Order of the Indian Empire
The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878. The Order includes members of three classes: Knight Grand Commander Knight Commander Companion No appointments have been made since 1947, the year that India and Pakistan became independent from the British Raj. With the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the order became dormant in 2010; the motto of the Order is Imperatricis auspiciis, a reference to Queen Victoria, the first Empress of India. The Order is the junior British order of chivalry associated with the British Indian Empire; the British founded the Order in 1878 to reward native officials who served in India. The Order had only one class, but expanded to comprise two classes in 1887; the British authorities intended the Order of the Indian Empire as a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India. On 15 February 1887, the Order of the Indian Empire formally became "The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire" and was divided into two classes: Knights Commander and Companions, with the following first Knights Commander: General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts Edward Drummond Sir Alfred Comyns Lyall Bhagvat Singh Robert Anstruther Dalyell Maxwell Melvill Alexander Cunningham Rana Shankar Baksh Singh Dietrich Brandis Sir Monier Williams Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, Maharaja of Vizianagram Donald Campbell Macnabb Nawab Munir ud-Daula Salar Jang, the Prime Minister of Hyderabad George Christopher Molesworth Birdwood Ranjit Singh, Raja of Ratlam Surgeon-General Benjamin Simpson Albert James Leppoc Cappel Sayyid Hassan Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Murshidabad Lachmessur Singh, Maharaja of Darbhanga Sir Nawab Imam Buksh Khan Mazari Sir Nawab Bahram Khan Mazari Sir Parashuram Bhausaheb Patwardhan Rai Sahib Madan Mukund Shuja ul-Mulk, the Mehtar of Chitral Bapu Sahib Avar Donald Mackenzie Wallace Alfred Woodley Croft Bradford Leslie James Houssemayne Du Boulay Baba Sir Khem Singh Bedi, Spiritual Head of the SikhsHowever, on 21 June 1887, a further proclamation regarding the Order was made.
Seven Knights Grand Commander were created, namely: HRH The Prince of Wales HRH The Duke of Edinburgh HRH The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn HRH The Duke of Cambridge Lord Reay, Governor of Bombay Lord Connemara, Governor of Madras General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts Appointments to both Orders ceased after 14 August 1947. The Orders have never been formally abolished, as of 2012 Queen Elizabeth II remains the Sovereign of the Orders. There are no living members of the order; the last Grand Master of the Order was Rear Admiral The 1st Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, the last Viceroy of India. Lord Mountbatten was killed in an IRA bombing in County Sligo on 27 August 1979; the last surviving GCIE, H. H Maharaja Sri Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the Maharaja of Travancore, died on 19 July 1991 in Trivandrum; the last surviving KCIE, H. H Maharaja Sri Sir the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra-Halvad, died at Dhrangadhra on 1 August 2010; the last surviving CIE, Sir Ian Dixon Scott, died on 3 March 2002.
The fictional characters Purun Dass and Harry Paget Flashman each held a KCIE. The British Sovereign serves as the Sovereign of the Order; the Grand Master held the next-most senior rank. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commanders" rather than "Knights Grand Cross" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. At the time of foundation in 1878 the order had only one class, that of Companion, with no quota imposed. In 1886, the Order was divided into the two classes of Knights Companions; the following year the class of Knight Grand Commander was added. The statute provided that it was "competent for Her Majesty, Her heirs and successors, at Her or their pleasure, to appoint any Princes of the Blood Royal, being descendants of His late Majesty King George the First, as Extra Knights Grand Commanders". By Letters Patent of 2 Aug 1886, the number of Knights Commander was increased to 82, while Commanders were limited to 20 nominations per year. Membership was expanded by Letters Patent of 10 June 1897, which permitted up to 32 Knights Grand Commander.
