Batting average (cricket)
In cricket, a player's batting average is the total number of runs they have scored divided by the number of times they have been out. Since the number of runs a player scores and how they get out are measures of their own playing ability, independent of their teammates, batting average is a good metric for an individual player's skill as a batter; the number is simple to interpret intuitively. If all the batter's innings were completed, this is the average number of runs they score per innings. If they did not complete all their innings, this number is an estimate of the unknown average number of runs they score per innings; each player has several batting averages, with a different figure calculated for each type of match they play, a player's batting averages may be calculated for individual seasons or series, or at particular grounds, or against particular opponents, or across their whole career. Batting average has been used to gauge cricket players' relative skills since the 18th century.
Most players have career batting averages in the range of 20 to 40. This is the desirable range for wicket-keepers, though some fall short and make up for it with keeping skill; until a substantial increase in scores in the 21st century due to improved bats and smaller grounds among other factors, players who sustained an average above 50 through a career were considered exceptional, before the development of the heavy roller in the 1870s an average of 25 was considered good. All-rounders who are more prominent bowlers than batsmen average something between 20 and 30. 15 and under is typical for specialist bowlers. A small number of players have averaged less than 5 for a complete career, though a player with such an average is a liability unless an exceptional bowler as Alf Valentine, B. S. Chandrasekhar or Glenn McGrath were. Career records for batting average are subject to a minimum qualification of 20 innings played or completed, in order to exclude batsmen who have not played enough games for their skill to be reliably assessed.
Under this qualification, the highest Test batting average belongs to Australia's Sir Donald Bradman, with 99.94. Given that a career batting average over 50 is exceptional, that only five other players have averages over 60, this is an outstanding statistic; the fact that Bradman's average is so far above that of any other cricketer has led several statisticians to argue that, statistically at least, he was the greatest athlete in any sport. Disregarding this 20 innings qualification, the highest career test batting average is 112, by Andy Ganteaume, a Trinidadian Keeper-batsman, dismissed for 112 in his only test innings. Batting averages in One Day International cricket tend to be lower than in Test cricket, because of the need to score runs more and take riskier strokes and the lesser emphasis on building a large innings, it should be remembered in relation to the ODI histogram above, that there were no ODI competitions when Bradman played. If a batter has been dismissed in every single innings this statistic gives the average number of runs they score per innings.
However, for a batter with innings which finished not out, the true average number of runs they score per innings is unknown as it is not known how many runs they would have scored if they could have completed all their not out innings. This statistic is an estimate of the average number of runs. If their scores have a geometric distribution this statistic is the maximum likelihood estimate of their true unknown average. Batting averages can be affected by the number of not outs. For example, Phil Tufnell, noted for his poor batting, has an respectable ODI average of 15, despite a highest score of only 5 not out, as he scored an overall total of 15 runs from 10 innings, but was out only once. A batter who has not been dismissed in any of the innings over which their average is being calculated does not have a batting average, as dividing by zero does not give a result. Highest career batting averages in Test matches. Table shows players with at least 20 innings completed. * denotes not out. Last updated: 14 October 2018.
Highest career batting averages in First-class cricket as follows: Source: Cricinfo Statsguru. Table shows players with at least 50 innings batted, note this table has no requirement for minimum number of runs scored. * denotes not out. Last updated: 10 November 2018. Alternative measures of batting effectiveness have been developed, including: Strike rate measures a different concept to batting average – how the batter scores – so it does not supplant the role of batting average, it is used in limited overs matches, where the speed at which a batter scores is more important than it is in first-class cricket. A system of player rankings was developed to produce a better indication of players' current standings than is provided by comparing their averages. Cricket statistics Batting average Bowling average
Mumbai cricket team
The Mumbai cricket team is a cricket team representing the city of Mumbai in Indian domestic cricket. The team's primary home ground is the Wankhede Stadium in South Mumbai. Secondary home venues include the MCA ground in Bandra Kurla Brabourne Stadium; the team comes under the West Zone designation. It was known as the Bombay cricket team, but changed when the city was renamed from Bombay to Mumbai. Mumbai is the most successful team in the history of Ranji Trophy, India's premier domestic cricket competition, with 41 titles, the most recent being in 2015–16, it has 14 Irani Cup titles to its name the most by any team. Mumbai has produced some of the greatest Indian cricketers of all time such as Sachin Tendulkar, Sunil Gavaskar, Vijay Merchant, Polly Umrigar, Rohit Sharma, Ajinkya Rahane, Dilip Vengsarkar. Mumbai is one of three teams located in the state of Maharashtra, has always competed as a separate team from the rest of the state. Despite this division, Mumbai has become India's most successful domestic team.
