An emperor is a monarch, the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the female equivalent, may indicate an emperor's wife, mother, or a woman who rules in her own right. Emperors are recognized to be of a higher honour and rank than kings. In Europe, the title of Emperor has been used since the Middle Ages, considered in those times equal or equal in dignity to that of Pope due to the latter's position as visible head of the Church and spiritual leader of the Catholic part of Western Europe; the Emperor of Japan is the only reigning monarch whose title is translated into English as Emperor. Both emperors and kings are monarchs, but emperor and empress are considered the higher monarchical titles. Inasmuch as there is a strict definition of emperor, it is that an emperor has no relations implying the superiority of any other ruler and rules over more than one nation, therefore a king might be obliged to pay tribute to another ruler, or be restrained in his actions in some unequal fashion, but an emperor should in theory be free of such restraints.
However, monarchs heading empires have not always used the title in all contexts—the British sovereign did not assume the title Empress of the British Empire during the incorporation of India, though she was declared Empress of India. In Western Europe, the title of Emperor was used by the Holy Roman Emperor, whose imperial authority was derived from the concept of translatio imperii, i.e. they claimed succession to the authority of the Western Roman Emperors, thus linking themselves to Roman institutions and traditions as part of state ideology. Although ruling much of Central Europe and northern Italy, by the 19th century the Emperor exercised little power beyond the German-speaking states. Although technically an elective title, by the late 16th century the imperial title had in practice come to be inherited by the Habsburg Archdukes of Austria and following the Thirty Years' War their control over the states had become nearly non-existent. However, Napoleon Bonaparte was crowned Emperor of the French in 1804 and was shortly followed by Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, who declared himself Emperor of Austria in the same year.
The position of Holy Roman Emperor nonetheless continued until Francis II abdicated that position in 1806. In Eastern Europe, the monarchs of Russia used translatio imperii to wield imperial authority as successors to the Eastern Roman Empire, their status was recognised by the Holy Roman Emperor in 1514, although not used by the Russian monarchs until 1547. However, the Russian emperors are better known by their Russian-language title of Tsar after Peter the Great adopted the title of Emperor of All Russia in 1721. Historians have liberally used emperor and empire anachronistically and out of its Roman and European context to describe any large state from the past or the present; such pre-Roman titles as Great King or King of Kings, used by the Kings of Persia and others, are considered as the equivalent. Sometimes this reference has extended to non-monarchically ruled states and their spheres of influence such as the Athenian Empire of the late 5th century BC, the Angevin Empire of the Plantagenets and the Soviet and American "empires" of the Cold War era.
However, such "empires" did not need to be headed by an "emperor". Empire became identified instead with vast territorial holdings rather than the title of its ruler by the mid-18th century. For purposes of protocol, emperors were once given precedence over kings in international diplomatic relations, but precedence amongst heads of state who are sovereigns—whether they be kings, emperors, princes, princesses and to a lesser degree presidents—is determined by the duration of time that each one has been continuously in office. Outside the European context, emperor was the translation given to holders of titles who were accorded the same precedence as European emperors in diplomatic terms. In reciprocity, these rulers might accredit equal titles in their native languages to their European peers. Through centuries of international convention, this has become the dominant rule to identifying an emperor in the modern era. In the Roman tradition a large variety in the meaning and importance of the imperial form of monarchy developed: in intention it was always the highest office, but it could as well fall down to a redundant title for nobility that had never been near to the "Empire" they were supposed to be reigning.
The name of the position split in several branches of Western tradition, see below. The importance and meaning of coronation ceremonies and regalia varied within the tradition: for instance Holy Roman Emperors could only be crowned emperor by the Pope, which meant the coronation ceremony took place in Rome several years after these emperors had ascended to the throne in their home country; the first Latin Emperors of Constantinople on the other hand had to be present in the newly conquered capital of their empire, because, the only place where they could be granted to become emperor. Early Roman Emperors avoided any type of ceremony or regalia different from what was usual for republican offices in the Roman Republic: the most intrusive change had been changing the color of their robe to purple. New symbols of worldly and/or spiritual power, like the orb, became an essential part of the imperial accessories. Rules for indicating successors varied: there was a tendency towards male inheritance of the supreme o
The Vijayanagara Empire was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India. It was established in 1336 by his brother Bukka Raya I of Sangama Dynasty; the empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the southern powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in the Battle of Talikota in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates; the empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India. The writings of medieval European travelers such as Domingo Paes, Fernão Nunes, Niccolò Da Conti, the literature in local languages provide crucial information about its history. Archaeological excavations at Vijayanagara have revealed the empire's wealth; the empire's legacy includes many monuments spread over South India, the best known of, the group at Hampi. Different temple building traditions in South and Central India came together in the Vijayanagara Architecture style.
