Moradabad is a city, a municipal corporation in Moradabad district of Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. It was established in AD 1625 by Rustam Khan and is named after prince Murad Baksh, the youngest son of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and Empress Mumtaz Mahal. Moradabad is situated on the banks of the Ramganga river, at a distance of 167 km from the national capital, New Delhi and 344 km north-west of the state capital Lucknow; the city is known as Pital Nagri for its famous brass handicrafts industry. It is the divisional headquarters of Northern Railway. Moradabad was established as an office for the Chaupala pargana during emperor Akbar's regime. In AD 1624 it was captured by Rustam Khan, the Governor of Sambhal who named it Rustam Nagar. In AD 1625 its named was changed to Moradabad, after the name of prince Murad Baksh, the son of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan. A mosque named. Moradabad is situated on the banks of the Ramganga river, that originates from the Doodhatoli ranges and is a part of the Namik Glacier, originating from the high altitude zone of 800 m to 900 m.
The Ramganga flows to the south west from the Kumaun Himalaya. It is a tributary of the Ganga, it flows by the Corbett National Park near Ramnagar of Nainital district, from where it descends upon the Gangetic plain. The Ramganga Dam has been built on the Ramganga river at Kalagarh for irrigation and electricity generation. Moradabad has a history of flash floods occurring due to the over-flooding of Ramganga river. During summers the temperature is from 43 °C to 30 °C and during winters it is from 25 °C to 5 °C. According to the 2011 census Moradabad city has a population of 887,871; the population of Moradabad district was 4,772,006 equal to the nation of Singapore or the US state of Alabama. It is the second most populated district in the state of Uttar Pradesh; this gives it a ranking of 26th in India. The district has a population density of 1,284 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 25.25%. In 2011 a new district named Sambhal district was formed with two sub districts of Moradabad district.
The rest of Moradabad district has a population of 3,126,507. The Muslim population in the rest of Moradabad district is 1,588,297. Moradabad has a sex ratio of 903 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 58.67%. Schools in Moradabad, whether using English or Hindi as a medium of instruction, are affiliated to one of the four bodies, Central Board of Secondary Education, Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations, University of Cambridge International Examinations and Uttar Pradesh Madhyamik Shiksha Parishad. Mayfair College Moradabad Moradabad Institute of Technology Teerthanker Mahaveer University IFTM University Hindu College Wilsonia Degree College Dr. Bhim Rao Ambedkar Police Academy, Moradabad is situated in the heart of Uttar Pradesh. Indian Police Services Officer and State Police Service officers of UP cadre and Uttrakhand Cadre are trained here before appointment; the Police Training College was earlier known as Police Training School, established in Allahabad in 1878 under an Assistant Superintendent of Police.
It was shifted to Moradabad in 1901. The academy has two other police colleges under its administration: Police Training College and Police Training School; the former is used to train police officers of the rank of inspector and sub-inspector, the latter is used to train head constables and constables. Beside above Inspector-General of Police, western zone, Provincial Armed Constabulary sits in Moradabad. Moradabad has Battalion headquarters of 9/23/24 Bn. of U. P. Provincial Armed Constabulary have their offices here. Moradabad is the largest police establishment of U. P. Police after Lucknow. Moradabad is a major industrial export hub, its handicrafts industry accounts for more than 40% of total handicraft exports from India. In 2006-2007, Moradabad's export turnover was ₹32 billion. In 2012-2013 it increased to ₹40 billion. In October 2014, Livemint included Moradabad in its list of "25 Emerging Cities To Watch Out For In 2025". Moradabad's brass industry that employs tens of thousands of workers has been impacted by ongoing wars in Libya and Syria.
