Carnegie Mellon University
Carnegie Mellon University is a private research university based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1900 by Andrew Carnegie as the Carnegie Technical Schools, the university became the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1912 and began granting four-year degrees. In 1967, the Carnegie Institute of Technology merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to form Carnegie Mellon University. With its main campus located 3 miles from Downtown Pittsburgh, Carnegie Mellon has grown into an international university with over a dozen degree-granting locations in six continents, including campuses in Qatar and Silicon Valley, more than 20 research partnerships; the university has seven colleges and independent schools which all offer interdisciplinary programs: the College of Engineering, College of Fine Arts, Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Mellon College of Science, Tepper School of Business, H. John Heinz III College of Information Systems and Public Policy, the School of Computer Science.
Carnegie Mellon counts 13,961 students from 109 countries, over 105,000 living alumni, over 5,000 faculty and staff. Past and present faculty and alumni include 20 Nobel Prize laureates, 13 Turing Award winners, 23 Members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 22 Fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, 79 Members of the National Academies, 124 Emmy Award winners, 47 Tony Award laureates, 10 Academy Award winners; the Carnegie Technical Schools were founded in 1900 in Pittsburgh by the Scottish American industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie, who wrote the time-honored words "My heart is in the work", when he donated the funds to create the institution. Carnegie's vision was to open a vocational training school for the sons and daughters of working-class Pittsburghers. Carnegie was inspired for the design of his school by the Pratt Institute in Brooklyn, New York founded by industrialist Charles Pratt in 1887. In 1912, the institution changed its name to Carnegie Institute of Technology and began offering four-year degrees.
During this time, CIT consisted of four constituent schools: the School of Fine and Applied Arts, the School of Apprentices and Journeymen, the School of Science and Technology, the Margaret Morrison Carnegie School for Women. The Mellon Institute of Industrial Research was founded in 1913 by a banker and industrialist brothers Andrew and Richard B. Mellon in honor of their father, Thomas Mellon, the patriarch of the Mellon family; the Institute began as a research organization which performed work for government and industry on a contract and was established as a department within the University of Pittsburgh. In 1927, the Mellon Institute incorporated as an independent nonprofit. In 1938, the Mellon Institute's iconic building was completed and it moved to its new, current, location on Fifth Avenue. In 1967, with support from Paul Mellon, Carnegie Tech merged with the Mellon Institute of Industrial Research to become Carnegie Mellon University. Carnegie Mellon's coordinate women's college, the Margaret Morrison Carnegie College closed in 1973 and merged its academic programs with the rest of the university.
The industrial research mission of the Mellon Institute survived the merger as the Carnegie Mellon Research Institute and continued doing work on contract to industry and government. CMRI closed in 2001 and its programs were subsumed by other parts of the university or spun off into autonomous entities. Carnegie Mellon's 140-acre main campus is three miles from downtown Pittsburgh, between Schenley Park and the Squirrel Hill and Oakland neighborhoods. Carnegie Mellon is bordered to the west by the campus of the University of Pittsburgh. Carnegie Mellon owns 81 buildings in the Squirrel Hill neighborhoods of Pittsburgh. For decades the center of student life on campus was the University's student union. Built in the 1950s, Skibo Hall's design was typical of Mid-Century Modern architecture, but was poorly equipped to deal with advances in computer and internet connectivity; the original Skibo was razed in the summer of 1994 and replaced by a new student union, wi-fi enabled. Known as University Center, the building was dedicated in 1996.
In 2014, Carnegie Mellon re-dedicated the University Center as the Cohon University Center in recognition of the eighth president of the university, Jared Cohon. A large grassy area known as "the Cut" forms the backbone of the campus, with a separate grassy area known as "the Mall" running perpendicular; the Cut was formed by filling in a ravine with soil from a nearby hill, leveled to build the College of Fine Arts building. The northwestern part of the campus was acquired from the United States Bureau of Mines in the 1980s. In 2006, Carnegie Mellon Trustee Jill Gansman Kraus donated the 80-foot -tall sculpture Walking to the Sky, placed on the lawn facing Forbes Ave between the Cohon University Center and Warner Hall; the sculpture was controversial for its placement, the general lack of input that the campus community had, its aesthetic appeal. In April 2015, Carnegie Mellon University, in collaboration with Jones Lang LaSalle, announced the planning of a second office space structure, alongside the Robert Mehrabian Collaborative Innovation Center, an upscale and full-service hotel, retail and dining development along Forbes Avenue.
