The Chochenyo are one of the divisions of the indigenous Ohlone people of Northern California. The Chochenyo resided on the east side of the San Francisco Bay in what is now Alameda County, Contra Costa County, from the Berkeley Hills inland to the western Diablo Range. Chochenyo is the name of their spoken language, one of the Costanoan dialects in the Utian family. Linguistically, Chochenyo and Ramaytush are thought to be close dialects of a single language; the Ohlone tribes were hunter-gatherers who moved into the San Francisco Bay Region around 500 CE, displacing earlier Esselen people. In Chochenyo territory, recent datings of the ancient Emeryville Shellmounds and Newark Shellmounds attest to people residing in the Bay Area since 4000 BC. Chochenyo territory was bordered by the Karkin to the north, the Tamyen to the south and southwest, the San Francisco Bay to the west, overlapped a bit with the Bay Miwok and Yokuts to the east. During the California Mission Era, the Chochenyos moved en masse to the Mission San Francisco de Asís in San Francisco, Mission San José of Fremont.
Most moved into one of these missions and were baptized and educated to be Catholic neophytes known as Mission Indians, until the missions were discontinued by the Mexican Government in 1834. The people found themselves landless. A large majority of the Chochenyo died from disease in the missions and shortly thereafter, only a fragment remaining by 1900; the speech of the last two native speakers of Chochenyo was documented in the 1920s in the unpublished fieldnotes of the Bureau of American Ethnology linguist John Peabody Harrington. Today, the Chochenyo have joined with the other San Francisco Bay Area Ohlone people under the name of the Muwekma Ohlone Tribe; as of 2007, Muwekma Ohlone were petitioning for U. S. federal recognition. The East Bay and eastward mountain valleys were populated with dozens of Chochenyo tribes and villages. See: Ohlone tribes and villages, East Bay Area Sogorea Te Land Trust Chochenyo revival Chochenyo revitalization – language at UCB "Faith in Words" 2004 archived version Chochenyo language overview at the Survey of California and Other Indian Languages Muwekma Ohlone Tribe website Muwekma request for federal tribal recognition Court opinion 9/21/06 The Muwekma Ohlone Tribe of the San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Peninsula
The San Francisco Peninsula is a peninsula in the San Francisco Bay Area that separates San Francisco Bay from the Pacific Ocean. On its northern tip is the City and County of San Francisco, its southern base is in northern Santa Clara County, including the cities of Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos. Most of the Peninsula is occupied by San Mateo County, between San Francisco and Santa Clara counties, including the cities and towns of Atherton, Brisbane, Colma, Daly City, East Palo Alto, El Granada, Foster City, Half Moon Bay, La Honda, Loma Mar, Los Altos, Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto, Portola Valley, Redwood City, San Bruno, San Carlos, San Mateo, South San Francisco and Woodside. Whereas the term peninsula technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local jargon, "The Peninsula" does not include the city of San Francisco. In 1795, Governor Diego de Borica gave José Darío Argüello a Spanish land grant known as Rancho de las Pulgas; this rancho was the largest grant on the peninsula consisting of 35,260 acres.
As a local geographic term, the area referred to as "The Peninsula" is distinct from that denoted by "The City", refers to the portion south of San Francisco. The appellation may date to the period, prior to 1856, when the City of San Francisco and the County of San Francisco were separate entities, the latter coextensive with contemporary San Mateo County and San Francisco City-County; the City-County owns several disjunct properties along the whole of the Peninsula. The remaining suburban area of the Peninsula is on the east side of the Santa Cruz Mountains, along San Francisco Bay. A substantial portion of Silicon Valley is located on the peninsula. In Silicon Valley are the headquarters of some of the largest tech companies in the world, such as Google, Yahoo and Apple. Over the last decade or so there has been an influx of immigration into the Bay Area from places like India and China to work in the technology industry. There are well over 6,600 tech startups in the Valley and new ones are created every day.
The east side of the peninsula is a densely populated and urban and suburban area that includes portions of Silicon Valley. It forms a commuter area between San Francisco to San Jose to the south. A number of major thoroughfares run north-south: El Camino Real and US 101 on the east side along the bay, Interstate 280 down the center, Skyline Boulevard along the crest of the Santa Cruz Mountains, SR 1 on the west along the Pacific, SR 85 which forms the southern end of the Peninsula; the Caltrain commuter rail line runs parallel to the El Camino Real and Highway 101 corridors. The bridges in the Peninsula include the Dumbarton Bridge, the San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge, the San Mateo-Hayward Bridge and the Golden Gate Bridge. Along the center line of the Peninsula is the northern half of the Santa Cruz Mountains, formed by the action of plate tectonics along the San Andreas Fault. In the middle of the Peninsula along the fault is the Crystal Springs Reservoir. Just north of the Crystal Springs reservoir is San Andreas Lake, after which the geologic fault was named.
