Zion National Park
Zion National Park is an American national park located in southwestern Utah near the town of Springdale. A prominent feature of the 229-square-mile park is Zion Canyon, 15 miles long and up to 2,640 ft deep; the canyon walls are reddish and tan-colored Navajo Sandstone eroded by the North Fork of the Virgin River. The lowest point in the park is 3,666 ft at Coalpits Wash and the highest peak is 8,726 ft at Horse Ranch Mountain. Located at the junction of the Colorado Plateau, Great Basin, Mojave Desert regions, the park has a unique geography and a variety of life zones that allow for unusual plant and animal diversity. Numerous plant species as well as 289 species of birds, 75 mammals, 32 reptiles inhabit the park's four life zones: desert, riparian and coniferous forest. Zion National Park includes mountains, buttes, monoliths, slot canyons, natural arches. Human habitation of the area started about 8,000 years ago with small family groups of Native Americans, one of, the semi-nomadic Basketmaker Anasazi.
Subsequently, the Virgin Anasazi culture and the Parowan Fremont group developed as the Basketmakers settled in permanent communities. Both groups moved away by 1300 and were replaced by the Parrusits and several other Southern Paiute subtribes. Mormons settled there in the early 1860s. In 1909, President William Howard Taft named the area Mukuntuweap National Monument in order to protect the canyon. In 1918, the acting director of the newly created National Park Service, Horace Albright, drafted a proposal to enlarge the existing monument and change the park's name to Zion National Monument, Zion being a term used by the Mormons. According to historian Hal Rothman: "The name change played to a prevalent bias of the time. Many believed that Spanish and Indian names would deter visitors who, if they could not pronounce the name of a place, might not bother to visit it; the new name, had greater appeal to an ethnocentric audience." On November 20, 1919, Congress redesignated the monument as Zion National Park, the act was signed by President Woodrow Wilson.
The Kolob section was proclaimed a separate Zion National Monument in 1937, but was incorporated into the national park in 1956. The geology of the Zion and Kolob canyons area includes nine formations that together represent 150 million years of Mesozoic-aged sedimentation. At various periods in that time warm, shallow seas, streams and lakes, vast deserts, dry near-shore environments covered the area. Uplift associated with the creation of the Colorado Plateau lifted the region 10,000 feet starting 13 million years ago; the park is located in southwestern Utah in Washington and Kane counties. Geomorphically, it is located on the Markagunt and Kolob plateaus, at the intersection of three North American geographic provinces: the Colorado Plateau, the Great Basin, the Mojave Desert; the northern part of the park is known as the Kolob Canyons section and is accessible from Interstate 15, exit 40. The 8,726-foot summit of Horse Ranch Mountain is the highest point in the park. Streams in the area take rectangular paths.
The stream gradient of the Virgin River, whose North Fork flows through Zion Canyon in the park, ranges from 50 to 80 feet per mile —one of the steepest stream gradients in North America. The road into Zion Canyon is 6 miles long, ending at the Temple of Sinawava, named for the coyote god of the Paiute Indians; the canyon becomes more narrow near the Temple and a hiking trail continues to the mouth of The Narrows, a gorge only 20 feet wide and up to 2,000 feet tall. The Zion Canyon road is served by a free shuttle bus from early April to late October and by private vehicles the other months of the year. Other roads in Zion are open to private vehicles year-round; the east side of the park is served by Zion-Mount Carmel Highway, which passes through the Zion–Mount Carmel Tunnel and ends at Mount Carmel. On the east side of the park, notable park features include the East Temple; the Kolob Terrace area, northwest of Zion Canyon, features a slot canyon called The Subway, a panoramic view of the entire area from Lava Point.