This complex will connect to the Tepper Quadrangle, the Heinz College, the Tata Consultancy Services Building, the Gates-Hillman Center to create an innovation corridor on the university campus. The eff
Coop Himmelbau was founded by Wolf D. Prix, Helmut Swiczinsky, Michael Holzer in Vienna, Austria in 1968, it is active in architecture, urban planning and art. In 1988 a second studio was opened in Los Angeles. Further project offices are located in Frankfurt and Paris, France. COOP HIMMELBAU employs between 150 people; the architectural studio COOP HIMMELBAU is directed by Wolf D. Prix, Harald Krieger, Karolin Schmidbaur, Markus Prossnigg and Project Partners. After Michael Holzer left the team in 1971, with the retirement of Helmut Swiczinsky in 2001 from COOP HIMMELBAU’s daily operations and in 2006 from the office, Wolf D. Prix is leading the studio as Design Principal/ CEO. From 2000 until 2011, Wolfdieter Dreibholz was part of COOP HIMMELBAU as Partner. In 2003 Harald Krieger was designated Partner of COOP HIMMELBAU and is managing director of COOP HIMMELBAU Europe GmbH, Frankfurt/ M. Germany, since 2006, became CFO of the studio in 2011. Karolin Schmidbaur was made Partner of the office in 1996 and is Design and Managing Partner of COOP HIMMELBAU Vienna as well as the Director of the office in Los Angeles, California.
In 2012 Louise Kiesling was appointed Head of Product Design. Markus Prossnigg became Managing Partner in 2015 and is responsible for the overall management and delivery of key projects. COOP HIMMELBAU’s most well-known projects include: the Rooftop Remodeling Falkestraße in Vienna. COOP HIMMELBAU realized further key projects in Vienna in recent years, including the SEG Apartment Tower, followed by the SEG Apartment Block Remise. Among the recent projects that COOP HIMMELBAU is pursuing throughout the world are the House of Bread II in Asten and the Five Star Hotel Tower at the Dawang Mountain Resort, China. Additional projects in planning are the Central Bank of Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan, the 5th World, Russell Means Library, South Dakota, USA, as well as the ATMOS Selfness Resort. Rooftop Remodeling Falkestrasse, Austria Academy of Fine Arts Munich UFA-Cinema Center in Dresden Groninger Museum, Netherlands The Media Pavilion at the 6th International Architecture Exhibition, Biennale di Venezia Gasometer, Austria Arteplage in Biel/Bienne from Swiss Expo.02 BMW World Munich, Germany Akron Art Museum addition High School for the Visual and Performing Arts with HMC Architects Dalian International Conference Center, China Busan Cinema Center, South Korea Musikkens Hus in Aalborg, Denmark The New European Central Bank in Frankfurt Musée des Confluences, France Hotel - 55th Street & 8th Avenue, New York City 2008 2008 RIBA European Award for BMW World 2005 American Architecture Awards The Chicago Athenaeum, Illinois Akron Art Museum, Ohio, USA 2004 Annie Spink Award for excellence in architectural education, RIBA, London, UK 2002 Gold Medal for merits to the federal state of Vienna, Austria 1992 Schelling Architecture Prize.