It has played in 44 of the 67 Ranji finals through 2014 winning 40. Bombay won the first-ever Ranji Trophy competition in 1934–35 with Vijay Merchant starring in the final against Northern India; the title was retained the following season with a victory over Madras in the final. Bombay showed themselves to be one of the strongest teams in the competition with 7 victories in the first 20 seasons of the Ranji Trophy; when playing Maharashtra in a semi-final of the 1948–49 season at Pune, Mumbai became the first and only team in first-class history to score over 600 runs in both innings of the same match – 651 and 714. However, it was after this period. From 1955–56 to 1976–77, Bombay won 20 out of 22 titles including 15 in a row from 1958–59 to 1972–73. Bombay continued to reach the Ranji Trophy final up to the mid-1980s; the half of the 1980s was Bombay's least successful period with no final appearances in 5 consecutive seasons. However, they were able to regain some of their former glory from the 1990s onwards winning an additional 6 Ranji Trophies from 1993–94 to 2003–04 under the new name of Mumbai.
In 2006–07, Mumbai won their 37th Ranji Trophy with victory over Bengal in the final at Wankhede Stadium. This win was memorable as the team had recovered from the setbacks of losing their first three games, being reduced to 0/5 in the semi-final against Baroda. Mumbai's dominance of the Ranji Trophy has led to many consecutive appearances in the Irani Trophy with much success including 15 wins. However, they have failed to beat the Rest of India team since 1998. Ranji Trophy – 1934/35, 1935/36, 1941/42, 1944/45, 1948/49, 1951/52, 1953/54, 1955/56, 1956/57, 1958/59, 1959/60, 1960/61, 1961/62, 1962/63, 1963/64, 1964/65, 1965/66, 1966/67, 1967/68, 1968/69, 1969/70, 1970/71, 1971/72, 1972/73, 1974/75, 1975/76, 1976/77, 1980/81, 1983/84, 1984/85, 1993/94, 1994/95, 1996/97, 1999/00, 2002/03, 2003/04, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2009/10, 2012/13, 2015/16. Irani Cup – 1959/60, 1962/63, 1963/64, 1967/68, 1969/70, 1970/71, 1972/73, 1975/76, 1976/77, 1981/82, 1985/86, 1994/95, 1995/96, 1997/98; the team is known for its batting and spin bowling and has produced many of the Indian cricket team's top batsmen over the years.
Players who have appeared in the national team include: Players with international caps are listed in bold. Coach- Vinayak Samant Team manager – Ganesh Iyer Video analyst – TBD Trainer – Yogesh Kanchgar Assistant coach – Amit Dani Physio – Deep Tomar Masseur – Sunil Rajguru Selectors - Ajit Agarkar Nilesh Kulkarni Jatin Paranjape Sunil More The Mumbai cricket Association or MCA is the governing body for cricket in Mumbai and its surrounding regions like Thane and Navi Mumbai; the association comes under west zone. The Association was established in 1930 and it has a Constitution. Sharad Pawar was re-elected as the president of Mumbai Cricket Association after defeating Vijay Patil by a margin of 27 votes at the biennial elections held in Mumbai; the Mumbai cricket team is the team for the Mumbai cricket association in the Ranji Trophy. The team has won over 41 titles, the most recent being in 2015–16, it has come runner-up in the final of the Ranji Trophy a total of 4 times. The association owns the Wankhede Stadium, near Churchgate railway station built in 1975.