The San Francisco Peninsula contains a variety of habitats including estuarine, oak woodland, redwood forest, coastal scrub and oak savanna. There are numerous species of wildlife present along the San Francisco Bay estuarine shoreline, San Bruno Mountain, Fitzgerald Marine Reserve and the forests on the Montara Mountain block; the county is home to several endangered species including the San Francisco garter snake, the Mission blue butterfly and the San Bruno elfin butterfly, all of which are endemic to San Mateo County. The endangered California clapper rail is found on the shores of San Francisco Bay, in the cities of Belmont and San Mateo. A number of noteworthy parks and nature preserves are found on the San Francisco Peninsula, including: Edgewood Park, San Mateo County Golden Gate National Recreation Area - several units are located on the Peninsula Midpeninsula Regional Open Space District - several preserves Sanborn Park, Santa Clara County There are a number of well-known structures and complexes on the San Francisco Peninsula: Landforms of the San Francisco Bay Area List of peninsulas Peninsulas of California
Half Moon Bay, California
Half Moon Bay is a coastal city in San Mateo County, United States. Its population was 11,324 as of the 2010 census. At the north of Half Moon Bay is the Pillar Point Harbor and the unincorporated community of Princeton-by-the-Sea; the urban area had a population of 20,713 at the same census. Half Moon Bay began as a rural agriculture area used for grazing of cattle and oxen used by Mission San Francisco de Asis. Following the secularization of the Mission, Tiburcio Vásquez received the Rancho Corral de Tierra Mexican land grant in 1839 and Candelario Miramontes was granted Rancho Miramontes in 1841; the community began to develop in the 1840s as the first real town in San Mateo County. Known as San Benito, the town was renamed Spanishtown and attracted a thriving fishing industry in addition to its continued importance to coastal agriculture. Spanishtown became a racially diverse community, settled by Canadians, English, Irish, Italians, Scots and Pacific Islanders. Regular stagecoach service was established with San Mateo.
Levy Brothers opened a department store in downtown Half Moon Bay. Spanishtown was renamed Half Moon Bay in 1874; the area grew slowly after the Ocean Shore Railroad began serving the community in 1907. The construction of Pedro Mountain Road in 1914 provided better access to San Francisco and contributed to the demise of the railroad by 1920; the USS DeLong ran aground at Half Moon Bay 1 December 1921. During Prohibition "rum runners" took advantage of dense fog and hidden coves in the area to serve a number of roadhouses and inns, some of which operate today as restaurants. Real growth in the area came after World War II with the construction of numerous subdivisions leading to the incorporation of Half Moon Bay in 1959; the city preserves a historic downtown district which includes historic buildings dating as far back as 1869. In 2008, financial setbacks endangered the city's viability; the economic crisis affected tourism, which generates the most revenue, that just at the time when the city had finalized an $18 million settlement over a property lawsuit.
As the municipal budget was $14 million or less, city fathers had issued bonds with annual payments of $1 million over 25 years. As a result of these combined fiscal obstacles, the threat of bankruptcy was real. Dozens of meetings were held in order to decide where the budget should be cut and 75% of municipal employees were laid off and replaced with contract workers. Employee contributions toward retirement benefits were raised. However, the city council sought to regain the money paid in the settlement, believing that it should have been paid by the city's insurers. A lawsuit against the insurers was decided in 2013 and the insurer ordered to pay more than $13 million to the city. Since the City's finances have shown great improvement; the City was able to retire the first of its two 30-year Judgment Obligation Bonds a full 20 years early. The early retirement will save the City over $426,000 in annual General Fund expenses starting in 2015-16; the second set of Judgment Obligation Bonds will be retired in 2019, 18 years ahead of schedule with a combination of annual payments from the City Budget and funds on deposit with the Bond Trustee obtained in settlements with two of the City’s insurance carriers.