Deconstructivism List of projects: http://www.architravel.com/architravel/architects/coop-himmelblau/ Official site Online profile of Coop Himmelbau Interview with Wolf Prix Universität Für Angewandte Kunst Wien
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (play)
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is a play based on Ken Kesey's 1962 novel of the same name. Dale Wasserman's stage adaptation, with music by Teiji Ito, made its Broadway preview on November 12, 1963, its premiere on November 13, ran until January 25, 1964 for a total of one preview and 82 performances. Since the play has had two revivals: first off-Broadway in 1971, directed by Lee Sankowich with Danny DeVito as Martini as a Broadway production in 2001 with Gary Sinise as McMurphy; the film version One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest was released in 1975 was based on the novel, but not on the play. DeVito reprised his stage role in the film; the 1963–64 Broadway production starred Kirk Douglas as Randle Patrick McMurphy, Gene Wilder as Billy Bibbit, William Daniels as Harding, Ed Ames as "Chief" Bromden, Joan Tetzel as Nurse Ratched. Douglas retained the rights to make a film version of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest for a decade, but was unable to find a studio willing to make it with him, he gave the rights to his son Michael, who succeeded in getting the film produced.
At that time, Kirk Douglas was deemed too old for the role of McMurphy, the role was given to Jack Nicholson. In 1982 Greg Hersov directed a production at the Royal Exchange, Manchester with Jonathan Hackett as Randle McMurphy, Linda Marlowe as Nurse Ratched and Tim McInnerny as Billy Bibbitt. In April 1988, the Playhouse Theatre was the site for the first London production of One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest; the play was brought to the London stage by Cuckoo Productions, formed by Diane Hilton, Karin Parnaby, Judy Kershaw. They raised £100,000 in 24 hours to bring the play to the London theatre. In 2001, the Steppenwolf Theatre Company produced a Broadway revival, winning the Tony Award for Best Play Revival; this production was directed by Terry Kinney and starred Gary Sinise, Amy Morton, Tim Sampson, Eric Johner, Ross Lehman. In 2004, Guy Masterson and Nica Burns mounted a production at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival with Christian Slater, Mackenzie Crook and Frances Barber and a cast of comedians including Owen O'Neill.
Masterson famously resigned as director & co-producer just prior to opening citing "ill health" and the production was delivered by Terry Johnson and Tamara Harvey. The show was a huge box office hit and transferred to London's Gielgud Theatre where it ran for over 20 weeks; this production was itself revived in 2006 with Alex Kingston taking over the role of Nurse Ratched. It toured the UK in 2007 with Shane Richie playing McMurphy and Sophie Ward Nurse Ratched. A production of the play was staged by London's Tower Theatre Company 23–27 October 2012 Upstairs at the Gatehouse, London. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest at the Internet Broadway Database One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest at the Internet Off-Broadway Database One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest at ThatTheatreSite Provides character descriptions and updated audition listings. Original Production's ITDb 1971 revival's ITDb 2001 revival's ITDb
Downtown Los Angeles
Downtown Los Angeles is the central business district of Los Angeles, California, as well as a diverse residential neighborhood of some 58,000 people. A 2013 study found, it is part of Central Los Angeles. A heritage of the city's founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles today is composed of different areas ranging from a fashion district to Skid Row, it is the hub for the city's urban rail transit system and the Metrolink commuter rail system for Southern California. Banks, department stores, movie palaces at one time drew residents and visitors into the area, but the district declined economically and suffered a downturn for decades until its recent renaissance starting in the early 2000s. Old buildings are being modified for new uses, skyscrapers have been built. Downtown Los Angeles is known for its government buildings, parks and other public places; the earliest known settlements in the area of what is now Downtown Los Angeles was by the Tongva, a Native American people. European settlement arrived after Father Juan Crespí, a Spanish missionary charged with exploring sites for Catholic missions in California, noted in 1769 that the region had "all the requisites for a large settlement".
On September 4, 1781, the city was founded by a group of settlers who trekked north from present-day Mexico. Land speculation increased in the 1880s, which saw the population of the city explode from 11,000 in 1880 to nearly 100,000 by 1896. Infrastructure enhancements and the laying of a street grid brought development south of the original settlement into what is today the Civic Center and Historic Core neighborhoods. By 1920, the city's private and municipal rail lines were the most far-flung and most comprehensive in the world in mileage besting that of New York City. By this time, a steady influx of residents and aggressive land developers had transformed the city into a large metropolitan area, with DTLA at its center. Rail lines connected four counties with over 1,100 miles of track. During the early part of the 20th century, banking institutions clustered around South Spring Street, forming the Spring Street Financial District. Sometimes referred to as the "Wall Street of the West," the district held corporate headquarters for financial institutions including Bank of America and Merchants Bank, the Crocker National Bank, California Bank & Trust, International Savings & Exchange Bank.