A special statute of 21 October 1902 permitted up to 92 Knights Commander, but continued to limit the number of nominations of Commanders to 20 in any successive year. On 21 December 1911, in connection with the Delhi Durbar, the limits were increased to 40 Knights Grand Commander, 120 Knights Commander, 40 nominations of companions in any successive year. British officials and soldiers were eligible for appointment, as were rulers of Indian Princely States; the rulers of the more important states were appointed Knights Grand Commanders of the Order of the Star of India, rather than of the Order of the Indian Empire. Women, save the princely rulers, were ineligible for appointment to the Order. Female princely rulers were admitted as "Knights" rather than as "Dames" or "Ladies". Other Asian and Middle Eas
Order of the Star of India
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861. The Order includes members of three classes: Knight Grand Commander Knight Commander Companion No appointments have been made since the 1948 New Year Honours, shortly after the Partition of India in 1947. With the death in 2009 of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Alwar, the order became dormant; the motto of the order was Heaven's light our guide. The "Star of India", the emblem of the order appeared on the flag of the Viceroy of India and other flags used to represent British India; the order is the fifth most senior British order of chivalry, following the Order of the Garter, Order of the Thistle, Order of St Patrick and Order of the Bath. It is the senior order of chivalry associated with the British Raj. Several years after the Indian Mutiny and the consolidation of Great Britain's power as the governing authority in India, it was decided by the British Crown to create a new order of knighthood to honour Indian Princes and Chiefs, as well as British officers and administrators who served in India.
On 25 June 1861, the following proclamation was issued by the Queen: The Queen, being desirous of affording to the Princes and People of the Indian Empire, a public and signal testimony of Her regard, by the Institution of an Order of knighthood, whereby Her resolution to take upon Herself the Government of the Territories in India may be commemorated, by which Her Majesty may be enabled to reward conspicuous merit and loyalty, has been graciously pleased, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to institute, erect and create, an Order of Knighthood, to be known by, have for hereafter, the name and designation, of "The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India" The first appointees were: HRH The Prince Consort HRH The Prince of Wales The Rt Hon Earl Canning, GCB, Governor-General of India and Grand Master of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India HH Maharaja Shri Sir Vaghji Thakor Morvi State for representing Kathiyawar on the day of Victoria's Jubilee Ceremony given by Queen Victoria for this honor HH Sir Vaghaji Thakor make them Sister.
HH Nawab Mir Tahniat Ali Khan Bahadur, Afzal ad-Dawlah, Asaf Jah V, the Nizam of Hyderabad HH Jayajirao Scindia, Maharaja of Gwalior HH Raja Bahadur Bindeshwari Prasad Singh Deo, Raja of Udaipur state in Chota Nagpur States. HH Maharaja Duleep Singh, former Maharaja of the Sikh Empire HH Ranbir Singh, Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir HH Tukojirao Holkar, Maharaja of Indore HH Narendra Singh, Maharaja of Patiala HH Khanderrao Gaekwad, Maharaja of Baroda HRH Maharaja Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana of Nepal HH Nawab Sikander Begum, Nawab Begum of Bhopal HH Yusef Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Rampur The Rt Hon Viscount Gough, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army The Rt Hon Lord Harris, Governor of Madras The Rt Hon Lord Clyde, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army Sir George Russell Clerk, Governor of Bombay Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence, Bt, GCB, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab Sir James Outram, Bt, GCB, Member of the Viceroy's Council Sir Hugh Henry Rose, GCB, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army HEH Nizam Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Asaf Jah VII, 7th Nizam of HyderabadThe Order of the Indian Empire, founded in 1877, was intended to be a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India.
The last appointments to the orders relating to the British Empire in India were made in the 1948 New Year Honours, some months after the Partition of India in August 1947. The orders have never been formally abolished, Elizabeth II succeeded her father George VI as Sovereign of the Orders when she ascended the throne in 1952, she remains Sovereign of the Order to this day. However, there are no living members of the order. There were only three female members of the Order: Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal and her daughter, Hajjah Nawab Begum Dame Sultan Jahan, Mary of Teck; the last Grand Master of the Order, Admiral of the Fleet The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, was assassinated by the Provisional IRA on 27 August 1979. The last surviving Knight Grand Commander, HH Maharaja Sree Padmanabhadasa Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma GCSI, GCIE, Maharajah of Travancore; the last surviving Knight Commander, HH Maharaja Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur KCSI, Maharaja of Alwar, died on 15 February 2009 in New Delhi.