This synthesis inspired architectural innovation in Hindu temples' construction. Efficient administration and vigorous overseas trade brought new technologies such as water management systems for irrigation; the empire's patronage enabled fine arts and literature to reach new heights in Kannada, Telugu and Sanskrit, while Carnatic music evolved into its current form. The Vijayanagara Empire created an epoch in South Indian history that transcended regionalism by promoting Hinduism as a unifying factor. Karnata Rajya was another name for the Vijayanagara Empire, used in some inscriptions and literary works of the Vijayanagara times including the Sanskrit work Jambavati Kalyanam by King Krishnadevaraya and Telugu work Vasu Charitamu. Differing theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the Vijayanagara empire. Many historians propose that Harihara I and Bukka I, the founders of the empire, were Kannadigas and commanders in the army of the Hoysala Empire stationed in the Tungabhadra region to ward off Muslim invasions from the Northern India.
Others claim that they were Telugu people, first associated with the Kakatiya Kingdom, who took control of the northern parts of the Hoysala Empire during its decline. Irrespective of their origin, historians agree the founders were supported and inspired by Vidyaranya, a saint at the Sringeri monastery to fight the Muslim invasion of South India. Writings by foreign travelers during the late medieval era combined with recent excavations in the Vijayanagara principality have uncovered much-needed information about the empire's history, scientific developments and architectural innovations. Before the early 14th-century rise of the Vijayanagara Empire, the Hindu states of the Deccan – the Yadava Empire of Devagiri, the Kakatiya dynasty of Warangal, the Pandyan Empire of Madurai had been raided and attacked by Muslims from the north, by 1336 these upper Deccan region had all been defeated by armies of Sultan Alauddin Khalji and Muhammad bin Tughluq of the Delhi Sultanate. Further south in the Deccan region, a Hoysala commander, Singeya Nayaka-III declared independence after the Muslim forces of the Delhi Sultanate defeated and captured the territories of the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri in 1294 CE.
He created the Kampili kingdom. Kampili existed near Gulbarga and Tungabhadra river in northeastern parts of the present-day Karnataka state, it ended after a defeat by the armies of Delhi Sultanate. The triumphant army led by Malik Zada sent the news of its victory, over Kampili kingdom, to Muhammad bin Tughluq in Delhi by sending a straw-stuffed severed head of the dead Hindu king. Within Kampili, on the day of certain defeat, the populace committed a jauhar in 1327/28 CE. Eight years from the ruins of the Kampili kingdom emerged the Vijayanagara Kingdom in 1336 CE. In the first two decades after the founding of the empire, Harihara I gained control over most of the area south of the Tungabhadra river and earned the title of Purvapaschima Samudradhishavara. By 1374 Bukka Raya I, successor to Harihara I, had defeated the chiefdom of Arcot, the Reddys of Kondavidu, the Sultan of Madurai and had gained control over Goa in the west and the Tungabhadra-Krishna River doab in the north; the original capital was in the principality of Anegondi on the northern banks of the Tungabhadra River in today's Karnataka.
