Juba is the capital and largest city of the Republic of South Sudan. The city is situated on the White Nile and serves as the capital of Jubek State. In the 19th century, a trading post and Christian mission, called Gondokoro, was located in the vicinity of Juba, it was the southernmost outpost of the Egyptian garrison, supported by a handful of soldiers ill due to the malaria and blackwater fever, dominant in the region. Gondokoro was the base of the explorers and campaigners Samuel and Florence Baker during their expeditions to what is now South Sudan and northern Uganda from 1863 to 1865, from 1871 to 1873; the present city of Juba was established on the site of a small Bari village, called Juba, where the Church Missionary Society had established a mission and the Nugent Memorial Intermediate School in 1920-21. In the late 1920s, Anglo-Egyptian officials ordered Bari residents to relocate to make way for a new town called "Juba," to serve as the capital of Mongalla Province; the site was chosen by Anglo-Egyptian officials, in part, because of the presence of the CMS Nugent Memorial Intermediate School there.
Major construction on Juba was underway by 1927. Traders from Rejaf relocated there in 1929, the Governor's office of Mongalla moved there in 1930. Greek merchants, who were supplying the British Army at the time, played an early and central role in the establishment of Juba in the early 1920s. Although their number never exceeded 2,000 inhabitants, together with a much larger number of the native Bari tribe with whom they had an excellent relationship, the Greeks contributed in what is today visible structures downtown Juba Market area as well as the Greek Quarters, a small suburb that today is called Hai Jalaba. Examples of the development by the Greeks are public buildings such as the beautiful stone buildings of Ivory Bank, Notos Lounge, the old Sudan Airways Building, Paradise Hotel, Nile Commercial Bank and Buffalo Commercial Bank, among others; the building of Central Bank was built at a stage in the mid'40s as well as the famous Juba Hotel in the mid'30s. Until 1956, Juba was in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, jointly administered by the United Kingdom and Egypt.
British hopes to join the southern part of Sudan with Uganda were dashed in 1947 by an agreement in Juba known as the Juba Conference, to unify northern and southern Sudan. In 1955, a mutiny of southern soldiers in Torit town sparked the First Sudanese Civil War, which did not end until 1972. During the Second Sudanese Civil War, Juba was a strategic location, the focus of much fighting. In 2005, Juba became the interim seat and the capital of the Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan, although the proposed interim capital before the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement was Rumbek. With the advent of peace, the United Nations increased its presence in Juba, whereas many Southern Sudan operations had until that time been managed from Kenya. Under the leadership of the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, the United Nations established a camp known as "OCHA Camp", which served as a base for many United Nations agencies and non-governmental organizations.
Juba became the world's newest national capital on 9 July 2011, when South Sudan formally declared its independence from the Republic of the Sudan. However, the South Sudanese government and others have expressed dissatisfaction with the city's suitability as a national capital, the government studied a proposal that would see a new planned city built as a replacement capital elsewhere, most Ramciel in Lakes. On 5 September 2011, the government announced the capital would indeed move some 250 km away from Juba to Ramciel, situated at the middle of South Sudan and about 60 km from Yirol West County of Lakes state; as of November 2018, the move has yet to occur. Juba is led by a city council headed by Mayor Stephen Wani Michael; this post-independence council was formed in March 2011 and Baballa appointed to lead it by Governor Clement Wani Konga. Former Yei County Commissioner David Lokonga Moses was appointed as deputy mayor. A ministerial committee to keep Juba clean and sanitary was created by gubernatorial decree at the same time.