The Los Angeles Stock Exchange was located on the corridor from 1929 until 1986 before moving into a new building across the Harbor Freeway. Commercial growth brought with it hotel construction—during this time period several grand hotels, the Alexandria, the Rosslyn, the Biltmore, were erected — and the need for venues to entertain the growing population of Los Angeles. Broadway became the nightlife and entertainment district of the city, with over a dozen theater and movie palaces built before 1932. Department stores opened flagship stores downtown, including The Broadway, Hamburger & Sons, May Company, JW Robinson's, Bullock's, serving a wealthy residential population in the Bunker Hill neighborhood. Numerous specialty stores flourished including those in the jewelry business which gave rise to the Downtown Jewelry District. Among these early jewelers included the Laykin Diamond Company and Harry Winston & Co. both of which found their beginnings in the Hotel Alexandria at Fifth and Spring streets.
The Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal opened in May 1939, unifying passenger service among various local and long-distance passenger trains. It was built on a grand scale and would be one of the "last of the great railway stations" built in the United States. Following World War II, the development of the Los Angeles freeway network, increased automobile ownership led to decreased investment downtown. Many corporate headquarters dispersed to new suburbs or fell to mergers and acquisitions; the once-wealthy Bunker Hill neighborhood became a haven for low-income renters, its stately Victorian mansions turned into flophouses. From about 1930 onward, numerous old and historic buildings in the plaza area were demolished to make way for street-level parking lots, the high demand for parking making this more profitable than any other option that might have allowed preservation; the drastic reduction in the number of residents in the area further reduced the viability of streetfront businesses that would be able to attract pedestrians.
For most Angelenos, downtown became a drive-out destination. In an effort to combat blight and lure businesses back downtown, the city's Community Redevelopment Agency undertook the Bunker Hill Redevelopment Project in 1955, a massive clearance project that leveled homes and cleared land for future commercial skyscraper development; this period saw the clearing and upzoning of the entire neighborhood, as well as the shuttering of the Angels Flight funicular railway in 1969. Angels Flight resumed operation in 1996 for a period of five years, shutting down once again after a fatal accident in 2001. On March 15, 2010, the railway once again opened for passenger service following extensive upgrades to brake and safety systems. With Class A office space becoming available on Bunker Hill, many of DTLA's remaining financial corporations moved to the newer buildings, leaving the former Spring Street Financial District devoid of tenants above ground floor. Following the corporate headquarters' moving six blocks west, the large department stores on Broadway shuttered, culminating in the 1980s.
However, the Broadway theaters saw much use as Spanish-language movie houses during this time, beginning with the conve
Leland Stanford Junior University is a private research university in Stanford, California. Stanford is known for its academic strength, proximity to Silicon Valley, ranking as one of the world's top universities; the university was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford in memory of their only child, Leland Stanford Jr. who had died of typhoid fever at age 15 the previous year. Stanford was a U. S. Senator and former Governor of California who made his fortune as a railroad tycoon; the school admitted its first students on October 1, 1891, as a coeducational and non-denominational institution. Stanford University struggled financially after the death of Leland Stanford in 1893 and again after much of the campus was damaged by the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. Following World War II, Provost Frederick Terman supported faculty and graduates' entrepreneurialism to build self-sufficient local industry in what would be known as Silicon Valley; the university is one of the top fundraising institutions in the country, becoming the first school to raise more than a billion dollars in a year.
The university is organized around three traditional schools consisting of 40 academic departments at the undergraduate and graduate level and four professional schools that focus on graduate programs in Law, Medicine and Business. Stanford's undergraduate program is the most selective in the United States by acceptance rate. Students compete in 36 varsity sports, the university is one of two private institutions in the Division I FBS Pac-12 Conference, it has gained the most for a university. Stanford athletes have won 512 individual championships, Stanford has won the NACDA Directors' Cup for 24 consecutive years, beginning in 1994–1995. In addition, Stanford students and alumni have won 270 Olympic medals including 139 gold medals; as of October 2018, 83 Nobel laureates, 27 Turing Award laureates, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with Stanford as students, faculty or staff. In addition, Stanford University is noted for its entrepreneurship and is one of the most successful universities in attracting funding for start-ups.