The last surviving Companion of the Order, Vice-Admiral Sir Ronald Brockman CSI, died on 3 September 1999 in London. The British Sovereign was, still is, Sovereign of the Order; the next most senior member was the Grand Master, a position held ex officio by the Viceroy of India. When the order was established in 1861, there was only one class of Knights Companion, who bore the postnominals KSI. In 1866, however, it was expanded to three classes. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commander" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. All those surviving members, made Knights Companion of the Order were retroactively known as Knights Grand Commander. Former viceroys and other high officials, as well as those who served in the Department of the Secretary of State for India for at least thirty years were eligible for appointment. Rulers of Indian Princely States were eligible for appointment; some states were of such importance that their rulers were always appointed
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Sree Kerala Varma College
Sree Kerala Varma College is situated in Kanattukara, Trichur City of Kerala State, India. It was founded on 11 August 1947 by the Maharaja of erstwhile Kingdom of Cochin; the idea of starting a new college at Thrissur city originated from a committee of prominent citizens of Thrissur, in response to strong public demand. The members of the committee approached His Highness Aikya Keralam Thampuran, the Maharajah of Kochi who allowed free use of the Merry Lodge Palace and the naming of the college after His Highness, Sree Kerala Varma College. A grant of one lakh rupees and a loan of four lakhs towards capital expenditure and a free grant of two hundred and fifty candies of timber were sanctioned by His Highness; the college was under the Madras University but is now managed by Cochin Devaswom Board, an autonomous organization under the government of Kerala. V. S. Sunil Kumar Akbar Kakkattil Cheril Krishna Menon T. S. Kalyanaraman P. N. C. Menon John Brittas Johns K. Mangalam Jo Paul Ancheri Pappachen Pradeep C. V. Pappachan Shaiju Mon Sreekumar Nair R. Bindu Deepa Nisanth C. N. Jayadevan E. Santhosh Kumar K. Radhakrishnan Meenakshi Thampan Rajaji Mathew Thomas K. Rajan, MLA Therambil Ramakrishnan Urmila Unni Samyuktha Varma Narain M.
R. Chandrasekharan B. Gopalakrishnan St. Thomas College, Thrissur Government Law College, Thrissur Sri C. Achutha Menon Government College, Thrissur Government Engineering College, Thrissur Sree Krishna College, Guruvayur
Rama Varma XVI
Sir Sri Rama Varma XVI was the ruler of the Kingdom of Cochin from 1915 to 1932. Rama Varma XVI succeeded Rama Varma XV on his abdication in 1914. Rama Varma ruled from 25 January 1915 until his death on 21 March 1932, he is remembered as the king who had given the Thitooram to build a new church within the premises of the fort city of Thrissur. Basilica of Our Lady of Dolours known as the largest church in India, stand tall in Thrissur, showing the love of the king to Christians. Rama Varma died on 21 March 1932 in Madras, he was aged 74. As he died at Madras, he is known as'Madrasil Theepetta Thamburan', his death came two months after the death of his predecessor. "List of rulers of Kochin". Worldstatesmen.org
Kochi known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea. It is part of the district of Ernakulam in the state of Kerala and is referred to as Ernakulam. Kochi is the most densely populated city in Kerala; as of 2011, it has a corporation limit population of 677,381 within an area of 94.88 km² and a total urban population of more than of 2.1 million within an area of 440 km², making it the largest and the most populous metropolitan area in Kerala. Kochi city is part of the Greater Cochin region and is classified as a Tier-II city by the Government of India; the civic body that governs the city is the Kochi Municipal Corporation, constituted in the year 1967, the statutory bodies that oversee its development are the Greater Cochin Development Authority and the Goshree Islands Development Authority. Called the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India from the 14th century onward, maintained a trade network with Arab merchants from the pre-Islamic era.
