Nervión is a district of Seville, Spain. It lies to the east of the city centre, to the north of the Distrito Sur, to the south of San Pablo-Santa Justa and to the west of Cerro-Amate; the district is an important commercial district of the city, where much of the regional capital's business takes place. The population is 16,129 inhabitants. Prior to 1911, most of Nervión was cultivated land with multiple cotton plantations; the land was owned by the Marques of Nervión. A few structures did exist in the zone, including a penitentiary, Sevilla 1, which still stands, albeit out of use and in the process of historical renovation. At the time, the Roman Aqueduct known as The Pipes of Carmona was still supplying fresh water to the city as it had for nearly two thousand years; the aqueduct was demolished to make space for development, beginning in 1912. Three small sections of the aqueduct still stand along Calle Luis Montoto and Calle Cigüeña in Sevilla. Development of Nervión began in 1911, comprising what was an outskirt of the city with plans centering on the Gran Plaza.
The architect in charge of the planning and development was renowned Spanish architect Anibal Gonzalez, who designed many other famous structures in Seville and the rest of Andalusia. In the 1920s and 1930s, many low-level villa-style houses surrounded by gardens were built in the area. Large high-rise apartment buildings were built in the 1960s. Since the 1980s and 1990s, construction has been of hotels, shopping centres and office buildings, it is presently a developed, modern suburb of Seville. It is the second focal point of the city, is home to a number of important sites: Santa Justa, Seville's major train station, with high-speed links via the AVE to Madrid, Córdoba, Cadiz. Estadio Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán, home to Sevilla FC, one of Seville's two association football clubs in La Liga; the area's name is the origin of one of Los Nervionenses. Nervión Plaza, a commercial shopping complex with many chain stores and a large cinema with 20 screens. El Prado, a gardened zone that serves as a major short-distance bus hub.
Estación de Cádiz, the lesser of the city's two trains stations. It serves as a fresh produce market; the Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales of the University of Seville is located in this neighborhood. The Seville Metro has four stations in the district: San Bernardo, Nervión and Gran Plaza. All of these are on Line 1, which became operational on 2 April 2009; the Prado station connects to the planned Line 3, as well as the city's primary short-distance bus hub. Many TUSSAM bus routes connect Nervión with other districts, as well as internally; these include circular lines such as the C1/C2 in addition to a number of other lines, such as the 27, that connect it with the historical centre, the Casco Antiguo
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under
2015–16 UEFA Champions League
The 2015–16 UEFA Champions League was the 61st season of Europe's premier club football tournament organised by UEFA, the 24th season since it was renamed from the European Champion Clubs' Cup to the UEFA Champions League. Barcelona were eliminated by Atlético Madrid in the quarter-finals; the 2016 UEFA Champions League Final was played between Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid at the San Siro in Milan, Italy. It was the second time in the tournament's history that both finalists were from the same city, after the same clubs faced each other in the 2014 final. Real Madrid defeated Atlético Madrid 5–3 on penalties in the final to win a record-extending eleventh European Cup/Champions League title; as the winners of the 2015–16 UEFA Champions League, Real Madrid qualified as the UEFA representative at the 2016 FIFA Club World Cup in Japan, earned the right to play against the winners of the 2015–16 UEFA Europa League, Sevilla, in the 2016 UEFA Super Cup. The UEFA Executive Committee held in May 2013 approved the following changes to the UEFA Champions League starting from the 2015–16 season: The winners of the previous season's UEFA Europa League will qualify for the UEFA Champions League.
They will enter at least the play-off round, will enter the group stage if the berth reserved for the Champions League title holders is not used. The previous limit of a maximum of four teams per association will be increased to five, meaning that if the Champions League title holders or the Europa League title holders are from the top three ranked associations and finish outside the top four of their domestic league, the fourth-placed team of their association will not be prevented from participating in the tournament. However, if both the Champions League title holders and the Europa League title holders are from the same top three ranked association and finish outside the top four of their domestic league, the fourth-placed team of their association will be moved to the Europa League. A total of 78 teams from 53 of the 54 UEFA member associations participated in the 2015–16 UEFA Champions League; the association ranking based on the UEFA country coefficients was used to determine the number of participating teams for each association: Associations 1–3 each have four teams qualify.