It was moved to nearby Vijayanagara on the river's southern banks during the reign of Bukka Raya I, because it was easier to defend against the Muslim armies persistently attacking it from the northern lands. With the Vijayanagara Kingdom now imperial in stature, Harihara II, the second son of Bukka Raya I, further consolidated the kingdom beyond the Krishna River and brought the whole of South India under the Vijayanagara umbrella; the next ruler, Deva Raya I, emerged successful against the Gajapatis of Odisha and undertook important works of fortification and irrigation. Italian traveler Niccolo de Conti wrote of him as the most powerful ruler of India. Deva Raya II succeeded to the throne in 1424 and was the most capable of the Sangama Dynasty rulers, he quelled rebelling feudal lords as well as the Zamorin of Quilon in the south. He became overlord of the kings of Burma at Pegu and Tanasserim. Firuz Bahmani of Bahmani Sultanate entered into a treaty with Deva Raya I of Vijayanagara in 1407 that required the latter to pay Bahmani an annual trib
Krishnadevaraya was an emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1529. He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishna Deva Raya earned the titles Andhra Bhoja and Mooru Rayara Ganda, he became the dominant ruler of the peninsula of India by defeating the Sultans of Bijapur, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Gajapatis of Odisha, was one of the most powerful Hindu rulers in India. Indeed, when the Mughal Emperor Babur was taking stock of the potentates of north India, Krishnadevaraya was rated the most powerful and had the most extensive empire in the subcontinent. Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz visited the Vijayanagara Empire during his reign. Krishna Deva Raya benefited from the able prime minister Timmarusu, regarded by the emperor as a father figure and was responsible for his coronation. Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka, an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who took control of the empire to prevent its disintegration and became the founder of the Tuluva Dynasty, the third Hindu Dynasty to rule Vijayanagara.
The emperor's coronation took place on the birthday of Hindu God Krishna. He built; the king was of medium height, had a cheerful disposition, was reputed to be respectful to foreign visitors, ruthless in maintaining the law, prone to fits of anger. He maintained himself to a high level of physical fitness through daily exercises. Travelogues indicate that the king was not only an able the administrator but an excellent general, leading from the front in battle and attending to the wounded; the south Indian poet Muku Timmana praised him as the destroyer of the Turkics. The rule of the king Krishna Deva Raya marks a period of much military success in Vijayanagara history. On occasion, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory; the first decade of his rule was one of the long sieges, bloody conquests, victories. His main enemies were the Bahamani Sultans, the Gajapatis of Odisha, involved in constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya and the Portuguese, a rising maritime power which controlled much of the sea trade.
The feudal chiefs of Ummattur and Kammas of Dharanikota who rebelled against Vijayanagar rule were conquered and subdued. The annual affair of the raid and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Raya's rule. In 1509 Krishnadevaraya's armies clashed with the Sultan of Bijapur at Diwani and the Sultan Mahmud was injured and defeated. Yusuf Adil Khan was killed and the Raichur Doab was annexed. Taking advantage of the victory and the disunity of the Bahamani Sultans, the Raya invaded Bidar and Bijapur and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de facto ruler; the Sultan of Golconda Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was defeated by Timmarusu, the prime minister of Sri Krishnadevaraya. He defeated many local rulers like Dharanikota Kammas who were the feudatory of Gajapati kings of Odisha and seized lands up to the Krishna river. Ganga Raja, the Ummatur chief, was defeated; the chief drowned in the Kaveri in 1512.
The region was made a part of the Srirangapatna province. In 1516-1517, he pushed beyond the Godavari river; the Surya Vamsi Gajapatis of Odisha ruled a vast land comprising Odisha. Krishna Deva Raya's success at Ummatur provided the necessary impetus to carry his campaign into Coastal Andhra region, in control of Gajapati Prataparudra Deva; the Vijayanagar army laid siege to the Udayagiri fort in 1512. The campaign lasted for a year. Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnama Devi; the Gajapati army was met at Kondaviduraju where the armies of Vijayanagara, after establishing a siege for a few months and heavy with initial defeats began to retreat, until Timmarusu upon discovering a secret entrance to the unguarded eastern gate of the fort launched a night attack culminating with the capture of the fort and the imprisonment of the greatest swordsman of his time, Prince Virabhadra, the son of Gajapati Emperor of Kalinga-Utkal, Gajapati Prataprudra Deva.
Saluva Timmarasa took over as governor of Kondavidu thereafter. The Vijayanagar army accosted the Adapa Kamma dynasty army allies to Gajapatis at Kondapalli area and laid another siege. Krishnadevaraya planned for an invasion of mainland Kalinga-Utkal but the Gajapati Emperor, privy of this plan had built up a strategy to rout the Vijayanagara army and along with it its king, Krishnadevaraya; the confrontation was to happen at the fort of Kalinganagar. But the wily Timmarusu secured the information by bribing a Telugu deserter under the service of the mighty Prataprudra deva. Prataprudra was driven to Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapati empire and surrendered to Vijaynagar, giving his daughter Princess Annapurna Devi in marriage to Sri Krishna Deva Raya; as per treaty, the Krishna river became boundary of Odisha Kingdom. Krishna Deva Raya established friendly relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510; the Emperor obtained Arabian horses from the Portuguese merchants.