Occupied by the Portuguese in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the main seat of Portuguese India until 1530; the city was occupied by the Dutch and the British, with the Kingdom of Cochin becoming a princely state. Kochi ranks first in the total number of domestic tourist arrivals in Kerala; the city was ranked the sixth best tourist destination in India according to a survey conducted by the Nielsen Company on behalf of the Outlook Traveller magazine. Kochi was one of the 28 Indian cities among the emerging 440 global cities that will contribute 50% of the world GDP by the year 2025, in a 2011 study done by the McKinsey Global Institute. In July 2018, Kochi was ranked the topmost emerging future megacity in India by global professional services firm JLL. Kochi is known as the financial and industrial capital of Kerala, it has the highest GDP as well as the highest GDP per capita in the state. The city is home to the Southern Naval Command of the Indian Navy and is the state headquarters of the Indian Coast Guard with an attached air squadron, named Air Squadron 747.
Commercial maritime facilities of the city include the Port of Kochi, an International Container Transshipment Terminal, the Cochin Shipyard, offshore SPM of the BPCL Kochi Refinery and the Kochi Marina. Kochi is home for the Cochin Stock Exchange, International Pepper Exchange, Marine Products Export Development Authority, Coconut Development Board, companies like HMT, Apollo Tyres and Synthite, petrochemical companies like the FACT, TCC, IREL, Petronet LNG, Merchem, HOCL and Kochi Refineries, electrical companies like TELK, V-Guard and industrial parks like the Cochin Special Economic Zone, Smart City and Kinfra Hi-Tech Park. Kochi is home for the High Court of Kerala and Lakshadweep, Naval Physical and Oceanographic Laboratory, Indian Maritime University, Sree Sankaracharya Sanskrit University and the Cochin University of Science and Technology. Kochi is home to Kerala's National Law School, the National University of Advanced Legal Studies. Kochi has been hosting India's first art biennale, the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, since 2012, which attracts international artists and tourists.
Ancient travellers and tradesmen referred to Kochi, variously alluding to it as Cocym, Cochym and Kochi. The Cochin Jewish community called Cochin "Kogin", seen in the seal of the synagogue owned by the community; the origin of the name "Kochi" is thought to be from the Malayalam word kochu azhi, meaning'small lagoon'. Yet another theory is that Kochi is derived from the word Kaci, meaning "harbour". Accounts by Italian explorers Nicolo Conti, Fra Paoline in the 17th century say that it was called Kochchi, named after the river connecting the backwaters to the sea. After the arrival of the Portuguese, the British, the name Cochin stuck as the official appellation; the city reverted to a closer transliteration of its original Malayalam name, Kochi, in 1996. This change in name was challenged by the city municipal corporation but court dismissed the plea. Kochi was the centre of Indian spice trade for many centuries, was known to the Yavanas as well as Jews, Syrians and Chinese since ancient times.
It rose to significance as a trading centre after the port Muziris around Kodungallur was destroyed by massive flooding of Periyar in 1341. The earliest documented references to Kochi occur in books written by Chinese voyager Ma Huan during his visit to Kochi in the 15th century as part of Admiral Zheng He's treasure fleet. There are references to Kochi in accounts written by Italian traveller Niccolò Da Conti, who visited Kochi in 1440. On the Malabar coast during the early 15th century and Kochi were in an intense rivalry, so the Ming dynasty of China decided to intervene by granting special status to Kochi and its ruler known as Keyili to the Chinese. Calicut had been the dominant port-city in the region. For the fifth Ming treasure voyage, Admiral Zheng He was instructed to confer a seal upon Keyili of Kochi and enfeoff a mountain in his kingdom as the Zhenguo Zhi Shan. Zheng He delivered a stone tablet, inscribed with a proclamation composed by the Yongle Emperor himself, to Kochi; as long as Kochi remained under the protection of Ming China, the Zamorin of Calicut was unable to invade Kochi and a military conflict was averted.
The cessation of the Ming treasure voyages had negative results for Kochi, as the Zamorin of Calicut would launch