Associations 4 -- 6 each have three teams. Associations 7–15 each have two teams qualify. Associations 16–54 each have one team qualify; the winners of the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League and 2014–15 UEFA Europa League were each given an additional entry if they would not qualify for the 2015–16 UEFA Champions League through their domestic league. Because a maximum of five teams from one association can enter the UEFA Champions League, if both the Champions League title holders and the Europa League title holders were from the same top three ranked association and finished outside the top four of their domestic league, the fourth-placed team of their association would be moved to the Europa League. For this season: The winners of the 2014–15 UEFA Champions League, qualified through their domestic league, meaning the additional entry for the Champions League title holders was not necessary; the winners of the 2014–15 UEFA Europa League, did not qualify through their domestic league, meaning the additional entry for the Europa League title holders was necessary.
For the 2015–16 UEFA Champions League, the associations are allocated places according to their 2014 UEFA country coefficients, which takes into account their performance in European competitions from 2009–10 to 2013–14. Apart from the allocation based on the country coefficients, associations may have additional teams participating in the Champions League, as noted below: – Additional berth for Europa League title holders In the default access list, the Champions League title holders enter the group stage. However, since Barcelona qualified for the group stage, the Champions League title holders berth in the group stage is given to the Europa League title holders, Sevilla. League positions of the previous season shown in parentheses, except Sevilla which qualified as Europa League title holders.. The schedule of the competition is. In the qualifying rounds and the play-off round, teams were divided into seeded and unseeded teams based on their 2015 UEFA club coefficients, drawn into two-legged home-and-away ties.
Teams from the same association could not be drawn against each other. The draw for the first and second qualifying rounds was held on 22 June 2015; the first legs were played on 30 June and 1 July, the second legs were played on 7 July 2015. Lincoln Red Imps became the first Gibraltar team to win a tie in a UEFA competition, two years after Gibraltar's teams were first admitted entry; the first legs were played on 14 and 15 July, the second legs were played on 21 and 22 July 2015. Notes The third qualifying round was split into two separate sections: Champions Route and League Route; the losing teams in both sections entered the 2015–16 UEFA Europa League play-off round. The draw for the third qualifying round was held on 17 July 2015; the first legs were played on 28 and 29 July, the second legs were played on 4 and 5 August 2015. The play-off round was split into two separate sections: Champions Route and League Route (for league non-c
The Ernst Happel Stadion in Leopoldstadt, the 2nd district of Austria's capital Vienna, is the largest stadium in Austria. It was built between 1929 and 1931 for the second Workers' Olympiad to the design of German architect Otto Ernst Schweizer; the stadium was renamed in honour of Ernst Happel following his death in 1992. The stadium hosted seven games in UEFA Euro 2008, including the final which saw Spain triumph over Germany; the stadium is owned by the City of Vienna. It is managed by the Wiener Stadthalle Betriebs und Veranstaltungsgesellschaft m.b. H. A subsidiary of Wien Holding; the foundation stone was laid in November 1928 in honor of the 10-year celebration of the Republic of Austria. The stadium was constructed in 23 months, from 1929 to 1931, it was built according to a design by the Tübingen architect Otto Ernst Schweizer and the second Workers' Olympiad. Schweizer designed the adjacent Stadionbad. According to its location in Vienna's Prater, it was named Prater Stadium, it was a modern stadium at the time in Europe, because of its short discharge time of only 7 to 8 minutes.
The stadium had a capacity of 60,000 people. During the National Socialist Era following Anschluss, the stadium was used as a military barracks and staging area and as a temporary prison for the deportation of Jewish citizens. Between September 11 and 13, 1939, after the attack on Poland, over a thousand Polish-born Viennese Jews were detained on the orders Reinhard Heydrich, they were imprisoned beneath the grandstands in the corridors of Section B. On September 30, 1,038 prisoners were deported to the Buchenwald concentration camp; the next day, the stadium was back to being used for a football match. 44 men were released in early 1940, 26 were freed in 1945, the rest were murdered in the camps. In 1988, one of the surviving victims, Fritz Klein, was awarded a compensation by the Austrian government equivalent to 62,50 euros for being detained in the stadium. In 2003 a memorial plaque, commemorating these events, was unveiled in the VIP area by a private initiative. In 1944, the stadium was damaged during a bomb attack on the Wehrmarcht Staff offices.