He utilized Portuguese expertise in
Achyuta Deva Raya
Achyuta Deva Raya was a ruler of a Vijayanagara Empire of South India. He was the younger brother of Krishna Deva Raya, whom he succeeded in 1529. Fernao Nuniz was a Portuguese traveller and horse trader who visited India during reign of Achyutaraya and who spent three years in Vijayanagara, he patronised Kannada poet Chatu Vittalanatha, the great composer and singer Purandaradasa, the Sanskrit scholar Rajanatha Dindima II. Upon his death, the succession was disputed, his nephew, Sadasiva Raya became king while yet a child, under the regency of Aliya Rama Raya, a son-in-law of Krishnadevaraya. The time when Achyuta Deva Raya became the king was by no means a favorable one; the peace and prosperity of the halcyon days under Krishnadevaraya were coming to an end. Feudatories and enemies were waiting for an opportunity to bring down the empire. In addition, Achyuta Deva Raya had to contend with the powerful Aliya Rama Raya, competing for the throne. While the works of Nuniz speak lowly of Achyuta Deva Raya as being a king given to vices and cruelty, there is enough evidence to prove that the king was indeed noteworthy in his own right and fought hard to keep the prosperity of the kingdom alive.
He had been handpicked by Krishna Deva Raya himself as an able successor. Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur captured the Raichur doab; however the Gajapati's of Orissa and Quli Qutub Shah of Golconda were pushed back. Now Achyuta Deva Raya along with his general Salakaraju Tirumala went on a southern campaign to bring the chiefs of Travancore and Ummatur under control; this they did successfully. They invaded the doab north of Tungabhadra and recaptured the forts of Raichur and Mudgal; the two Sanskrit works Achyutabhyudayam and Varadambikaparinayam describe the king's life and rule in detail. Throughout his rule, Achyuta Deva Raya had to contend with the manipulations of Rama Raya who in his powerful capacity had replaced many of the faithful servants of the Kingdom in high ranking positions with men of his own favour. On more than one occasion the Bahamani Sultans were brought in to play the role of mediator between the king and Ailya Rama Raya in the game of power sharing; this would further weaken the kingdom.
Around 1540 Aliya Rama Raya imprisoned Achyuta Deva Raya in a coup. In 1542 Achyuta Deva Raya died, was succeeded by his young son of Venkata I, but he was soon killed, Sadasiva Raya became the new king. Aliya Rama Raya became the regent and let little governance in the hands of Sadasiva Raya; the Tiruvengalanatha temple was built at Vijayanagara during his reign. It has become popularly known by his name as Achyutaraya temple, rather than by the name of the deity Lord Venkateshwara to whom the temple was dedicated. Prof K. A. Nilakanta Sastri, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, New Delhi Coins Pictures of temple on HampiOnline.com Achyuta Rayas Temple Photographs, 2013 Learn more about Achyutaraya Temple on HampiOnline.com
Aliya Rama Raya
Rama Raya, popularly known as "Aliya" Rama Raya, was the progenitor of the Aravidu dynasty of Vijayanagar Empire. This dynasty, the fourth and last to hold sway over the Vijayanagara Empire, is not counted as a ruling dynasty of that empire, for reasons delineated below. Rama Raya patronised the Sanskrit scholar Rama Amatya, he reigned from 1543 to 1565. "Aliya" Rama Raya and his younger brother Tirumala Deva Raya were sons-in-law of the great Vijayanagara emperor Krishna Deva Raya. The word "Aliya" means "son-in-law" in the Kannada language. Along with another brother Venkatadri, the Aravidu brothers rose to prominence during the rule of Krishna Deva Raya. Rama Raya was a successful army general, able administerator, tactful diplomat who conducted many victorious campaigns during the rule of Krishnadevaraya. After the demise of his illustrious father-in-law, as a member of the family, Rama Raya, began to wield great influence over the affairs of the state. Krishna Deva Raya was succeeded in 1529 by his younger brother Achyuta Deva Raya, upon whose demise in 1542, the throne devolved upon his nephew Sadashiva Raya a minor.