Moradabad is popularly known as the Brass City of the country. Countries like Britain, the US, Middle East Asia and Canada import brassware from Moradabad. In Moradabad there are 9000 industries in the district. Moradabad exports goods worth Rs. 4500 crore yearly. Many other products for example, iron sheet, metal wares, aluminum and glassware are exported as per the need of foreign buyers. Export of mint is done in several crores from Moradabad; these products are quite famous in overseas market and are being exported in thousands of crores yearly. Due to upsurge of exports and popularity in foreign in America, Europe and other countries, a large No. of exporters are launching their units and started their export. Out of the seven industrial corridors declared by the State Government in Industrial Policy 1999-2002, Moradabad is one of them. Moradabad Special Economic Zone the only Uttar Pradesh Government Developed SEZ in northern India, headed by the Development Commissioner, Noida SEZ and locally governed by the Asststant Development Commissioner, was set up in 2003 at Pakbara – Dingarpur Road in Moradabad on a 421.565 acre plot of land.
Government of UP through UPSIDC being developers to this SEZ project has so far invested a sum of ₹1100 million on its development. Moradabad SEZ provides exc
The Dhauliganga is one of the six source streams of the Ganges river. It meets the Alaknanda River at Vishnuprayag at the base of Joshimath mountain in Uttarakhand; the 82 km -long Dhauliganga rises at an altitude of 5,070 m in the Niti Pass in Chamoli District of Uttarakhand. At Raini, 25 km from Joshimath, it is joined by the Rishi Ganga river; the Dhauliganga ends at Vishnuprayag. Tapovan, known for its hot sulfur springs, is situated on the banks of the river
Chaukhutia is a town in Almora district of Uttarakhand. It is located on the bank of the river Ramganga, derives its name from a Kumaoni word "Chau-khut" which means four feet. In Chaukhutia's context, ` four feet' means four directions; the first way is towards Ramnagar, second towards Karanprayag, third towards Ranikhet and Almora and the fourth way is towards Tadagtaal, Kheera. A group of small temples dating back to 9th century AD were found in Chaukhutia, during an excavation in 2016-17; the temples, according to traditions of the architecture, were constructed around 9000 years ago. Some of the temples didn't have roofs; these temples were considered to be a part of a large group of temples that were buried by debris of landslide long back. Kali Temple, known locally as Agneri Devi Temple, is dedicated to the Hindu Goddess Kali, is situated around 0.5 kilometers from Chaukhutia, on Jaurasi road, near Dhudalia village on the bank of Ramganga River. Every year Ashtami Mela is organised at the temple.
Thousands of people witness animal sacrifices, including buffaloes and goats, in Navratris in the month of March–April. Lakhanpur temple is 6 km from Chaukhutia in Jaurasi-Chaukhutia road; this temple belongs to the Katyuri kings. A small fair is held here every year in October–November. Vaishno Devi's temple and the ancient forts and ruins of Katyuri dynasty are in the area; this is an agricultural valley, where rice and mangoes are grown. Nearby towns include Dwarahat. Chaukhutia is known as Vairaat; the story is. Pandav five brothers and their wives took that place, when they were going to heaven for moksha they stayed in the area for a few days. Bheem washed her cloth in Tadagtaal Lake but when he was leaving the taal he mark four finger hole in taal so tadag river came from there. Which meets in ramganga; this is smaller than Nainital Lake. There are more than 50 villages in the Chaukhutia region. Chakhutia is a center of those villages, including Bijrani, Gwelchora, Dhudalia, Ganai, Shakle, Haat, Digaut, Birkhumu and Rampur.