Prior to March 2011, the area now administered by Juba City Council was divided into Juba and Muniki payams. It is now a standalone subdivision of Juba County; the city is a river port and the southern terminus of traffic along the Nile, properly called the Bahr al Jabal section of the White Nile. Before the civil war, Juba was a transport hub, with highways connecting it to Kenya and the Democratic Republic of the Congo; because of the war Juba can hardly be called a transport hub anymore. Roads and the river harbour are not in use due to disrepair; the United Nations and the South Sudanese government are repairing the roads, but full repair is expected to take many years. In 2003, the Swiss Foundation for Mine Action started to clear the roads leading from Juba to Uganda and Kenya, it was expected that these roads would be de-mined and rebuilt in the course of 2006–2008. The rebuilding of the roads, which are un-paved, takes a tremendous amount of effort and time because of the limited work season due to the lengthy rainy season, which lasts from March until October.
The roads are important for the peace process in Sudan as people need them to return to their homes and to regain what they feel is a normal life. The first road that has started to be rebuilt is the road to Uganda; this road is important, as many of the original inhabitants of Juba fled to Uganda during the war. As of 2009, there are three paved roads in Juba, one, re-surfaced in July. T
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, is the longest river in Africa and in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest. The Nile, about 6,650 km long, is an "international" river as its drainage basin covers eleven countries, Tanzania, Rwanda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, South Sudan, Republic of the Sudan and Egypt. In particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Sudan; the river Nile has the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself; the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa, with the most distant source still undetermined but located in either Rwanda or Burundi, it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria and South Sudan. The Blue Nile flows into Sudan from the southeast; the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt ends in a large delta and flows into the Mediterranean Sea.
Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, nearly all the cultural and historical sites of Ancient Egypt are found along river banks. In the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥ'pī or Iteru, meaning "river". In Coptic, the word ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, pronounced piaro or phiaro, means "the river", comes from the same ancient name. In Egyptian Arabic, the Nile is called en-Nīl while in Standard Arabic. In Biblical Hebrew: הַיְאוֹר, Ha-Ye'or or הַשִׁיחוֹר, Ha-Shiḥor; the English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος. Beyond that, the etymology is disputed. Hesiod at his Theogony refers that Nilus was one of son of Oceanus and Tethys. Another derivation of Nile might be related to the term Nil, which refers to Indigofera tinctoria, one of the original sources of indigo dye. Another possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning "river".
The standard English names "White Nile" and "Blue Nile", to refer to the river's source, derive from Arabic names applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. With a total length of about 6,650 km between the region of Lake Victoria and the Mediterranean Sea, the Nile is the longest river on the African continent; the drainage basin of the Nile covers about 10 % of the area of Africa. Compared to other major rivers, the Nile carries little water; the Nile basin is complex, because of this, the discharge at any given point along the mainstem depends on many factors including weather, diversions and evapotranspiration, groundwater flow. Above Khartoum, the Nile is known as the White Nile, a term used in a limited sense to describe the section between Lake No and Khartoum. At Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile; the White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia. Both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift; the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size.
The Kagera River, which flows into Lake Victoria near the Tanzanian town of Bukoba, is the longest feeder, although sources do not agree on, the longest tributary of the Kagera and hence the most distant source of the Nile itself. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, which flows from Nyungwe Forest in Rwanda; the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border. In 2010, an exploration party went to a place described as the source of the Rukarara tributary, by hacking a path up steep jungle-choked mountain slopes in the Nyungwe forest found an appreciable incoming surface flow for many kilometres upstream, found a new source, giving the Nile a length of 6,758 km. Gish Abay is the place where the "holy water" of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop; the Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Uganda, as the Victoria Nile. It flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga; the last part of the 200 kilometers river section starts from the western shores of the lake and flows at first to the west until just south of Masindi Port, where the river turns north makes a great half circle to the east and north until Karuma Falls.