Rama Raya appointed. After Sadashiva Raya came of age to rule, Rama Raya kept him a virtual prisoner. During this time he became virtual ruler. Rama Raya removed many loyal servants of the kingdom and replaced them with officers who were loyal to him, he appointed two Muslim commanders, the Gilani brothers who were earlier in the service of the Sultan Adil Shah as commanders in his army, a mistake that would cost the empire the final Battle of Talikota. Rama Raya lacked royal blood of his own and to legitimize his rule he claimed vicarious connection with two of the most powerful Empires of medieval India, the Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola empire. During his rule, the Deccan Sultanates were involved in internal fights and requested Rama Raya on more than one occasion to act as a mediator, enabling Rama Raya to push north of the Krishna river and expand his domains utilizing the disunity of the Deccan Sultans, he suppressed revolts of the chieftains of Travancore and Chandragiri. Some scholars have criticised Rama Raya for interfering in the affairs of the Sultans too much, but scholars like Dr. P.
B. Desai have ably defended his political affairs, indicating that Rama Raya did whatever he could to increase the prestige and importance of the Vijayanagar empire, ensuring no single Sultanate would rise above the others in power, hence preventing a difficult situation for Vijayanagar empire. In fact Rama Raya had interfered in Sultanate affairs only upon the insistence of one Sultan or the other, just the way the Sultans had acted as parelys between Rama Raya and Achyuta Raya in earlier years; when the Nizam of Ahmednagar and Qutbshah of Golconda sought Rama Raya's help against Bijapur, Rama Raya secured the Raichur doab for his benefactors. In 1549 when the Adilshah of Bijapur and Baridshah of Bidar declared war on Nizamshah of Ahmednagar, Ramaraya fought on behalf of the Ahamednagar ruler and secured the fort of Kalyana. In 1557 Ramaraya allied himself with Ali Adilshah of Bijapur and Baridshah of Bidar when the Sultan of Bijapur invaded Ahmednagar; the combined armies of the three kingdoms defeated the partnership between Nizamshah of Ahmednagar and the Qutbshah of Golconda.
The Vijayanagar ruler's changing sides to improve his own position prompted the Sultanates to form an alliance. Intermarriage between Sultanate families helped resolve internal differences between Muslim rulers; the Battle of Talikota resulted from this consolidation of Muslim power in the northern Deccan. Aliya Rama Raya remained loyal to the legitimate dynasty until it was extinguished by war, with the notable exception of imprisoning the appointed ruler Sadashiva Raya and ruling in his stead. In 1565, it was Aliya Rama Raya, as the pre-eminent general of the Vijayanagar army, who led the defense against the invading army of Deccan Sultans in the battle of Talikota; this battle, which had seemed an easy victory for the large Vijayanagar army, instead became a disaster following the surprise capture and death of Aliya Rama Raya who led the army, a blow from which it never recovered. The city of Vijayanagara was sacked by the invaders and the inhabitants were massacred; the royal family was exterminated.
Vijayanagara, once a city of fabled splendour, the seat of a vast empire, became a desolate ruin, now known by the name of a sacred inner suburb within it, Hampi. His severed head was on display at Ahmednagar at the anniversary of the battle of Talikota and would be covered in oil and red pigment by the descendant of his executioner. In the wake of this disaster, Rama Raya was killed in the battlefield and his brother Tirumala Deva Raya fled from the battle to Vijayanagar, he carried the major portion of the wealth of the Empire along with the puppet king Sadashiva Raya to Penugonda and tried to re-establish order in the empire. He shifted his capital to Chandragiri. With the massacre of nearly all other prominent members of the royal family, given the prestige that Rama Raya had long enjoyed at court and among the nobility, it soon came to pass that his family inherited by default the position held hitherto by the royal family, thus was the "Aravidu" dynasty of emperors born. The position of emperor however was an empty one, as the Vijayanagara Empire had de facto ceased to exist.