The early retirement of the 2009B Series Bonds will reduce the General Fund budget expenditure by $700,000 per year and will provide funding for the annual debt service on the Lease Revenue Bonds for the New Half Moon Bay Library. As of the publication of the Fiscal Year 2015/16 Budget the General Fund budget is balanced and has a structural surplus of $4.0 Million. The General Fund budget is projected to have a significant structural surplus in the following four years according to revenue and expense projections from the City’s Finance Department; this means that the City will be able to fund the cost of day-to-day operations and services in Half Moon Bay over the next five years with a healthy annual surplus that can be used towards the cost of desired Capital Improvement Program projects and other needs. Half Moon Bay is located at 37°27′32″N 122°26′13″W 25 miles south of San Francisco, 10 miles west of San Mateo, 45 miles north of Santa Cruz. Neighboring towns include El Granada, Princeton-by-the-Sea, Moss Beach, Montara to the north and Purissima, San Gregorio, Pescadero to the south.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.4 square miles, of which, 6.4 square miles of it is land and 0.02 square miles of it is water. It is situated on a bay of the same name. Major local industries include agriculture and tourism. Half Moon Bay had been known as San Benito and Spanishtown. A popular spot at Half Moon Bay is the'Jetty,' or as it is sometimes called,'The Breakwater.' This is a man-made break with unusual waves shaped by reflections from the breakwater at Pillar Point Harbor. Streams in Half Moon Bay include Pilarcitos Creek and Naples Creek. Montara State Marine Reserve & Pillar Point State Marine Conservation Area extend offshore from Montara, just north of Half Moon Bay. Like underwater parks, these marine protected areas help conserve oc
Indigenous peoples of California
The indigenous peoples of California are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of California before and after the arrival of Europeans. With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population in the United States; the California cultural area does not conform to the state of California's boundaries. Many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes, some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as indigenous peoples of Mexico. Before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of 100 distinct languages; the large number of languages has been related to the ecological diversity of California, to a sociopolitical organization into small tribelets with a shared "ideology that defined language boundaries as unalterable natural features inherent in the land"."The majority of California Indian languages belong either to localized language families with two or three members or are language isolates."
Of the remainder, most are Athapaskan languages. Larger groupings have been proposed; the Hokan superstock has been most difficult to demonstrate. There is evidence suggestive that speakers of the Chumashan languages and Yukian languages, languages of southern Baja California such as Waikuri, were in California prior to the arrival of Penutian languages from the north and Uto-Aztecan from the east predating the Hokan languages. Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic; the several Athapaskan languages are recent arrivals, no more recent than about 2000 years ago. Evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago. Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct sub-tribes or groups, each consisting of 50 to 500 individual members; the size of California tribes today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States. Prior to contact with Europeans, the California region contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico.
Because of the temperate climate and easy access to food sources one-third of all Native Americans in the United States were living in the area of California. Early Native Californians were hunter-gatherers, with seed collection becoming widespread around 9,000 BC. Due to the local abundance of food, tribes tilled the soil. Two early southern California cultural traditions include the La Jolla Complex and the Pauma Complex, both dating from ca. 6050—1000 BC. From 3000 to 2000 BC, regional diversity developed, with the peoples making fine-tuned adaptations to local environments. Traits recognizable to historic tribes were developed by 500 BC; the indigenous people practiced various forms of sophisticated forest gardening in the forests, mixed woodlands, wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants. They controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology. By burning underbrush and grass, the natives revitalized patches of land and provided fresh shoots to attract food animals.
A form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle. Different tribes encountered non-native European explorers and settlers at different times; the southern and central coastal tribes encountered Spanish and British explorers in the mid-16th century. Tribes such as the Quechan or Yuman Indians in present-day southeast California and southwest Arizona first encountered Spanish explorers in the 1760s and 1770s. Tribes on the coast of northwest California, like the Miwok and Yokut, had contact with Russian explorers and seafarers in the late 18th century. In remote interior regions, some tribes did not meet non-natives until the mid-19th century; the Spanish began their long-term occupation in California in 1769 with the founding of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego. The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California, their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities for the Native Californian tribes.
The population of Native California was reduced by 90% during the 19th century—from more than 200,000 in the early 19th century to 15,000 at the end of the century due to disease. Epidemics swept through California Indian Country, such as the 1833 malaria epidemic. Early to mid 19th Century, coastal tribes of northwest California had multiple contacts with Russian explorers due to Russian colonization of the Americas. At that time period, Russian exploration of California and contacts with local population were associated with the activity of the Russian-American Company. A Russian explorer, Baron Ferdinand von Wrangell, visited California in 1818, 1833, 1835. Looking for a potential site for a new outpost of the company in California in place of Fort Ross, Wrangell’s expedition encountered the Indians north of San Francisco Bay and visited their village. In his notes Wrangell remarked that local women, used to physical labor, seemed to be of stronger constitution than men, whose main activity was hunting.