The Kolob Canyons section, further to the northwest near Cedar City, features one of the world's longest natural arches, Kolob Arch. Other notable geographic features of the park include the Virgin River Narrows, Emerald Pools, Angels Landing, The Great White Throne, Court of the Patriarchs. Spring weather is unpredictable, with stormy, wet days being common, mixed with occasional warm, sunny weather. Precipitation is heaviest in March. Spring wildflowers bloom from April through June. Fall days are clear and mild. Summer days are hot, but overnight lows are comfortable. Afternoon thunderstorms are common from mid-July through mid-September. Storms may produce waterfalls as well as flash floods. Autumn tree-color displays begin in September in the high country. Winter in Zion Canyon is mild. Winter storms bring light snow to Zion Canyon and heavier snow to the higher elevations. Clear days may become quite warm, reaching 60 °F. Winter storms can make roads icy. Zion roads are plowed, except the Kolob Terrace Road, closed when cover
Pitfall (1948 film)
Pitfall is a 1948 American film noir crime film directed by Andre DeToth. The film is based on the novel The Pitfall by Jay Dratler and stars Dick Powell, Lizabeth Scott, Jane Wyatt, Raymond Burr. John "Johnny" Forbes is a middle-class husband and father, tired of his boring routine, working for the Olympic Mutual Insurance Company in downtown Los Angeles. On a day when he is downhearted about his life, private investigator and former policeman J. B. "Mac" MacDonald reports to him regarding an embezzler, bonded by Olympic Mutual. The man, Bill Smiley, is serving time for the crime, is eligible for parole in two months. Smiley had given several expensive gifts - including a speedboat named Tempest - to his girlfriend, Santa Monica model Mona Stevens. Mac admits he is attracted to Mona and, wanting to remain on the case, offers to go speak to her about retrieving the illicit gifts. Forbes tells the investigator that he will go himself. At her apartment, the sultry blond cooperates after she learns that Smiley's parole may be sped up if she does, but needles Forbes about his job.
He suggests they go for a drink. They go out on the speedboat. After the drinks, Mona suggests dinner; the two begin a physical relationship. Mac, parked outside her apartment, sees Forbes leave much that night; the next day, Mac is waiting for Forbes in his office. He says that the boat is not there. Mac reveals, he reiterates how much he likes Mona and asks Forbes what it was he found to spend so much time talking with her about. Forbes decides to allow the boat to be re-possessed; when he tells Mona about this, that Mac knew he had let her keep it and could cause trouble, she reveals that Mac had been pounding on her door the previous night "until all hours". When Forbes arrives home, Mac is there and proceeds to beat him up, saying, "I told you I like that girl" and "Maybe this will keep you home where you belong for a few days". A happy Mona finds that Forbes has left his briefcase in her apartment. From her job at May Company department store she telephones his office and learns that he has called in "sick".
She borrows a co-worker's car, having decided to go to Forbes' home to visit him and take him some food. She arrives at the moment when the doctor, Forbes' wife Sue, their son Tommy are all outside, she realizes her lovers' marital status. When he recovers, Forbes meets Mona and she breaks off the affair, not wanting to destroy his family. Forbes rededicates himself to his wife and career, feeling a new contentment. Meanwhile, Mac continues to stalk Mona, both at home, she contacts Forbes to tell him that when she threatened to call police, Mac in turn threatened to tell Sue about the affair. Forbes goes to Mac's apartment and repays him for the beating, promising to kill him if he talks about his family again. Mac visits Smiley in prison and drops broad hints that Mona has been fooling around with the insurance adjuster. Shortly, Mona learns that her cooperation had an effect and that Smiley is getting out of jail imminently, she visits him the day before and he angrily asks about both Mac and Forbes.
Mona tells Forbes how Mac has been provoking him. At home, who has not believed the story that her husband told her about being beaten up by muggers, probes him to tell her what is on his mind; as he is about to do so, their son has a nightmare. When Smiley is freed, Mona finds him in her apartment drinking, he has a gun given to him by Mac, wants to know from her why Mac wants him to kill Forbes. Mona begs him to understand it is over, he says he can forgive her, but not Forbes, leaves. Mona telephones Forbes to warn him, he tells Sue. He waits with his own gun. Forbes shoots him dead. Thinking that both his rivals are taken care of, Mac shows up at Mona's expecting her to go away with him, she shoots him. Forbes allows the police to think that he has killed a burglar, after they are gone, he confesses everything to Sue. Over her objections, after walking the streets all night, he tells all to the district attorney; the DA reluctantly pronounces. The charge against her will depend on whether Mac dies.