Stanford alumni have founded a large number of companies, which combined produce more than $2.7 trillion in annual revenue and have created 5.4 million jobs as of 2011 equivalent to the 10th largest economy in the world. Stanford is the alma mater of 30 living billionaires and 17 astronauts, is one of the leading producers of members of the United States Congress. Stanford University was founded in 1885 by Leland and Jane Stanford, dedicated to Leland Stanford Jr, their only child; the institution opened in 1891 on Stanford's previous Palo Alto farm. Despite being impacted by earthquakes in both 1906 and 1989, the campus was rebuilt each time. In 1919, The Hoover Institution on War and Peace was started by Herbert Hoover to preserve artifacts related to World War I; the Stanford Medical Center, completed in 1959, is a teaching hospital with over 800 beds. The SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, established in 1962, performs research in particle physics. Jane and Leland Stanford modeled their university after the great eastern universities, most Cornell University and Harvard University.
Stanford opened being called the "Cornell of the West" in 1891 due to faculty being former Cornell affiliates including its first president, David Starr Jordan. Both Cornell and Stanford were among the first to have higher education be accessible and open to women as well as to men. Cornell is credited as one of the first American universities to adopt this radical departure from traditional education, Stanford became an early adopter as well. Most of Stanford University is on one of the largest in the United States, it is located on the San Francisco Peninsula, in the northwest part of the Santa Clara Valley 37 miles southeast of San Francisco and 20 miles northwest of San Jose. In 2008, 60% of this land remained undeveloped. Stanford's main campus includes a census-designated place within unincorporated Santa Clara County, although some of the university land is within the city limits of Palo Alto; the campus includes much land in unincorporated San Mateo County, as well as in the city limits of Menlo Park and Portola Valley.
The academic central campus is adjacent to Palo Alto, bounded by El Camino Real, Stanford Avenue, Junipero Serra Boulevard, Sand Hill Road. The United States Postal Service has assigned it two ZIP Codes: 94305 for campus mail and 94309 for P. O. box mail. It lies within area code 650. Stanford operates or intends to operate in various locations outside of its central campus. On the founding grant: Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve is a 1,200-acre natural reserve south of the central campus owned by the university and used by wildlife biologists for research. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory is a facility west of the central campus operated by the university for the Department of Energy, it contains the longest linear particle accelerator in the world, 2 miles on 426 acres of land. Golf course and a seasonal lake: The university has its own golf course and a seasonal lake, both home to the vulnerable California tiger salamander; as of 2012 Lake Laguni
In the Heights
In the Heights is a musical with music and lyrics by Lin-Manuel Miranda and book by Quiara Alegría Hudes. The story is set over the course of three days, involving characters in the Hispanic-American neighborhood of Washington Heights in New York City. After a 2005 tryout in Waterford, Connecticut and a 2007 Off-Broadway run, the show opened on Broadway in March 2008, it was nominated for thirteen Tony Awards and won four, including the 2008 Best Musical, Best Original Score, Best Choreography awards. A film adaptation of the musical is set for release in Summer 2020. Miranda wrote the earliest draft of In the Heights in his sophomore year of college. After the show was accepted by Wesleyan University's student theater company Second Stage, Miranda added "freestyle rap... bodegas, salsa numbers." It played from April 27 to 29, 2000 as an 80-minute, one-act show, sounded like'A hip-hop version of Rent'. After seeing the play, two Wesleyan seniors and two alumni, John Buffalo Mailer, Neil Patrick Stewart, Anthony Veneziale and Thomas Kail, approached Miranda and asked if the play could be expanded with a view to a Broadway production.