After the war and the reconstruction of the stadium, it was again sporting its original use. In 1956, the stadium's capacity was expanded to 92,708 people by Theodor Schull, but in 1965 the capacity was reduced; the attendance record was 91,000 spectators set on October 30, 1960 at the football match between Spain and Austria. In the mid-1980s, the stands were covered and equipped with seats. At its reopening a friendly match against archrivals Germany was organised. Austria won the match 4-1. After the death of former Austrian top player and coach Ernst Happel, the Prater Stadium was renamed after him in 1992. In 1964, 1987, 1990, 1995, the Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue of the European Cup/UEFA Champions League final. In 1970, the stadium was the venue of the 1970 European Cup Winners' Cup Final which saw Manchester City F. C. beat Górnik Zabrze by 2 goals to 1 in an entertaining match. Neil Young and a Francis Lee penalty sealed the win for City; this final was played under torrential rain in what was an uncovered stadium.
This along with the fact no Polish supporters were allowed to travel to the match restricted the attendance, variously reported at between 7,900 to 15,000 spectators. So, City's travelling support numbered over 4,000, a record for an english club playing on continental europe. During the UEFA Euro 2008 tournament, the Ernst Happel Stadium was the venue for the Final match; the three group matches of the Austrian National Team, two quarter finals and a semifinal match took place in the stadium. In preparation for the tournament, the first and second place additional rows of seats increased the stadium's capacity to 53,000 seats. Leading up to the tournament, it was fitted with a heated pitch in the summer of 2005. In May 2008, a connection to the Vienna U-Bahn was established, easing access from all over the city; the cost of the rebuilding was €39,600,000. The following games were played at the stadium during the UEFA Euro 2008: The Ernst Happel Stadium is the largest football stadium in Austria.
It is the home of the Austrian national football team. Club football matches are limited to the domestic cup final and international competitions featuring one of Vienna's top clubs, FK Austria Wien and SK Rapid Wien, as their regular stadiums are too small to host UEFA Champions League and UEFA Cup matches. Vienna derby matches between FK Austria and SK Rapid have been played in the stadium; the stadium is rated one of UEFA's Five Star Stadiums permitting it to host the UEFA Champions League final. The seating capacity was temporarily expanded to 53,008 for the UEFA Euro 2008 championship, with the final played in the stadium; the stadium hosted 3 group games, 2 quarter-final matches, a semi-final and final. The attendance record of 92,706 for the match against the Soviet Union was in 1960; the capacity has since been reduced. UEFA Euro 2008 Final: Spain 1–0 Germany 1995 UEFA Champions League Final: Ajax Amsterdam 1–0 Milan 1994 UEFA Cup Final: Internazionale 1–0 Austria Salzburg 1990 European Cup Final: Milan 1–0 Benfica 1987 European Cup Final: Porto 2–1 Bayern Munich 1970 European Cup Winners' Cup Final: Manchester City 2–1 Górnik Zabrze 1964 European Cup Final: Internazionale 3–1 Real Madrid Other sporting events are held in the stadium, including athletics and tennis.
In 1950, 35,000 watched Austrian Josef Weidinger win the European Heavyweight crown against Stefan Olek (
FC Bayern Munich
Fußball-Club Bayern München e. V. known as FC Bayern München, FCB, Bayern Munich, or FC Bayern, is a German sports club based in Munich, Bavaria. It is best known for its professional football team, which plays in the Bundesliga, the top tier of the German football league system, is the most successful club in German football history, having won a record 28 national titles and 18 national cups. FC Bayern was founded in 1900 by 11 football players, led by Franz John. Although Bayern won its first national championship in 1932, the club was not selected for the Bundesliga at its inception in 1963; the club had its period of greatest success in the middle of the 1970s when, under the captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer, it won the European Cup three times in a row. Overall, Bayern has reached ten European Cup/UEFA Champions League finals, most winning their fifth title in 2013 as part of a continental treble. Bayern has won one UEFA Cup, one European Cup Winners' Cup, one UEFA Super Cup, one FIFA Club World Cup and two Intercontinental Cups, making it one of the most successful European clubs internationally and the only German club to have won both international titles.