Outside, Sue is waiting for Forbes. She says she will give him a second chance, though she is not sure their marriage will be the same. Dick Powell as John Forbes Lizabeth Scott as Mona Stevens Jane Wyatt as Sue Forbes Raymond Burr as MacDonald John Litel as District Attorney Byron Barr as Bill Smiley Jimmy Hunt as Tommy Forbes Ann Doran as Maggie Selmer Jackson as Ed Brawley Margaret Wells as Terry Dick Wassel as Desk Sergeant According to Madeleine Stowe, guest host on the May 21, 2016, Turner Classic Movies screening of the film, the production was in trouble because the script violated the Hays Code, as the adulterer was insufficiently punished; when director DeToth found out, he met with two senio
Film noir is a cinematic term used to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas those that emphasize cynical attitudes and sexual motivations. Hollywood's classical film noir period is regarded as extending from the early 1920s to the late 1950s. Film noir of this era is associated with a low-key, black-and-white visual style that has roots in German Expressionist cinematography. Many of the prototypical stories and much of the attitude of classic noir derive from the hardboiled school of crime fiction that emerged in the United States during the Great Depression; the term film noir, French for "black film" or "dark film", was first applied to Hollywood films by French critic Nino Frank in 1946, but was unrecognized by most American film industry professionals of that era. Cinema historians and critics defined the category retrospectively. Before the notion was adopted in the 1970s, many of the classic film noir were referred to as "melodramas". Whether film noir qualifies as a distinct genre is a matter of ongoing debate among scholars.
Film noir encompasses a range of plots: the central figure may be a private investigator, a plainclothes policeman, an aging boxer, a hapless grifter, a law-abiding citizen lured into a life of crime, or a victim of circumstance. Although film noir was associated with American productions, the term has been used to describe films from around the world. Many films released from the 1960s onward share attributes with film noirs of the classical period, treat its conventions self-referentially; some refer to such latter-day works as neo-noir. The clichés of film noir have inspired parody since the mid-1940s; the questions of what defines film noir, what sort of category it is, provoke continuing debate. "We'd be oversimplifying things in calling film noir oneiric, erotic and cruel..."—this set of attributes constitutes the first of many attempts to define film noir made by French critics Raymond Borde and Étienne Chaumeton in their 1955 book Panorama du film noir américain 1941–1953, the original and seminal extended treatment of the subject.
They emphasize that not every film noir embodies all five attributes in equal measure—one might be more dreamlike. The authors' caveats and repeated efforts at alternative definition have been echoed in subsequent scholarship: in the more than five decades since, there have been innumerable further attempts at definition, yet in the words of cinema historian Mark Bould, film noir remains an "elusive phenomenon... always just out of reach". Though film noir is identified with a visual style, unconventional within a Hollywood context, that emphasizes low-key lighting and unbalanced compositions, films identified as noir evidence a variety of visual approaches, including ones that fit comfortably within the Hollywood mainstream. Film noir embraces a variety of genres, from the gangster film to the police procedural to the gothic romance to the social problem picture—any example of which from the 1940s and 1950s, now seen as noir's classical era, was to be described as a melodrama at the time.
While many critics refer to film noir as a genre itself, others argue. Foster Hirsch defines a genre as determined by "conventions of narrative structure, characterization and visual design". Hirsch, as one who has taken the position that film noir is a genre, argues that these elements are present "in abundance". Hirsch notes that there are unifying features of tone, visual style and narrative sufficient to classify noir as a distinct genre. Others argue. Film noir is associated with an urban setting, but many classic noirs take place in small towns, rural areas, or on the open road. While the private eye and the femme fatale are character types conventionally identified with noir, the majority of film noirs feature neither. Nor does film noir rely on anything as evident as the monstrous or supernatural elements of the horror film, the speculative leaps of the science fiction film, or the song-and-dance routines of the musical. An analogous case is that of the screwball comedy accepted by film historians as constituting a "genre": the screwball is defined not by a fundamental attribute, but by a general disposition and a group of elements, some—but and never all—of which are found in each of the genre's films.