The office of the association is located in the same building. To promote democratic values and to bring in new ideas and enthusiasm, the constitution provides that no individual can continue in any post for more than eight years consecutively. After completing 8 years in a position he/she can occupy the same post after a gap of 4 years; the Mumbai Cricket Association does not have a system of individual membership. Rather it has 25 Associate members which are affiliated to the Association. Only ordinary members are eligible to vote during elections. If any ordinary member is found to be inactive in terms of cricket activity for more than 3 years the Club to which he/she belongs is demoted as an Associate member and if the club is still inactive for 3 years it automatically loses its membership
Bangalore known as Bengaluru, is the capital city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of over ten million, making it a megacity and the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India, it is located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau at an elevation of over 900 m above sea level, the highest among India's major cities. It reflects its multireligious and cosmopolitan character by its more than 1000 temples, 400 mosques, 100 churches, 40 Jain derasars, three Sikh gurdwaras, two Buddhist viharas and one Parsi fire temple located in an area of 741 km² of the metropolis; the religious places are further represented to include the few members of the Jewish community who are making their presence known through the Chabad that they propose to establish in Bengaluru and the large number of Bahá'ís whose presence is registered with a society called the Bahá'í Centre. In 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudal ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru and its oldest areas Or Petes which exist to the present day.
After the fall of Vijayanagar empire in 16th Century, the Mughals sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar, the ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore for three lakh rupees. When Haider Ali seized control of the Kingdom of Mysore, the administration of Bangalore passed into his hands, it was captured by the British East India Company after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War, who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, a town grew up around it, governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956; the two urban settlements of Bangalore – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949.
The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bengaluru is sometimes referred to as the "Silicon Valley of India" because of its role as the nation's leading information technology exporter. Indian technological organisations ISRO, Wipro and HAL are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is the second fastest-growing major metropolis in India. Bengaluru has one of the most educated workforces in the world, it is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science, Indian Institute of Management, International Institute of Information Technology, National Institute of Fashion Technology, National Institute of Design, National Law School of India University and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences. Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located in the city.
The city houses the Kannada film industry. The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name and its original name, "Bengalūru" ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು, it is the name of a village near Kodigehalli in Bangalore city today and was used by Kempegowda to christen the city as Bangalore at the time of its foundation. The earliest reference to the name "Bengalūru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu". In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengalūrū" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE, it states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada. An apocryphal story recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman; the grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru", which evolved into "Bengalūru". Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium, a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.
On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengalūru. On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change; the government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, it was decided to implement the name change from 1 November 2006. The Union government approved this request, along with name changes for 11 other Karnataka cities, in October 2014, hence Bangalore was renamed to "Bengaluru" on 1 November 2014. A discovery of Stone Age artefacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE. Around 1,000 BCE, burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and H
A delivery or ball in cricket is a single action of bowling a cricket ball toward the batsman. During play of the game, a member of the fielding team is designated as the bowler, bowls deliveries toward the batsman. Six legal balls in a row constitutes an over, after which a different member of the fielding side takes over the role of bowler for the next over; the bowler delivers the ball from his or her end of the pitch toward the batsman standing at the opposite wicket at the other end of the pitch. Bowlers can be either right-handed; this approach to their delivery, in addition to their decision of bowling around the wicket or over the wicket, is knowledge of which the umpire and the batsman are to be made aware. Deliveries can be made by spin bowlers. Fast bowlers tend to make the ball either move off the pitch or move through the air, while spinners make the ball "turn" either toward a right-handed batsman or away from him; the ball can bounce at different distances from the batsman, this is called the length of the delivery.