In 2002, Miranda wrote five separate drafts of In the Heights. Book writer Quiara Alegría Hudes joined the team in 2004. A new version of In the Heights was presented at the National Music Theater Conference at the Eugene O'Neill Theater Center in Waterford, Connecticut between July 23 and July 31, 2005, directed by Thomas Kail and with music director Alex Lacamoire; the cast featured Natalie Cortez, Janet Dacal, Robin De Jesus, Huey Dunbar, Christopher Jackson, Doreen Montalvo, Javier Muñoz, Rick Negron, Sheena Marie Ortiz, Matt Saldivar, Monica Salazar, Nancy TicotinThe musical opened at the 37 Arts Theater Off-Broadway, running from February 8, 2007, through July 15, 2007. Directed by Thomas Kail, with choreography by Andy Blankenbuehler and music direction by Alex Lacamoire, it was produced by Jill Furman, Kevin McCollum, Jeffrey Seller and Sander Jacobs; the Off-Broadway production was nominated for nine Drama Desk Awards, winning two, as well as winning the Outer Critics' Circle Award for Outstanding Musical.
The musical premiered on Broadway, starting in previews on February 14, 2008, with an official opening on March 9, 2008, at the Richard Rodgers Theatre. The Broadway production was again directed and choreographed by Kail and Blankenbuehler, with most of the off-Broadway principals reprising their roles; the creative team included set design by Anna Louizos, costume design by Paul Tazewell, lighting design by Howell Binkley, sound design by Acme Sound Partners and orchestrations by Alex Lacamoire and Bill Sherman, music coordination by Michael Keller. The producers announced on January 8, 2009, that the show had recouped its $10 million investment after 10 months; the cast recording was released on June 3, 2008 by Ghostlight Records and won the Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album, beating the recordings of The Little Mermaid, Young Frankenstein, the revivals of Gypsy and South Pacific. The Broadway production celebrated its 1000th performance on August 2, 2010; the Broadway production closed on January 2011, after 29 previews and 1,184 regular performances.
The final cast included Lin-Manuel Miranda, Arielle Jacobs, Marcy Harriell, Shaun Taylor-Corbett, Olga Merediz, Andréa Burns, Christopher Jackson, Tony Chriroldes, Priscilla Lopez, Jon Rua. The first national tour of In the Heights began on October 2009, in Tampa, Florida; the musical ran in San Juan, Puerto Rico in November 2010, the first time an Equity tour has played in the city. Librettist Hudes and songwriter-star Miranda are both of Puerto Rican descent. Miranda played this engagement; the tour closed on April 3, 2011, at the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts in Miami, Florida. At the time of its closing, the tour starred Joseph Morales as Usnavi; the international premiere ran in Manila, from September 2 to 18, 2011. The new production was directed by Bobby Garcia and starred Nyoy Volante as Usnavi, Ima Castro as Vanessa, K-La Rivera as Nina Rosario, Felix Rivera as Benny, Calvin Millado as Kevin Rosario, Jackie Lou Blanco as Camila Rosario, Tex Ordoñez as Daniela, Tanya Manalang as Carla, Bibo Reyes as Sonny, Jay Glorioso as Abuela Claudia.
The show had a repeat run in March 2012. A non-Equity United States national tour of In The Heights ran from October 17, 2011, until June 2012; the tour played in Chicago in January 2012, with Virginia Cavaliere as Nina, Presilah Nunez as Vanessa, Kyle Carter as Benny, Perry Young as Usnavi. In Panama, Carnaval del Barrio was staged at the famed Teatro en Círculo, from the October 3 to 31, 2013, produced by Top Line Events and directed by Aaron Zebede, who adapted the book and songs to Spanglish, which worked for a Panamanian audience. Jose "Pepe" Casis was the musical director, who played the part of Piragua Guy; the Brazilian premiere of Nas Alturas was staged at Teatro Bradesco from April 17 until May 25, 2014. The cast featured Myra Ruiz, Ricardo Marques, Mauro Gorini, Germana Guilherme, Renata Brás, Milena Martines, Lola Fanucchi, Thiago Vianna and Rafael Dantas; the UK premiere of In The Heights was staged at Southwark Playhouse from 9 May until June 7, 2014. The cast featured Sam Mackay as Usnavi, Christina Modestou as Nina, Emma Kingston as Vanessa, David Bedella as Kevin Rosario and Victoria Hamilton-Barritt as Daniela, with direction by Luke Sheppard.