Bakhli, Bakhali, Godi, Tedagaun, Rampur, Taal, Pakhakhareek, Jamrad, Bhijlim, Prempuri, Jukanauli, Ghangholi, Dwarahat, Malla Tajpur, Khata, Songau, Jourashi, Bhalt Gaon, Bhoara Gaon, Dang, Jaurasi, Farika, Jairambakhal, Agarmanral, Bramaha Dev Chauri and others. National Highway 109 connects Chaukhutia to the cities of Almora, Dwarahat and Haldwani. Regular buses ply between Ramnagar. There have been plans to link Chaukhutia to Ramnagar with a Rail line; this rail line would be instrumental in bringing Gairsain, the proposed capital of Uttarakhand, on the Railway map. There have been speculations about another railway line, that would connect Chaukhutia to Bageshwar via Garur. Construction of an Air Strip was announced in 2017. Https://web.archive.org/web/20090704061713/http://www.indiatourism.com/uttaranchal-tourism/chaukhutia-tourism.html http://wikimapia.org/#lat=29.8835555&lon=79.3499994&z=15&l=0&m=a&v=2
Pithoragarh district is the easternmost Himalayan district in the state of Uttarakhand, India. It is landscaped with high Himalayan mountains, snow-capped peaks, valleys, alpine meadows, waterfalls, perennial rivers and springs; the flora and fauna of the area have rich ecological diversity. Pithoragarh has many temples and ruined forts from the once flourishing reign of the warrior Chand Kingdom; the geographical area of the district is 7,110 km2. At the 2011 census, the total population of the district was 485,993; the total literacy rate was 82.93 percent. Pithoragarh town, located in Saur Valley, is its headquarters; the district is within the Kumaon division of Uttarakhand state. The Tibet plateau is situated to the north and Nepal is to the east; the Kali River flows south, forming the eastern border with Nepal. The Hindu pilgrimage route for Mount Kailash-Lake Manasarovar passes through this district via Lipulekh Pass in the greater Himalayas; the district is administratively divided into six tehsils: Munsiari.
Naini Saini Airport is the nearest civil airport, but it does not have regular scheduled commercial passenger service. The mineral deposits present in the district are magnesium ore, copper ore and slate; some attribute the name to King Pithora Chand from the Chand Dynasty, while others cite Prithvi Raj Chauhan of the Chauhan Rajputs, who built a fort named Pithora Garh in the Saur Valley. After its conquest by Bhartpal, the Rajwar of Uku, in the year 1364, Pithoragarh was ruled for the rest of the 14th century by three generations of Pals, the kingdom extended from Pithoragarh to Askot. According to a tamrapatra from 1420, the Pal dynasty, based out of Askot, was uprooted by Chand kings. Vijay Brahm took over the empire as King. Following the death of Gyan Chand, in a conflict with Kshetra Pal, the Pals were able to regain the throne, it is believed that Bharti Chand, an ancestor of Gyan Chand, had replaced Bams, the ruler of Pithoragarh, after defeating them in 1445. In the 16th century, the Chand dynasty again took control over Pithoragarh town and, in 1790, built a new fort on the hill where the present Girls Inter College is situated.
This fort was destroyed by the Indian government in 1962 after China attacked India. The Chand rule, at its zenith, is seen as one of the most prominent empires in Kumaon, their rule coincides with a period of cultural resurgence. Archeological surveys point towards the development of art forms in this period, they contribute to built the distic and they are kind and initiative and they came from Nepal where they were king and did many social developing things. British rule began on 2 December 1815. Pithoragarh remained a tehsil under Almora district until 1960 when its status was elevated to that of a district. There was an army cantonment, a church, a mission school, resulting in the spread of Christianity in the region. In 1997, part of Pithoragarh district was separated to form the new Champawat district. Kumaoni, with its numerous variations, is the most spoken language; the language is written in Devanagari script. Hindi is the common language between the outsiders; those who visit the place do not find any difficulty as Hindi is the most common link language everywhere.
English is spoken by some people specially teachers and lecturers engaged in educational institution and students in undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Shauka tribe of tehsil Dharchula speak 3 dialects of Runglo called Byansi spoken in Byans valley, Bangbani spoken in Chaudas valley and Darmia in Darma valley; these are spoken languages. The Van Rawat tribe speaks their own unique Kumaoni variant. There are several Sino-Tibetan languages of the West Himalayish branch are spoken in Pithoragarh district; these include the Rawat language, was spoken in Pithoragarh district and is now extinct. Pithoragarh town, being in a valley, is warm during summer and cool during winter. During the coldest months of December and January, the tropical and temperate mountain ridges and high locations receive snowfall and have an average temperature of 5.5–8.0 °C. Pithoragarh district has extreme variation in temperature due to the large variations in altitude; the temperature rises from mid-March through mid-June.