It can range from a bouncer to a yorker. There are many different types of delivery; these deliveries vary by: technique, the hand the bowler bowls with, use of the fingers, use of the seam, how the ball is positioned in the hand, where the ball is pitched on the wicket, the speed of the ball, the tactical intent of the bowler. Leg spin deliveries and mirror equivalents for left arm unorthodox spin: Leg break Googly Topspinner Flipper Slider Flicker ball Off spin deliveries and mirror equivalents for left arm orthodox spin: Off break Doosra Arm ball Topspinner Carrom ball Teesra Fast bowling deliveries: Bouncer Inswinger Reverse swing Leg cutter Off cutter Outswinger Yorker Beamer Knuckleball Slower ball The variations in different types of delivery, as well as variations caused by directing the ball with differing line and length, are key weapons in a bowler's arsenal. Throughout an over, the bowler will choose a sequence of deliveries designed to attack the batsman's concentration and technique, in an effort to get him out.
The bowler varies the amount of loop and pace imparted to various deliveries to try to cause the batsman to misjudge and make a mistake. As the crease has a width, the bowler can change the angle from which he delivers to the batsman in an attempt to induce a misjudgement; the bowler decides what type of delivery to bowl next, without consultation or informing any other member of his team. Sometimes, the team captain will offer advice or issue a direct order regarding what deliveries to bowl, based on his observations of the batsman and the strategic state of the game. Another player who offers advice to the bowler is the wicket-keeper, since he has a unique view of the batsman and may be able to spot weaknesses of technique. Another piece of information important for the bowlers to consider prior to their deliveries is the state of pitch; the pitch is a natural ground and its state is subjected to variation over the course of the cricket, some of which are multi-day events such as test matches.
Spinners find an old pitch, one, used, more suitable to their deliveries rather than a fresh pitch, one that hasn't come under use as much such as a pitch at the start of the match. While a bowler, with the use of variations in his/her delivery aims to target the concentration of batsmen as well as their skill and technique of batting, anticipation of the delivery is crucial for the batsman, as emphasised by Jodi Richardson. Richardson reveals the world class batsman's dilemma while facing fast bowlers, stating that the time between the batsmen's anticipation of the trajectory of the ball and positioning themselves for the appropriate shot can be twice as long as the interval between the ball leaving the bowler's hand and reaching the batsman's crease. Side by side, Richardson alludes to the research undertaken by Dr. Sean Müller in Australia, funded by Cricket Australia's Centre of Excellence; the results of the research demonstrated the importance of anticipation of the delivery for batsmen in cricket.
They revealed that experienced batsmen possessed a unique ability which enabled them to adjust their feet as well as their positioning on the crease accordingly based upon their reading of the body language and movements enacted by the bowler prior to the release of the ball. This foresight that batsmen use while on the crease is referred to as'advance information' by Richardson. Moreover, Müller's research outlined that the presence of this'advance information' was not as evident among the lesser skilled batsmen in comparison to the experienced ones. Underarm or lob bowling was the original cricket delivery style,but had died out before the 20th century, although it was used until 1910 by George Simpson-Hayward, remained a legal delivery type. On 1 February 1981, when Australia was playing New Zealand in a One Day International cricket match, New Zealand needed six runs to tie the match from the final ball. Greg Chappell, the Australian captain, ordered the bowler to bowl underarm, rolling the ball along the ground to prevent the Number 10 New Zealand batsman any chance of hitting a six from the last ball to tie the match.