Because of the diversity of noir, certain scholars in the field, such as film historian Thomas Schatz, treat it as not a genre but a "style". Alain Silver, the most published American critic specializing in film noir studies, refers to film noir as a "cycle" and a "phenomenon" as he argues that it has—like certain genres—a consistent set of visual and thematic codes. Other critics treat film noir as a "mood", characterize it as a "series", or address a chosen set of films they regard as belonging to the noir "canon". There is no consensus on the matter; the aesthetics of film noir are influenced by German Expressionism, an artistic movement of the 1910s and 1920s that involved theater, painting and architecture, as well as cinema. The opportunities offered by the booming Hollywood film industry and the threat of Nazism, led to the emigration of many film artists working in Germany, involved in the Expressionist movement or studied wit
The Christian Science Monitor
The Christian Science Monitor is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition. It was founded in 1908 as a daily newspaper by Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of the Church of Christ, Scientist; as of 2011, the print circulation was 75,052. According to the organization's website, "the Monitor's global approach is reflected in how Mary Baker Eddy described its object as'To injure no man, but to bless all mankind.' The aim is to embrace the human family, shedding light with the conviction that understanding the world's problems and possibilities moves us towards solutions." The Christian Science Monitor has won seven Pulitzer Prizes and more than a dozen Overseas Press Club awards." Despite its name, the Monitor is not a religious-themed paper, does not promote the doctrine of its patron church. However, at its founder Eddy's request, a daily religious article has appeared in every issue of the Monitor; the paper has been known for avoiding sensationalism, producing a "distinctive brand of nonhysterical journalism".
In 1997, the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, a publication critical of United States policy in the Middle East, praised the Monitor for its objective and informative coverage of Islam and the Middle East. In 2006, Jill Carroll, a freelance reporter for the Monitor, was kidnapped in Baghdad, released safely after 82 days. Although Carroll was a freelancer, the paper worked tirelessly for her release hiring her as a staff writer shortly after her abduction to ensure that she had financial benefits, according to Bergenheim. Beginning in August 2006, the Monitor published an account of Carroll's kidnapping and subsequent release, with first-person reporting from Carroll and others involved; the paper's overall circulation has ranged from a peak of over 223,000 in 1970, to just under 56,000 shortly before the suspension of the daily print edition in 2009. In response to declining circulation and the struggle to earn a profit, the church's directors and the manager of the Christian Science Publishing Society were purportedly forced to plan cutbacks and closures, which led in 1989 to the mass protest resignations by its chief editor Kay Fanning, managing editor David Anable, associate editor David Winder, several other newsroom staff.
These developments presaged administrative moves to scale back the print newspaper in favor of expansions into radio, a magazine, shortwave broadcasting, television. Expenses, however outpaced revenues, contradicting predictions by church directors. On the brink of bankruptcy, the board was forced to close the broadcast programs in 1992; the Monitor's inception was, in part, a response by its founder Mary Baker Eddy to the journalism of her day, which relentlessly covered the sensations and scandals surrounding her new religion with varying degrees of accuracy. In addition, Joseph Pulitzer's New York World was critical of Eddy, this, along with a derogatory article in McClure's, furthered Eddy's decision to found her own media outlet. Eddy required the inclusion of "Christian Science" in the paper's name, over initial opposition by some of her advisors who thought the religious reference might repel a secular audience. Eddy saw a vital need to counteract the fear spread by media reporting: Looking over the newspapers of the day, one reflects that it is dangerous to live, so loaded with disease seems the air.
These descriptions carry fears to many minds. A periodical of our own will counteract to some extent this public nuisance. Eddy declared that the Monitor's mission should be "to injure no man, but to bless all mankind". MonitoRadio was a radio service produced by the Church of Christ, Scientist between 1984 and 1997, it featured several one-hour news broadcasts a day, as well as top of the hour news bulletins. The service was heard on public radio stations throughout the United States; the Monitor launched an international broadcast over shortwave radio, called the World Service of the Christian Science Monitor. Weekdays were news-led, but weekend schedules were dedicated to religious programming; that service ceased operations on June 28, 1997. In 1986, the Monitor started producing a current affairs television series, The Christian Science Monitor Reports, distributed via syndication to television stations across the United States. In 1988, the Christian Science Monitor Reports won a Peabody Award for a series of reports on Islamic fundamentalism.