The areas above 3,500 metres remain in a permanent snow cover. Regions lying at 3,000–3,500 metres become snowbound for four to six months. At places like the river gorges at Dharchula, Jhulaghat and Sera, temperatures reach 40 °C; the annual average rainfall in lower reaches is 360 centimetres.. ISBN 8170998980. After June the district receives monsoon showers. Winter is a time for transhumance – the seasonal migration of the Bhotiya tribe with their herds of livestock to lower, warmer areas. Winter: December–March Summer: March–June Season of general rains: North–West monsoon – mid-June to mid-September Season of retreating monsoon: September–November According to the 2011 census Pithoragarh district has a population of 485,993 equal to the nation of Suriname; this gives it a ranking of 546th among the 640 Districts of India. The district has a population density of 69 inhabitants per square kilometre, its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 5.13%. Pithoragarh has a sex ratio of 1021 females for every 1000 males, a literacy rate of 82.93%.
Native tribes in the district include the Van Shaukas. Va
For Kumaoni people see Kumaoni people Kumaon or Kumaun is one of the two regions and administrative divisions of the Indian state of Uttarakhand, the other being Garhwal. It includes the districts of Almora, Champawat, Nainital and Udham Singh Nagar, it is bounded on the north by Tibet, on the east by Nepal, on the south by the state of Uttar Pradesh, on the west by the Garhwal region. The people of Kumaon speak the Kumaoni language. Ruled by the kings of Katyuri and Chand Dynasties, the Kumaon division was formed in 1816, when the British reclaimed this region from the Gorkhas, who had annexed the erstwhile Kingdom of Kumaon in 1790; the division consisted of three districts, Kumaon and Garhwal, formed the northernmost frontier of the Ceded and Conquered Provinces in British India, that became North Western Provinces in 1836, United Provinces of Agra and Oudh in 1902, United Provinces in 1937. It is home to the Kumaon Regiment. Important towns of Kumaon are Haldwani, Almora, Rudrapur, Kashipur, Pantnagar and Ranikhet.
Nainital is the administrative centre of Kumaon Division and this is where the Uttarakhand high court is located. Kumaon is believed meaning land of the Kurmavatar; the region of Kumaon is named after as such. During the time of the British control of the region, between 1815 and 1857 it was known as Kemaon; the Kumaon region consists of a large Himalayan tract, together with two submontane strips called the Terai and the Bhabar. The submontane strips were up to 1850 an impenetrable forest, given up to wild animals; the rest of Kumaon is a maze of mountains, part of the Himalaya range, some of which are among the loftiest known. In a tract not more than 225 km in length and 65 km in breadth there are over thirty peaks rising to elevations exceeding 5500 m; the rivers like Gori and Kali rise chiefly in the southern slope of the Tibetan watershed north of the loftiest peaks, amongst which they make their way down valleys of rapid declivity and extraordinary depth. The principal is the Pindari and Kailganga, whose waters join the Alaknanda.