Since the formation of the Bundesliga, Bayern has been the dominant club in German football, winning 27 titles, including six consecutively since 2013. They have traditional local rivalries with 1860 Munich and 1. FC Nürnberg, as well as with Borussia Dortmund since the mid-1990s. Since the beginning of the 2005–06 season, Bayern has played its home games at the Allianz Arena; the team had played at Munich's Olympiastadion for 33 years. The team colours are red and white, the team crest shows the white and blue flag of Bavaria. In terms of revenue, Bayern Munich is the biggest sports club in Germany and the fourth highest-earning football club in the world, generating €587.8 million in 2017. For the 2017–18 season, Bayern reported a revenue of €657.4 million and an operating profit of €136.5 million. This was Bayern's 26th year in a row with a profit. In November 2018, Bayern had 291,000 official members and there are 4,433 registered fan clubs with over 390,000 members; the club has other departments for chess, basketball, bowling, table tennis and senior football with more than 1,100 active members.
As of January 2019, FC Bayern is ranked joint second in the current UEFA club coefficient rankings. FC Bayern Munich was founded by members of a Munich gymnastics club; when a congregation of members of MTV 1879 decided on 27 February 1900 that the footballers of the club would not be allowed to join the German Football Association, 11 members of the football division left the congregation and on the same evening founded Fußball-Club Bayern München. Within a few months, Bayern achieved high-scoring victories against all local rivals, including a 15–0 win against FC Nordstern, reached the semi-finals of the 1900–01 South German championship. In the following years, the club won some local trophies and in 1910–11 Bayern joined the newly founded "Kreisliga", the first regional Bavarian league; the club won this league in its first year, but did not win it again until the beginning of World War I in 1914, which halted all football activities in Germany. By the end of its first decade of founding, FC Bayern had attracted its first German national team player, Max Gaberl Gablonsky.
By 1920, it had over 700 members, making it the largest football club in Munich. In the years after the war, Bayern won several regional competitions before winning its first South German championship in 1926, an achievement repeated two years later, its first national title was gained in 1932, when coach Richard "Little Dombi" Kohn led the team to the German championship by defeating Eintracht Frankfurt 2–0 in the final. The advent of Nazism put an abrupt end to Bayern's development. Club president Kurt Landauer and the coach, both of whom were Jewish, left the country. Many others in the club were purged. Bayern was taunted as the "Jew's club", while local rival 1860 Munich gained much support. Josef Sauter, inaugurated 1943, was the only NSDAP member as president; as some Bayern players greeted Landauer, watching a friendly in Switzerland lead to continued discrimination. Bayern was affected by the ruling that football players had to be full amateurs again. In the following years, Bayern could not sustain its role of contender for the national title, achieving mid-table results in its regional league instead.
After the war, Bayern became a member of the Oberliga Süd, the southern conference of the German first division, split five ways at that time. Bayern struggled and firing 13 coaches between 1945 and 1963. Landauer returned from exile in 1947 and was once again appointed club president, the tenure lasted until 1951, he remains as the club's president with the longest accumulated tenure. Landauer has been deemed as inventor of Bayern as a professional club and his memory is being upheld by the Bayern ultras Schickeria. In 1955, the club was relegated but returned to the Oberliga in the following season and won the DFB-Pokal for the first time, beating Fortuna Düsseldorf 1–0 in the final; the club struggled financially though, verging on bankruptcy at the end of the 1950s. Manufacturer Roland Endler provided the necessary funds and was rewarded with four years at the helm of the club. In 1963, the Oberligas in Germany were consolidated into one national league, the Bundesliga. Five teams from the Oberliga South were admitted.
