title, similar to the earlier Castile titles awarded by the colonial government. All such nobility titles were abolished by 1828; the Order was re-established in 1921. The award consists of the following classes: Grand Cross with diamonds Grand Cross Grand Officer Commander Officer Knight Emperor Haile Selassie Emperor Akihito Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom King Albert II of Belgium King Juan Carlos I of Spain King Felipe VI of Spain King Gustaf VI Adolf of Sweden King Olav V of Norway King Haakon VII of Norway King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom Queen Letizia of Spain Queen Sofía of Spain Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands Infanta Elena of Spain Infanta Christina of Spain Prince Michael of Kent Takahito, Prince Mikasa Kiko, Princess Akishino Fumihito, Prince Akishino Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa Ramón Miranda Ampuero Henry Harley "Hap" Arnold G.
E. Berrios Leonid Brezhnev Ernesto Burzagli Rosa Campuzano Arturo "Zambo" Cavero Gerardo Chavez Rafael Correa Roberto Dañino Alfredo Pareja Diezcanseco Plácido Domingo Jose Antonio Meier Espinosa Juan Diego Flórez Francisco Estévanez Rodríguez Frank Freyer Charles de Gaulle Herbert Hervey, 5th Marquess of Bristol Thor Heyerdahl Guillermo Hillcoat Disaku Ikeda Cristina Fernández de Kirchner Alexei Kosygin Sergey Lavrov Lee Hsien Loong Martín Vizcarra Paul McCartney Dmitry Medvedev José Mujica Pat Nixon, 1970 Valentín Paniagua George Papandreou Maria Reiche Ford O. Rogers Maria Rostworowski Manuela Sáenz Haile Selassie Andrew B. Shea Jagatjit Singh of Kapurthala Yma Sumac Fernando de Szyszlo Julio C. Tello Valentina Tereshkova Danilo Türk Donald Tusk Pablo Grimberg Umansky Somchai Wongsawat Gian Marco Zignago Werlich, Robert.. Orders and Decorations of All Nations: Ancient and Modern and Military. Washington, D. C.: Quaker Press. OCLC 390804 myetymology