That same year, the program was canceled and the Monitor created a daily television program, World Monitor, anchored by former NBC correspondent John Hart, shown on the Discovery Channel. In 1991, World Monitor moved to a 24-hour news and information channel; the channel launched on May 1991 with programming from its Boston TV station. The only religious programming on the channel was a five-minute Christian Science program early each morning. In 1992, after eleven months on the air, the service was shut down amid huge financial losses. Programming from the Monitor Channel was carried nationally via the WWOR EMI Service; the print edition continued to struggle for readership, and, in 2004, faced a renewed mandate from the church to earn a profit. Subsequently, the Monitor began relying more on the Internet as an integral part of its busines
Preston Stratton Foster, was an American actor of stage, film and television, whose career spanned nearly four decades. He had a career as a vocalist. Born in Ocean City, New Jersey, in 1900, Foster was the eldest of three children of New Jersey natives Sallie R. and Walter Foster. Preston had two sisters and Anna. There his father supported the family working as a painter. Sometime between 1910 and 1918, the Fosters relocated to Pitman, New Jersey, where Preston's father was employed as a machinist; the census for 1920 and Preston's earlier draft registration card from 1918 document that he continued to reside at that time at his parents' home at the intersection of Laurel and Snyder avenues in Pitman. Those records document as well that he had a job as a clerk for the New York Ship Company in Camden, New Jersey, located about 17 miles north of Pitman. A decade additional census records show that Foster had moved to Queens, New York, where he was living with his first wife, Gertrude, a widow and stage actress, seven years his senior.
The federal census of 1930 lists Foster as an actor by one employed in "Legitimate Vaudeville". Foster began working in films in 1929 after acting on Broadway, where he was still performing as late as November 1931 in the cast of Two Seconds, he soon reprised that stage role in Hollywood in the filmed version of the play. Some of his subsequent films include Doctor X, I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang, Annie Oakley, The Last Days of Pompeii, The Informer, Geronimo, My Friend Flicka, Roger Touhy, Gangster. Over the years, as Foster's film experience in Hollywood grew and directors gained increasing respect for his ability to play an array of characters, ranging from the "snarling family‐deserting criminal" in The People's Enemy in 1935 to the soft-spoken, fatherly chaplain on the Pacific battlefront in the 1943 film Guadalcanal Diary. Once, when asked if he regretted performing in villainous roles, Foster gave some insight into his family's reaction to them:I don't, but my mother does; every time I do a part like, she writes, ‘It was a nice picture, but do you have to play roles like that?’ Foster's career was interrupted by World War II, when he served with the United States Coast Guard.
While in active service he rose to the rank of captain, he was awarded the honorary rank of commodore. In addition to performing on stage and in numerous films, Foster was an accomplished singer who performed on both radio and in nightclubs, as well as a voice actor on radio. On July 25, 1943, Foster co-starred with Ellen Drew in "China Bridge," a presentation of Silver Theater on CBS radio. Foster enjoyed a secondary career as a vocalist. In 1948, he created a trio consisting of himself, his second wife Sheila, guitarist Gene Leis. Leis arranged the songs, the trio performed on radio and in clubs, appearing with Orrin Tucker, Peggy Ann Garner and Rita Hayworth. In 1950, Foster began performing on the young but expanding medium of television, his first credited role on the "small screen" was in September of that year on the NBC anthology series Cameo Theatre, in an episode titled "The Westland Case". After a few other appearances on series, he starred in the televised drama Waterfront, playing Captain John Herrick during the 1954-1955 broadcast season.
He guest-starred in 1963 in the ABC drama series Going My Way, starring Gene Kelly. Foster was married twice, the first time to actress Gertrude Elene Leonard, a widow, born in Woodbury, New Jersey in 1893; the two wed on June 1925, in Manhattan, where they both worked as actors. In the early 1930s, the couple relocated to Los Angeles. There, in 1939, they adopted Stephanie. Foster married actress Sheila Darcy in 1946, a union that lasted 24 years, until his death. During times between his performances in films and on television, Foster enjoyed boating and deep-sea fishing for marlin, off California's southern coast, he continued to accept acting offers in his years, although far less during the final decade of his life. His last film credit was in the role of Nick Kassel in Chubasco, released just two years before his death. During his years, Foster lived in the seaside community of La Jolla, part of the city of San Diego. In 1969, when the San Diego Padres made their debut as a Major League Baseball team, Foster wrote a song titled "Let's Go Padres", billed as the team's official song.