Local provision consisted of fish and products made of seeds and grains: usually
The Golden Gate is a strait on the west coast of North America that connects San Francisco Bay to the Pacific Ocean. It is defined by the headlands of the San Francisco Peninsula and the Marin Peninsula, since 1937, has been spanned by the Golden Gate Bridge; the entire shoreline and adjacent waters throughout the strait are managed by the Golden Gate National Recreation Area. During the last Ice Age, when sea level was several hundred feet lower, the waters of the glacier-fed Sacramento River and the San Joaquin River scoured a deep channel through the bedrock on their way to the ocean; the strait is well known today for powerful tidal currents from the Pacific Ocean. Many small whirlpools and eddies can form in its waters. With its strong currents, rocky reefs and fog, the Golden Gate is the site of over 100 shipwrecks; the Golden Gate is shrouded in fog during the summer. Heat generated in the California Central Valley causes air there to rise, creating a low pressure area that pulls in cool, moist air from over the Pacific Ocean.
The Golden Gate forms the largest break in the hills of the California Coast Range, allowing a persistent, dense stream of fog to enter the bay there. Although there is no weather station on Golden Gate proper, the area has a mediterranean climate with narrow temperature fluctuations, cool summers and mild winters. For the nearest weather station see the weatherbox of San Francisco; the Golden Gate Bridge being nearer the ocean and at elevation indicate it being cooler during summer days. Nearer the San Francisco urban core, the temperatures resemble the official NOAA weather station instead. Before the Europeans arrived in the 18th century, the area around the strait and the bay was inhabited by the Ohlone to the south and Coast Miwok people to the north. Descendants of both tribes remain in the area; the strait was elusive for early European explorers due to this persistent summer fog. The strait is not recorded in the voyages of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo nor Francis Drake, both of whom may have explored the nearby coast in the 16th century in search of the fabled Northwest Passage.
The strait is unrecorded in observations by Spanish galleons returning from the Philippines that laid up in nearby Drakes Bay to the north. These galleons passed east of the Farallon Islands, fearing the possibility of rocks between the islands and the mainland; the first recorded observation of the strait occurred nearly two hundred years than the earliest European explorations of the coast. In 1769, Sgt José Francisco Ortega, the leader of a scouting party sent north along the San Francisco Peninsula by Don Gaspar de Portolá from their expedition encampment in San Pedro Valley to locate the Point Reyes headlands, reported back to Portolá that he could not reach the location because of his encounter with the strait. On August 5, 1775 Juan de Ayala and the crew of his ship San Carlos became the first Europeans known to have passed through the strait, anchoring in a cove behind Angel Island, the cove now named in Ayala's honor; until the 1840s, the strait was called the "Boca del Puerto de San Francisco".
On July 1, 1846, before the discovery of gold in California, the entrance acquired a new name. In his memoirs, John C. Frémont wrote, "To this Gate I gave the name of'Chrysopylae', or'Golden Gate', he went on to comment that the strait was “a golden gate to trade with the Orient.” In the 1920s, no bridge spanned the watery expanse between San Francisco and Marin in California—so when the U. S. Post Office issued a postage stamp on May 1, 1923, celebrating The Golden Gate, the issue portrayed the scene without a bridge; the schooner sailing ship in the engraving is the USS Babcock, which served in the United States Navy from 1917 to 1919, is seen passing through the Golden Gate into San Francisco Bay, its port of call. The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay onto the Pacific Ocean; as part of both US Highway 101 and California Route 1, it connects the city of San Francisco on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula to Marin County.
The Golden Gate Bridge was the longest suspension bridge span in the world when completed in 1937, is an internationally recognized symbol of San Francisco and California in general. Since its completion, the span length has been surpassed by eight other bridges, it still has the second longest suspension bridge main span in the United States, after the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge in New York City. In 2007, it was ranked fifth on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects; the Golden Gate strait serves as the primary access channel for nautical travel to and from the San Francisco Bay, one of the largest cargo ports in the United States. Commercial ports includes the Port of Oakland, the Port of Richmond, the Port of San Francisco. Commercial cargo ships use the Golden Gate to access the San Francisco Bay, as well as barges, fishing boats, cruise ships, owned boats, including wind-surfers and kite-boards. About 9000 ships moved through the Golden Gate in 2014, a similar amount in 2015.