For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta. The lake itself is on the border of DR Congo. After leaving Lake Albert, the river is known as the Albert Nile; the Nile river flows into South Sudan just south of Nimule. Just south of the town it has the confluence with the Achwa River; the Bahr al Ghazal, itself 716 kilometers (44
Greater Upper Nile
The Greater Upper Nile is a region of northeastern South Sudan. It is named for a tributary of the Nile River in North and East Africa; the region consisted of the erstwhile states of Jonglei and Upper Nile. It borders the Republic of the Sudan to the north; the South Sudanese region of Bahr el Ghazal lies to the west and the region of Equatoria lies to the South of Greater Upper Nile. The Greater Upper Nile region seceded from the Republic of Sudan on 9 July 2011 along with its fellow Southern Sudanese regions of Bahr el Ghazal and Equatoria; the three regions now constitute the Republic of South Sudan. Jonglei State Unity State Upper Nile State White Nile Media related to Greater Upper Nile at Wikimedia Commons
Equatoria is a region of southern South Sudan, along the upper reaches of the White Nile. A province of Egypt, it contained most of northern parts of present-day Uganda, including Lake Albert, it was an idealistic effort to create a model state in the interior of Africa that never consisted of more than a handful of adventurers and soldiers in isolated outposts. Equatoria was established by Samuel Baker in 1870. Charles George Gordon took over as governor in 1874, followed by Emin Pasha in 1878; the Mahdist Revolt put an end to Equatoria as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. British Governors included Martin Willoughby Parr. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro and Wadelai; the last two are in the part of Equatoria, now in Uganda. Under Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, most of Equatoria became one of the eight original provinces; the state of Bahr el Ghazal was split from Equatoria in 1948. In 1976, Equatoria was further split into the states of West Equatoria; the region has been troubled with violence during both the First and Second Sudanese Civil Wars, as well as the anti-Ugandan insurgencies based in Sudan, such as the Lord's Resistance Army and West Nile Bank Front.
The people of Equatoria are traditionally nomads belonging to numerous ethnic groups. They live in the counties of Budi, Juba, Kajo-keji, Magwi, Lainya, Terekeka, Torit and Yei. Equatoria is inhabited by the ethnolinguistic groups listed below; the following tribes occupy the three states of Greater Equatoria: Acholi, Baka, Bari, Kakwa, Kuku, Lokoya, Lopit, Lulubo, Makaraka, Mundari, Nyangbwara, Pari, Tenet and Azande Avukaya Mundu. Some of these tribes like Bari, Kuku, Kakwa and Nyangbwara share a common language, but their accents, some adjectives and nouns do vary. Other than Arabic and English, the following languages are spoken in Equatoria according to Ethnologue. Due to the many years of the civil war, the culture is influenced by the countries neighboring South Sudan. Many South Sudanese fled to Ethiopia, Uganda, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Central African Republic, where they interacted with the nationals and learnt their languages and culture. For most of those who remained in the country, or went North to Sudan and Egypt, they assimilated Arabic culture.
Most South Sudanese kept the core of their culture while in exile and diaspora. Traditional culture is upheld and a great focus is given to knowing one's origin and dialect. Although the common languages spoken are Arabi Juba and English, Kiswahili is being introduced to the population to improve the country's relations with its East African neighbors. Many music artists from Equatoria use English, Arabi Juba, their language or dialect or a mix of all. Popular artists sing Afro-beat, R&B, Zouk. Dynamiq is popular for his reggae. In the 19th century, Egypt had control of Sudan and established the Equatoria province to further control its interests over the Nile River. Equatoria was established by British explorer Sir Samuel Baker in 1870. Baker was sent by Egyptian authorities to establish trading posts along the White Nile and Gondokoro, a trading center located on the east bank of the White Nile in Southern Sudan. Gondokoro was an important center since it was located within a few kilometres from the cutoff point of navigability of the Nile from Khartoum.
It is presently located near the city of Juba in Equatoria. Baker's attempt to create additional trading posts and control Equatoria was unsuccessful because villages surrounding Gondokoro were bypassed by Arab invaders who wanted to impose their culture and way of life on the people. King Gbudwe who ruled Western part of Equatoria at the time as Azande local ruler despised the Arab culture and way of life and encouraged the tribes to resist the invaders and protect their African culture and their way of life; the invaders were met with such stiff resistance from Equatorian tribes such as the Azande, Lokoya and Pari. At the end of Baker's service as governor, British general Charles George Gordon was appointed governor of Sudan. Gordon took over in 1874 and administered the region until 1876, he was more successful in creating additional trading posts in the area. In 1876, Gordon's views clashed with those of the Egyptian governor of Khartoum forcing him to go back to London. In 1878 Gordon was succeeded by the Chief Medical Officer of the Equatoria province, Mehemet Emin, popularly known as Emin Pasha.