The river Sharda forms the international boundary between Nepal. The pilgrim route used to visit Kailash-Mansarovar goes along this river and crosses into Tibet at Lipu Lekh pass; the chief trees are the Chir Pine, Himalayan Cypress, Pindrow Fir, Alder and Saindan. Limestone, slate and granite constitute the principal geological formations. Mines of iron, gypsum and asbestos exist. Except in the submontane strips and deep valleys, the climate is mild; the rainfall of the outer Himalayan range, first struck by the monsoon, is double that of the central hills, in the average proportion of 2000 mm to 1000 mm. No winter passes without snow on the higher ridges, in some years, it is universal throughout the mountain tract. Frosts in the valleys, are severe. In the ancient period between 1300 and 1400 AD, after the disintegration of Katyuri kingdom of Uttarakhand, eastern region of Uttarakhand was divided into eight different princely states i.e. Baijnath-Katyuri, Doti, Askot, Sora, Sui. On, in 1581 AD after the defeat of Raika Hari Mall with the hand of Rudra Chand all these disintegrated parts came under King Rudra Chand and the whole region was as Kumaon.
The Katyuri dynasty was founded by Vashudev Katyuri. From Joshimath, during their reign they dominated lands of varying extent from the'Katyur' valley in Kumaon, between 7th and 11th centuries AD, established their capital at Baijnath in Bageshwar district, known as Kartikeyapura and lies in the centre of'Katyur' valley. Brahmadev mandi in Kanchanpur District of Nepal was established by Katyuri king Brahma Deo. At their peak, the Katyuri kingdom extended from Nepal in the east to Kabul, Afghanistan in the west, before fragmenting into numerous principalities by the 12th century, they were displaced by the Chand Kings in the 11th century AD. Architectural remains of the Katyur dynasty's rule can be found in Dwarahat; the Rajbar dynasty of Askot in Pithoragarh, was set up in 1279 AD, by a branch of the Katyuri Kings, headed by Abhay Pal Deo, the grandson of Katyuri king, Brahma Deo. The dynasty ruled the region till it became part of the British Raj through the treaty of Sighauli in 1816; the Chand kingdom was established by Som Chand, who came here from Kannauj near Allahabad, sometime in the 10th century, displaced the Katyuri Kings from Katyur valley near Joshimath, ruling the area from the 7th century AD.
He continued to call his state Kurmanchal and established its capital in Champawat in Kali Kumaon called so, due to its vicinity to river Kali. Many temples built in this former capital city, during the 11th and 12th century exist today, this includes the Baleshwar and Nagnath temples, they had brief skirmishes with the Rajput clans in Gangoli and Bankot predominant there, the Mankotis of Mankot, the Pathanis of Attigaon-Kamsyar and many other Khas Rajput Clans of the region. However they were able to establish their domain there. One of most powerful rulers of Chand dynasty was Baz
The Alaknanda is a Himalayan river in the Indian state of Uttarakhand and one of the two headstreams of the Ganga, the major river of Northern India and the holy river of Hinduism. In hydrology, the Alaknanda is considered the source stream of the Ganges on account of its greater length and discharge; the Alaknanda is considered to rise at the confluence and foot of the Satopanth and Bhagirath Kharak glaciers in Uttarakhand and meet the Sarasvati River tributary at Mana, India, 21 km from Tibet. Three km below Mana the Alaknanda flows past the Hindu pilgrimage centre of Badrinath; the origin of Alaknanda River is of special interest to the tourists who visit the important pilgrimages in Uttarakhand. The Ganges as Alaknanda rises in the southern Himalayas on the Indian side of the Tibet border. On the Satopanth Glacier six km up from Alaknanda's origin at its snout, the triangular Lake Satopanth is found at a height of 4350 m and it is named after the Hindu trinity Lord Brahma, Lord Vishnu, Lord Shiva.