The U. S Coast Guard maintains a Vessel Traffic Service to monitor and regulate vessel traffic through the Golden Gate. For navigational guidance, there are white and green lights on the center of the span of the Golden Gate Bridge. Lighthouses with beacons and foghorns provide alerts at Point Bonita, Point Diablo, Lime Point and Mile Rocks. Before th
The Rumsen are one of eight groups of the Ohlone, an indigenous people of California. They shared a common language, spoken from the Pajaro River to Point Sur, on the lower courses of the Pajaro, as well as on the Salinas and Carmel Rivers, the region of the present-day cities of Salinas and Carmel; the Rumsen tribe held the lower Carmel River Valley and neighboring Monterey Peninsula at the time of Spanish colonization. Their population of 400-500 people was distributed among at least five villages within their territory. An early twentieth-century mapping of a specific village called Rumsen on the Carmel River, several miles inland from the Mission in Carmel, may or may not be accurate. Mission registers indicate that "Tucutnut", about three miles upstream from the mouth of the Carmel River, was the largest village of the Rumsen local tribe; the Rumsen were the first Costanoan people to be seen and documented by the Spanish explorers of Northern California, as noted by Sebastian Vizcaíno when he reached Monterey in 1602.
Since this first Spanish contact, Manila galleons may have ventured up the California coastline and stopped in Monterey Bay between 1602 and 1796. During the era of Spanish missions in California, the Rumsen people's lives changed when the Spaniards came from the south to build the Mission San Carlos Borroméo de Carmelo and the Monterey Presidio in their territory. Many were baptized between 1771 and 1808. Once baptized, the Rumsen people were required to live in the mission village and its surrounding ranches, They were taught as Catholic neophytes known as Mission Indians, until the missions were secularized by the Mexican Government in 1834; some Mission San Carlos Indian people were formally deeded plots at secularization, only to lose those plots during the Rancho Period. At least since the mission era, the people of the Esselen Nation claim close association with the Rumsen Ohlone, through Mission integration and intermarriage. Dialects of the Rumsen language were spoken by four independent local tribes, including the Rumsen themselves, the Ensen of the Salinas vicinity, the Calendaruc of the central shoreline of Monterey Bay, the Sargentaruc of the Big Sur Coast.
The territory of the language group was bordered by Monterey Bay and the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Awaswas Ohlone to the north, the Mutsun Ohlone to the east, the Chalon Ohlone on the south east, the Esselen to the south. Ohlone tribes and villages in the Monterey Bay Area Ohlone: History Costanoan Rumsen Chino Tribe Ohlone Costanoan Esselen Nation tribal website "Rumsen / Southern Ohlone sound recordings". Collections Search Center, Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2012-07-20
The Awaswas people known as Santa Cruz people, are one of eight divisions of the Ohlone Native Americans of Northern California. The Awaswas lived in the Santa Cruz Mountains and along the coast of present-day Santa Cruz County from present-day Davenport to Aptos, they spoke the Awaswas language, one of the Costanoan language dialects in the Utian family, which became the main language spoken at the Mission Santa Cruz. However, there is evidence that this grouping was more geographic than linguistic, that the records of the'Santa Cruz Costanoan' language in fact represent several diverse dialects; the Awaswas territory was bordered by the Pacific Ocean to the west, other Ohlone people on all other sides: the Ramaytush to the north, Tamyen to the east, the Mutsun and Rumsien to the south. The Awaswas population living between Davenport and Aptos was estimated at 600 people in 1770. During the era of Spanish missions in California, the Awaswas people's lives changed with the Mission Santa Cruz built in their territory.
Most moved into this mission and were baptized and educated to be Catholic neophytes known as Mission Indians, until the missions were discontinued by the Mexican Government in 1834. The villages included the Sokel, who lived at Aptos, the Chatu-mu, who lived near the current location of Santa Cruz. Awasawas neophytes at the Mission Santa Cruz came from the following villages, located in today's Santa Cruz County: Achilla, Agtisrn, Aulintac, Chalumü, Chicutae, Coot, Hottrochtac, Hualquilme, Locobo, Mallin, Ochoyos, Osacalis, Sachuen, Shiuguermi, Sio Cotchmin, Tomoy, Utalliam, Yeunaba, Yeunator. In 2011, a march was held in Santa Cruz to preserve "the Knoll", the 6,000-year-old burial site of a child, located near Branciforte Creek. Awaswas people, the "documented descendants of Missions San Juan Bautista and Santa Cruz", have become members of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band. In 2012, Amah Mutsun Tribal Chairman Valentin Lopez stated. Few can afford to live in their historic lands today," and many now make their homes in the Central Valley.
Ohlone tribes and villages in Santa Cruz Mountains