Emin made his headquarters at Lado. Emin Pasha had little influence over the area because the Khartoum governor was uninterested in his development proposals for the Equatoria region. In 1881, Muhammad Ahmad Abdullah, a Muslim religious leader, proclaimed himself the Mahdi and began a holy war to unify the tribes of Western and Central Sudan, including Equatoria. By 1883 the Mahdists had cut off outside communications. However, Emin Pasha managed to request assistance from Britain via Buganda; the British sent a relief expedition, called the "Advance," in February 1887 to rescue Emin. The Advance navigated up the Congo River and through the Ituri Forest, one of the most difficult forest routes in Africa, resulting in the loss of two-thirds of the expedition's personnel. While the Advance succeeded in reaching Emin Pasha by February of the following year, the Mahdists had overrun the bulk of the province, Emin had been deposed as governor by his officers in August 1887; the Advance reached the coast, with Emin, by the end of
Malakal is a city in South Sudan and second largest city after the national capital Juba. Malakal is the capital of South Sudan, it serves as the headquarters of Malakal County. The city of Malakal is located in Malakal County, Eastern Nile State, in the northeast of South Sudan, close to the International borders with the Republic of Sudan and with Ethiopia; the town is located on the banks of the White Nile, just north of its confluence with the Sobat River. This location lies 650 kilometres, by road, directly north of Juba, the capital of South Sudan and the largest city in that county. During the Second Sudanese Civil War, the town was a garrison town of the Khartoum-based Sudanese Armed Forces. Following South Sudan's independence on 9 July 2011, the troops from the Republic of Sudan have retreated from Malakal. Malakal was the site of the November 2006 Battle of Malakal. Beginning in 2013, Malakal has been the site of numerous battles between government SPLA forces and the Nuer White Army, loosely commanded by the SPLM-IO, headed by Riek Machar.
The city has been overrun on various occasions by both sides. As of October 2015, Malakal had exchanged hands twelve times during the civil war, was utterly destroyed in the process, its cathedral is the episcopal. Malakal has a hot semi-arid climate. A major road linking Malakal with the town of Kurmuk at the border with Ethiopia is under repairs and renovations to asphalt surface; the road is expected to be ready for commissioning by May 2013. The city of Malakal is served by Malakal International Airport, one of the two International airports in South Sudan, the other being Juba International Airport. Water traffic on the White Nile River can travel as far north as Khartoum in the Republic of Sudan, as far south as Adok in Lakes State. Malakal has limited newspapers circulated in hardcopy form. However, the Juba-based'Citizen' is read around the town. In the eve of Independence day on July 9, 2011, The Upper Nile Times online newspaper was launched; the website for this online digital newspaper is no longer active, with the domain name being available for purchase.
As of 2005 the population of Malakal was estimated at about 129,620. The 2008 Sudanese census, boycotted by the South Sudanese government, recorded a population of about 126,500. However, those results are disputed by the authorities in Juba. In 2010, it was estimated that the population of Malakal had grown to about 139,450. Below is a table depicting the estimated population of the city from 1983 until 2010 from all sources: The following points of interest are found in or near the town of Malakal: The offices of Malakal City Council The headquarters of Malakal County Administration The headquarters of Upper Nile State Government Malakal International Airport - A civilian and military airport The White Nile River - Malakal lies on the eastern bank and the town of Kwogo lies on the western bank, across from Malakal Malakal Stadium - A public outdoor sports complex Upper Nile University - A public university, founded in 2007 Malakal Port - Located on the White Nile Upper Nile Primary School A branch of Nile Commercial Bank A branch of Ivory Bank A branch of Equity Bank Malakal Vocational Training Center - A vocational school Malakal Airport Upper Nile Greater Upper Nile List of cities in South Sudan Location of Malkal At Google Maps Malakal Vocational Training Centre.