Bayern finished third in that year's southern division, but another Munich team, 1860 Munich, had won the championship. As the DFB preferred not to include two teams from one city, Bayern was not chosen for the Bundesliga, they ga
2013–14 UEFA Europa League
The 2013–14 UEFA Europa League was the 43rd season of Europe's secondary club football tournament organised by UEFA, the fifth season under its current title. The 2014 UEFA Europa League Final was played between Sevilla and Benfica at the Juventus Stadium in Turin, won by Sevilla on penalties, giving them a record-equalling third UEFA Cup/Europa League title. Chelsea were the title holders, but did not defend their title because they qualified for the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League and reached the knockout stage. A total of 194 teams from 53 of the 54 UEFA member associations participated in the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League; the association ranking based on the UEFA country coefficients is used to determine the number of participating teams for each association: Associations 1–6 each have three teams qualify. Associations 7 -- 9 each have four teams. Associations 10 -- 51 each have three teams. Associations 52 -- 53 each have two teams. Liechtenstein has one team; the top three associations of the 2012–13 UEFA Respect Fair Play ranking each gain an additional berth.
Moreover, 33 teams eliminated from the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League are transferred to the Europa League. The winners of the 2012–13 UEFA Europa League are given an additional entry as title holders if they do not qualify for the 2013–14 UEFA Champions League or Europa League through their domestic performance; however this additional entry is not necessary for this season, because the title holders qualified for European competitions through their domestic performance. For the 2013–14 UEFA Europa League, the associations were allocated places according to their 2012 UEFA country coefficients, which took into account their performance in European competitions from 2007–08 to 2011–12. Apart from the allocation based on the country coefficients, associations may have additional teams participating in the Europa League, as noted below: – Additional berth via Fair Play ranking – Additional teams transferred from the Champions League Since the title holders qualified for the Champions League through their domestic performance, the group stage spot reserved for the title holders is vacated, the following changes to the default allocation system are made: The domestic cup winners of association 7 are promoted from the play-off round to the group stage.
The domestic cup winners of association 16 are promoted from the third qualifying round to the play-off round. The domestic cup winners of association 19 are promoted from the second qualifying round to the third qualifying round; the domestic cup winners of associations 33 and 34 are promoted from the first qualifying round to the second qualifying round. A Europa League place is vacated when a team qualifies for both the Champions League and the Europa League, or qualifies for the Europa League by more than one method; when a place is vacated, it is redistributed within the national association by the following rules: When the domestic cup winners qualify for the Champions League, their Europa League place is vacated. As a result, either of the following teams qualify for the Europa League: The domestic cup runners-up, provided they have not yet qualified for European competitions, qualify for the Europa League as the "lowest-placed" qualifier, with the other Europa League qualifiers moved up one "place".
Otherwise, the highest-placed team in the league which have not yet qualified for European competitions qualify for the Europa League, with the Europa League qualifiers which finish above them in the league moved up one "place". When the domestic cup winners qualify for the Europa League through league position, their place through the league position is vacated; as a result, the highest-placed team in the league which have not yet qualified for European competitions qualify for the Europa League, with the Europa League qualifiers which finish above them in the league moved up one "place" if possible. For associations where a Europa League place is reserved for the League Cup winners, they always qualify for the Europa League as the "lowest-placed" qualifier. If the League Cup winners have qualified for European competitions through other methods, this reserved Europa League place is taken by the highest-placed league team in the league which have not yet qualified for European competitions.
A Fair Play place is taken by the highest-ranked team in the domestic Fair Play table which have not yet qualified for European competitions. The labels in the parentheses show how each team qualified for the place of its starting round: TH: Title holders CW: Cup winners CR: Cup runners-up LC: League Cup winners 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, etc.: League position P-W: End-of-season European competition play-offs winners FP: Fair Play UCL: Transferred from the Champions League GS: Third-placed teams from the group stage PO: Losers from the play-off round Q3: Losers from the third qualifying roundNotably six teams that did not play in their national top-division took part in the competition. They are: Hapoel Ramat Gan, Hødd, Teteks and Wigan Athletic. Notes The schedule of the competition was as follows. Matches in the qualif