The five main tributaries joining with Alaknanda in order includes Dhauliganga, Pindar and Bhagirathi all rising in the northern mountainous regions of Uttarakhand. After the last tributary merging at Devprayag the river is known as the Ganges; the Alaknanda contributes a larger portion to the flow of the Ganges than the Bhagirathi. The Alaknanda river is among the best for river rafting in the world due to its high rafting grade; the Alaknanda system drains parts of Chamoli and Pauri districts. Badrinath RishiGanga River meet Alaknanda Badrinath, one of the holy destinations for Hindus in India is located near to the bank of the Alaknanda River; this place is surrounded by two mountain ranges of Nar and Narayan on either sides and Neelkanth peak located at the back of Narayan range. Govindgath:. LaxmanGanga meet AlaknandaPanch Prayag Several rivers in the Garhwal region merge with the Alaknanda at places called prayag or'holy confluence of rivers'; these are: Vishnuprayag, where the Alaknanda is met by the Dhauliganga River Nandaprayag, where it is met by the Nandakini River Karnaprayag, where it is met by the Pindar River Rudraprayag, where it is met by the Mandakini River Devprayag, where it meets the Bhagirathi River and becomes the Ganges There are 37 hydroelectric dams in operation, under construction or planned to harness the energy of the Alaknanda river and its tributaries and generate electricity.
There are 23 other proposed projects in the Alaknanda river basin through which the power-potential of the Alaknanda and its tributaries can be harnessed. The proposed 23 hydel-projects are as follows - Alaknanda Bagoli Bowla Nandprayag Chuni Semi Deodi Devsari Dam Gaurikund Gohana Tal Jelam Tamak Karnaprayag Lakshmanganga Lata Tapovan Maleri Jelam Nandprayag Langasu Padli Dam Phata-Byung Rambara Rishiganga I Rishiganga II Tamak Lata Urgam II Utyasu Dam Vishnugad Pipalkoti As the river flows, the towns along its banks are Badrinath, Joshimath, Nandaprayag, Rudraprayag and Devprayag. At each town with suffix prayag, Alaknanda meets another river. 2013 North India floods Alaknanda River Britannica.com Prayags at GMVN
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, coastal areas and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development and defence, scientific research, environmental protection. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters; these were the private property closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. As transoceanic trade and exploration increased, hydrographic surveys started to be carried out as an exercise in their own right, the commissioning of surveys was done by governments and special hydrographic offices. National organizations navies, realized that the collection and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages.
Thus were born dedicated national hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions. Prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, Royal Navy captains were responsible for the provision of their own charts. In practice this meant that ships sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, that when new areas were surveyed, the data reached all those who needed it; the Admiralty appointed Alexander Dalrymple as Hydrographer in 1795, with a remit to gather and distribute charts to HM Ships. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, the first catalogue published; the first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, it appeared in 1800. Under Captain Thomas Hurd the department received its first professional guidelines, the first catalogues were published and made available to the public and to other nations as well.
In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. The Hydrographic Office underwent steady expansion throughout the 19th century; the word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, "water" and γράφω, "to write". Large-scale hydrography is undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes; the science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal and wave information of physical oceanography.
They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals and other features that obstruct ship passage. Bottom measurements include collection of the nature of the bottom as it pertains to effective anchoring. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features and manmade, that aid in navigation. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills and lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Hydrography for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. For example, hydrographic charts are designed to portray what is safe for navigation, therefore will tend to maintain least depths and de-emphasize the actual submarine topography that would be portrayed on bathymetric charts; the former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident.
The latter are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Trends in hydrographic practice since c. 2003–2005 have led to a narrowing of this difference, with many more hydrographic offices maintaining "best observed" databases, making navigationally "safe" products as required. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can be used for bathymetric portrayal. Though, in places, hydrographic survey data may be collected in sufficient detail to portray bottom topography in some areas, hydrographic charts only show depth information relevant for safe navigation and should not be considered as a product that portrays the actual shape of the bottom; the soundings selected from the raw source depth data for placement on the nautical chart are selected for safe navigation and are biased to show predominately the shallowest depths that relate to safe navigation.
For instance, if there is a deep area that can not be reached because it is surrounded by shallow water, the deep area may not be shown. The color filled areas that show different ranges of shallow water are not the equivalent of contours on a topographic map since they are drawn seaward of the actual shallowest depth portrayed. A bathymetric chart does show marine topology accurately. Details covering the ab