The major feudatories of Vijayanagara, such as Mysore and Madurai, Keladi Nayaka, soon began to exert their independence in the period of anarchy that followed the rout of 1565, while various Muslim adventurers carved out their own fief
Virupaksha Raya II
Virupaksha Raya II was a king of the Vijayanagara Empire from the Sangama Dynasty Virupaksha Raya II succeeded his uncle, Mallikarjuna Raya, a corrupt and weak ruler who continually lost against the empire's enemies. So, Virupaksha Raya II was no more of a better ruler than his predecessor. Throughout his reign, Virupaksha was faced with rebellious nobles and officers as well as multiple enemies who began to invade the weakened kingdom, it was during this time that Virupaksha Raya II lost the Konkan coast by 1470 to Prime Minister Mahamud Gawan from the Bahamani kingdom, sent to conquer the area by the Sultan Muhammad Shah III. The Bahmani Sultan would invade Doab of Krishna and Tungabhadra, the Raja Purushottama Gajapati of Odisha invaded Tiruvannamalai; because of these losses, Virupaksha became unpopular and ignited many of the empire's provinces to rebel leading up to Virupaksha's death in the hands of his own son, Praudharaya in 1485. Praudharaya himself was not able to salvage the kingdom but an able general Saluva Narasimha took control of the empire in 1485 and helped to prevent its demise, though this change of power marked the end of the Sangama Dynasty and the beginning of the Saluva Dynasty.
Dr. Suryanath U. Kamat, Concise history of Karnataka, MCC, Bangalore, 2001 APonline Article Ourkarnataka Article Sangama Article
Peda Venkata Raya
Venkata III, the grandson of Aliya Rama Raya became the King of Vijayanagara Empire from 1632–1642. But his paternal uncle, Timma Raja, another brother of Sriranga II, thought himself to have a better claim, seized the government at Vellore Fort, compelling Venkata III to remaining in his native place Anekonda; the Nayaks of Gingee and Madurai declared support for Venkata III, while Timma Raja got support from no-one and was looked upon as a usurper. Timma Raja made a lot of trouble and civil strife continued until his death in 1635, he was winning, until the King Peda Venkata ’s nephew, Sriranga III took to the field and defeated Timma Raja with help from the Dutch in Pulicat, compelling him to accept Venkata III’s claim. Timma Raja was allowed some territories under his control, but stirred up trouble for a second time, only to be slain by the Nayak of Gingee in 1635. Peace was restored and Peda Venkata Raya or Venkata III returned to Vellore to take charge. On 22 August 1639 Francis Day of the East India Company obtained a small strip of Land in the Coromandel Coast from Peda Venkata Raya in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities.
The region was under the control of the Damerla Venkatadri Nayakudu, a Recherla Velama Nayak of Kalahasti and Vandavasi. Venkatadri Nayakudu was son of Damerla Chennappa Nayakudu; this is regarded at the founding event of the formation of the Chennai Metropolis and is to the day celebrated as Madras Day. In 1637 the Nayaks of Tanjore and Madurai, out of some complications attempted to seize Venkata III and attacked Vellore but were defeated and peace was established; the Kings loyal nephew, Sriranga III for some reasons turned against the King in 1638 and engineered an invasion from Bijapur. The Bijapur – Sriranga III combine attacked Bangalore making the King Venkata III buy peace after an expensive deal. In 1641 the same combine launched another attack and were just 12 miles from Vellore Fort, but their camp was attacked with backing by Southern Nayaks. In the following year, the Qutb Shahi dynasty of Golconda watching the disorder, sent a huge force along the East Coast; the Golkonda army, after facing a stiff resistance near Madras by Venkata III’s army backed by Damerla Venkatadri Nayak of Kalahasti and the Gingee Nayak, marched towards the Vellore Fort.
But Venkata III, now badly under threat from all sides retreated to the Jungles of Chittoor and died October 1642. Venkata III had no son and was succeeded by his treacherous nephew Sriranga III, who came to Vellore Fort after deserting the Bijapur camp. Rao, Velcheru Narayana, David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Symbols of substance: court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu. Maps. Sathianathaier, R. History of the Nayaks of Madura by R. Sathyanatha Aiyar. K. A. Nilakanta Sastry, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, ISBN 0-19-560686-8