After the game, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, Rob Muldoon, described it as "the most disgusting incident I can recall in the history of cricket." At the time, underarm deliveries were legal, but as a direct result of the incident, underarm bowling was banned in limi
2015–16 Ranji Trophy
The 2015–16 Ranji Trophy was the 82nd season of the Ranji Trophy, the premier first-class cricket tournament in India. It was contested by 27 teams divided into three groups of nine teams each; the top three teams from Groups A and B advanced to the quarterfinals along with the top two teams from Group C. For this season the schedule splits into two stages, the first is a league stage and the second being a knock-out stage; the league stage starts on 1 October 2015 and ends on 4 December 2015 and the knock-out stage starts on 3 February 2016 and ends on 28 February 2016. The 2015–16 Ranji Trophy will be followed by the Vijay Hazare Trophy, Syed Mushtaq Ali Trophy and Deodhar Trophy; the final was contested by a repeat of the 2012 -- 13 final. Mumbai won the match by 21 runs to claim their 41st title; the groups drawn are as follows Zone-wise participation: Points table Points table Points table 1st Quarter-final 2nd Quarter-final 3rd Quarter-final 4th Quarter-final 1st Semi-final 2nd Semi-final Series home at ESPNCricinfo Series home at Bcci.tv
The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between teams representing regional and state cricket associations. The competition consists of 37 teams, with all 29 states in India and two of the seven union territories having at least one representation; the competition is named after first Indian cricketer who played international cricket, known as'Ranji'. The current Ranji Trophy championship is held by Vidarbha, which won against Saurashtra by 78 runs in the final match of the 2018–19 season held at Vidarbha Cricket Association Stadium, Nagpur; the competition was launched in following a meeting in July 1934, with the first fixtures taking place in 1934–35. The trophy was donated by Ranji; the first match of the competition was held on 4 November 1934 between Madras and Mysore at the Chepauk ground in Madras in the final. Mumbai have won the tournament the most number of times with 41 wins including 15 back-to-back wins from 1958–59 to 1972–73. State teams and cricket associations and clubs with first-class status are qualified to play in the Ranji Trophy.
While most associations are regional, like the Karnataka State Cricket Association and Mumbai Cricket Association, two and Services, are pan-Indian The following 37 teams participate in the Ranji Trophy: † denotes newly added teams for the 2018–19 season The following teams have appeared in the Ranji Trophy, but no longer do so: Central Provinces and Berar Northern India Sind Southern Punjab Western India North West Frontier Province Holkar Gwalior Kathiawar Patiala/Patiala and Eastern Punjab States Union Eastern Punjab Travancore-Cochin Madhya Bharat Northern Punjab From its inception until the 2001 season, the teams were grouped geographically into four or five zones – North, West and South, with Central added in 1952–53. Initial matches were played within the zones on a knock-out basis until 1956–57, thereafter on a league basis, to determine a winner. From the 1970–71 season, the knock-out stage was expanded to the top two teams from each zone, a total of ten qualifying teams; this was expanded again to the top three from each zone in 1992–93, a total of fifteen qualifying teams.
The format was changed in the 2002–03 season with the zonal system abandoned and a two-division structure adopted – the Elite Group, containing fifteen teams, the Plate Group, containing the rest. Each group had two sub-groups; the team which finished last in each Elite sub-group was relegated, both Plate Group finalists were promoted for the following season. For the 2006–07 season, the divisions were re-labelled the Super League and Plate League respectively. In the 2008–09 season, this format was adjusted to give both Super League and Plate League teams an opportunity to contest the Ranji Trophy; the top two from each Plate sub-group contested semi-finals. The winner of this knock-out tournament won the Ranji Trophy. Promotion and relegation between Super League and Plate League continued as before. In the 2010–11 season, Rajasthan won the Ranji Trophy after beginning the season in the Plate League. From the 2012–13 season, this format was adjusted slightly; the Super League and Plate League names were abandoned.
The top tier expanded from fifteen teams in two sub-groups of nine. The top three teams from Groups A and B and the top two from Group C contest the knockout phase; the lowest placed team in each of Group A and Group B is relegated to Group C, the top two from Group C are promoted to the top tier. For the 2017-18 season, the two-tier system was abandoned to have 4 groups of seven teams each and two quarter-finalists from each group. From the 2018-19 season, the teams contested in three-tiers. Five teams will qualify for the quarter-finals from the top tier. Two teams will qualify from One team from the lower-tier for the quarter-finals. Round-robin matches are four days in length. Throughout its history, if there is no outright result in a Ranji Trophy knock-out match, the team leading after the first innings is the winner. Prior to the 2016–17 season matches were played at the home ground of one of the two teams taking part. For the 2016 -- 17 competition the BCCI decided. Points in the league stages of both divisions are awarded as follows: † Some sources credit Goel with 636 or 640 wickets instead – see Rajinder Goel article for details.