The Japanese premiere played in Bunkamura's Theatre Cocoon from April 9 until April 20, 2014, featured Yuya Matsushita, Ayaka Umeda, Chihiro Otsuka, Motomu Azaki, a
Multiracial is defined as made up of or relating to people of many races. Many terms exist for people of various multiracial backgrounds. Preferred terms include mixed race, biracial, polyethnic, half-and-half, Métis, Dougla, mulatto, Criollo, zambo, hapa, hāfu, garifuna and pardo; some of the terms are considered offensive. Individuals of multiracial backgrounds make up a significant portion of the population in many parts of the world. In North America, studies have found. In many countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, people with multiracial backgrounds make up the majority of the population. Other countries where multiracial people make up a sizable portion of the population are the United Kingdom, France, Spain, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Mauritius and Fiji. While defining race is controversial,race remains a used term for categorization. Insofar as race is defined differently in different cultures, perceptions of multiraciality will be subjective. According to U. S. sociologist Troy Duster and ethicist Pilar Ossorio: Some percentage of people who look white will possess genetic markers indicating that a significant majority of their recent ancestors were African.
Some percentage of people who look black will possess genetic markers indicating the majority of their recent ancestors were European. In the United States: Many state and local agencies comply with the U. S. Office of Management and Budget 1997 revised standards for the collection and presentation of federal data on race and ethnicity; the revised OMB standards identify a minimum of five racial categories: White. The most significant change for Census 2000 was that respondents were given the option to mark one or more races on the questionnaire to indicate their racial identity. Census 2000 race data are shown for people who reported a race either alone or in combination with one or more other races. In the English-speaking world, many terms for people of various multiracial backgrounds exist, some of which are pejorative or are no longer used. Mulato and mestizo are used in Spanish, caboclo, cafuzo and mestiço in Portuguese and mulâtre and métis in French for people of multiracial descent; these terms are in certain contexts used in the English-speaking world.
In Canada, the Métis are a recognized ethnic group of mixed European and First Nation descent, who have status in the law similar to that of First Nations. Terms such as mulatto for people of African descent and mestizo for people of Native American descent are still used by English-speaking people of the western hemisphere, but when referring to the past or to the demography of Latin America and its diasporic population. Half-breed is a historic term. Mestee, once used, is now used for members of mixed-race groups, such as Louisiana Creoles, Redbones, Brass Ankles and Mayles. In South Africa, much of English-speaking southern Africa, the term Coloured was used to describe a mixed-race person and Asians not of African descent. While the term is accepted, it is becoming an outdated due to its association with the apartheid era. In Latin America, where mixtures became tri-racial after the introduction of African slavery, a panoply of terms developed during the colonial period, including terms such as zambo for persons of Amerindian and African descent.
Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common. The well-known Casta paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, were illustrations of the different classifications. At one time, Latin American census categories have used such classifications, but in Brazilian censuses since the Imperial times, for example, most persons of multiracial heritage, except the Asian Brazilians of some European descent and vice versa, tend to be thrown into the single category of "pardo", although race lines in Brazil do not denote ancestry but phenotype, as such a westernized Amerindian of copper-colored skin is a "pardo", a caboclo in this case, despite being not multiracial, but a European-looking person with one or more African or Indigenous American ancestor is not a "pardo" but a "branco", or a white Brazilian; the same applies to Afro-Brazilians and European or Amerindian ancestors. Most Brazilians of all racial groups are to some extent mixed-race according to genetic research. In English, the terms miscegenation and amalgamation were used for unions between whites and other ethnic groups.
These terms are now considered offensive and are becoming obsolete. The terms mixed-race, biracial or multiracial are becoming accepted. In other languages, translations of miscegenation did not become politically incorrect. In the United States, the 2000 census was the first in the history of the country to offer respondents the option of identifying themselves as belonging to more than one race; this multiracial option was considered a necessary adaptation to the demographic and cultural changes that the United States has been experiencing. Multiracial Americans numbered 6.1 million in 2006, or 2.0% of the population. There is considerable evidence. Prior to the mid-20th century, many people hid their mul