The Gateway to the Shilluk People of Malakal
South Sudan known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa. The country gained its independence from the Republic of the Sudan in 2011, making it the newest country with widespread recognition, its capital and largest city is Juba. South Sudan is bordered by Sudan to the north, Ethiopia to the east, Kenya to the southeast, Uganda to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southwest and the Central African Republic to the west, it includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile and known locally as the Bahr al Jabal, meaning "Mountain Sea". Sudan was occupied by Egypt under the Muhammad Ali dynasty and was governed as an Anglo-Egyptian condominium until Sudanese independence in 1956. Following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon broke out; that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed.
South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following 98.83% support for independence in a January 2011 referendum. South Sudan has a population of 12 million of the Nilotic peoples. Christianity is the majority religion. In September 2017 the UN Special Representative for Children and Armed Conflict said that half of South Sudan's inhabitants are under 18 years old, it is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the East African Community and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions. South Sudan has suffered ethnic violence and has been in a civil war since 2013; as of 2018, South Sudan ranks third lowest in the latest UN World Happiness Report, has the highest score on the American Fund for Peace's Fragile States Index. The Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Bari, Nuer, Shilluk and others—first entered South Sudan sometime before the 10th century coinciding with the fall of medieval nubia. During the period from the 15th to the 19th centuries, tribal migrations from the area of Bahr el Ghazal, brought the Anyuak, Dinka and Shilluk to their modern locations of both Bahr El Ghazal and Upper Nile Regions, while the Acholi and Bari settled in Equatoria.
The Azande, Mundu and Baka, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century, established the region's largest state of Equatoria Region. The Dinka are the largest, Nuer the second largest, the Azande the third-largest and the Bari are the fourth-largest ethnic group in the country, they are found in the Maridi and Tombura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria, the Adio of Azande client in Yei, Central Equatoria and Western Bahr el Ghazal. In the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande society and this domination continued into the 20th century. Geographical barriers, including the swamplands along the White Nile and the British preference for sending Christian missionaries to the southern regions, including its Closed District Ordinance of 1922, helped to prevent the spread of Islam to the southerners, thus enabling them to retain their social and cultural heritage, as well as their political and religious institutions; the major reasons include the long history of British policy preference toward developing the Arab north and its ignoring the Black south.
After Sudan's first independent elections in 1958, the continued ignoring of the south by Khartoum led to uprisings and the longest civil war on the continent. As of 2012, peoples include Acholi, Azande, Balanda Bviri, Boya, Dinka, Kaligi, Lotuka, Murie, Nuer, Shilluk and Zande. Slavery had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history; the slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century, continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Annual Sudanese slave raids into non-Muslim territories resulted in the capture of countless thousands of southern Sudanese, the destruction of the region's stability and economy; the Azande have had good relations with the neighbors, namely the Moru, Mundu, Pöjulu, Avukaya and the small groups in Bahr el Ghazal, due to the expansionist policy of their king Gbudwe, in the 18th century. In the 19th century, the Azande fought the French, the Belgians and the Mahdists to maintain their independence. Egypt, under the rule of Khedive Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria in the southern portion.
Egypt's first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon in 1874 and by Emin Pasha in 1878. The Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro and Wadelai. European colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident occurred at present-day Kodok. In 1947, British hopes to join South Sudan with Uganda, as well as leaving Western Equatoria as part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, were dashed by the Rajaf Conference to unify North and South Sudan. South Sudan has an estimated population of 8 million, given the lack of a census in several decades, this estimate may be distorted; the economy relies chiefly on subsistence farming. Around 2005, the economy began a transition from this rural dominance, urban areas within South Suda