The following teams have won the tournament: Mumbai/Bombay have played in 46 of the 83 finals till 2
Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket with the longest duration, is considered the game's highest standard. Test matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined and conferred by the International Cricket Council; the term Test stems from the fact of the form's long, gruelling matches being both mentally and physically testing. Two teams of 11 players each play a four-innings match, it is considered the most complete examination of a team's endurance and ability. The first recognised Test match took place between 15 and 19 March 1877 and was played between England and Australia at the Melbourne Cricket Ground, where Australia won by 45 runs. A Test match to celebrate 100 years of Test cricket was held in Melbourne between 12 and 17 March 1977, in which Australia beat England by 45 runs—the same margin as that first Test. In October 2012, the ICC recast the playing conditions for Test matches, permitting day/night Test matches; the first day/night game took place between Australia and New Zealand at the Adelaide Oval, Adelaide, on 27 November – 1 December 2015.
Women's Test cricket is played over four days, with slight differences in format from men's Tests. Test matches are the highest level of cricket, statistically, their data form part of first-class cricket. Matches are played between national representative teams with "Test status", as determined by the International Cricket Council; as of June 2017, twelve national teams have Test status, the most promoted being Afghanistan and Ireland on 22 June 2017. Zimbabwe's Test status was voluntarily suspended, because of poor performances between 2006 and 2011. In January 2014, during an ICC meeting in Dubai, the pathway for new potential Test nations was laid out with the winners of the next round of the ICC Intercontinental Cup playing a 5-day match against the bottom ranked Test nation. If the Associate team defeats the Test nation they could be added as the new Test country and granted full membership. A list of matches, defined as "Tests", was first drawn up by Australian Clarence Moody in the mid-1890s.
Representative matches played by simultaneous England touring sides of 1891–92 and 1929–30 are deemed to have "Test status". In 1970, a series of five "Test matches" was played in England between England and a Rest of the World XI; these matches scheduled between England and South Africa, were amended after South Africa was suspended from international cricket because of their government's policy of apartheid. Although given Test status, this was withdrawn and a principle was established that official Test matches can only be between nations. Despite this, in 2005, the ICC ruled that the six-day Super Series match that took place in October 2005, between Australia and a World XI, was an official Test match; some cricket writers and statisticians, including Bill Frindall, ignored the ICC's ruling and excluded the 2005 match from their records. The series of "Test matches" played in Australia between Australia and a World XI in 1971–72 do not have Test status; the commercial "Supertests" organised by Kerry Packer as part of his World Series Cricket enterprise and played between "WSC Australia", "WSC World XI" and "WSC West Indies" from 1977 to 1979 have never been regarded as official Test matches.
There are twelve Test-playing men's teams. The teams all represent individual, independent nations, except for England, the West Indies and Ireland. Test status is conferred upon a group of countries by the International Cricket Council. Teams that do not have Test status can play in the ICC Intercontinental Cup designed to allow non-Test teams to play under conditions similar to Tests; the teams are listed below with the date of each team's Test debut: England Australia South Africa West Indies New Zealand India Pakistan Sri Lanka Zimbabwe Bangladesh Ireland Afghanistan In the mid 2010s, the ICC evaluated proposals for dividing Test cricket into two tiers, with promotion and relegation between Tier-1 and Tier-2. These proposals were opposed by others; these proposals were not implemented. A standard day of Test cricket consists of three sessions of two hours each, the breaks between sessions being 40 minutes for lunch and 20 minutes for tea; however the times of sessions and intervals may be altered in certain circumstances: if bad weather or a change of innings occurs close to a scheduled break, the break may be taken immediately.
Today, Test matches are scheduled to be played across five consecutive days