He sang it at some home games that season. Forster died in 1970 at age 69 in La Jolla after what The New York Times described as "a long illness", his gravesite is located at El Camino Memorial Park in California. Preston Foster has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 6801 Hollywood Blvd. Preston Foster at the Internet Broadway Database Preston Foster at Find a Grave
United Artists Corporation doing business as United Artists Digital Studios, is an American film and television entertainment studio. Founded in 1919 by D. W. Griffith, Charlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford, Douglas Fairbanks, the studio was premised on allowing actors to control their own interests, rather than being dependent upon commercial studios. UA was bought and restructured over the ensuing century; the current United Artists company exists as a successor to the original. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer acquired the studio in 1981 for a reported $350 million. On September 22, 2014, MGM acquired a controlling interest in Mark Burnett and Roma Downey's entertainment companies One Three Media and Lightworkers Media merged them to revive United Artists' TV production unit as United Artists Media Group. However, on December 14 of the following year, MGM wholly acquired UAMG and folded it into MGM Television. UA was revived yet again in 2018 as United Artists Digital Studios. Mirror, the joint distribution venture between MGM and Annapurna Pictures was renamed as United Artists Releasing in early February 2019 just in time for UA's 100th anniversary.
Pickford, Chaplin and Griffith incorporated UA as a joint venture on February 5, 1919. Each held a 25 percent stake in the preferred shares and a 20 percent stake in the common shares of the joint venture, with the remaining 20 percent of common shares held by lawyer and advisor William Gibbs McAdoo; the idea for the venture originated with Fairbanks, Chaplin and cowboy star William S. Hart a year earlier. Hollywood veterans, the four stars talked of forming their own company to better control their own work, they were spurred on by established Hollywood producers and distributors who were tightening their control over actor salaries and creative decisions, a process that evolved into the studio system. With the addition of Griffith, planning began; when he heard about their scheme, Richard A. Rowland, head of Metro Pictures said, "The inmates are taking over the asylum." The four partners, with advice from McAdoo, formed their distribution company. Hiram Abrams was its first managing director, the company established its headquarters at 729 Seventh Avenue in New York City.
The original terms called for each star to produce five pictures a year. By the time the company was operational in 1921, feature films were becoming more expensive and polished, running times had settled at around ninety minutes; the original goal was thus abandoned. UA's first film, His Majesty, the American, written by and starring Fairbanks, was a success. Funding for movies was limited. Without selling stock to the public like other studios, all United had for finance was weekly prepayment installments from theater owners for upcoming movies; as a result, production was slow, the company distributed an average of only five films a year in its first five years. By 1924, Griffith had dropped out, the company was facing a crisis. Veteran producer Joseph Schenck was hired as president, he had produced pictures for a decade, brought commitments for films starring his wife, Norma Talmadge, his sister-in-law, Constance Talmadge, his brother-in-law, Buster Keaton. Contracts were signed with independent producers, including Samuel Goldwyn, Howard Hughes.
In 1933, Schenck organized a new company with Darryl F. Zanuck, called Twentieth Century Pictures, which soon provided four pictures a year, forming half of UA's schedule. Schenck formed a separate partnership with Pickford and Chaplin to buy and build theaters under the United Artists name, they began international operations, first in Canada, in Mexico. By the end of the 1930s, United Artists was represented in over 40 countries; when he was denied an ownership share in 1935, Schenck resigned. He set up 20th Century Pictures' merger with Fox Film Corporation to form 20th Century Fox. Al Lichtman succeeded Schenck as company president. Other independent producers distributed through United Artists in the 1930s including Walt Disney Productions, Alexander Korda, Hal Roach, David O. Selznick, Walter Wanger; as the years passed, the dynamics of the business changed, these "producing partners" drifted away. Samuel Goldwyn Productions and Disney went to Wanger to Universal Pictures. In the late 1930s, UA turned a profit.
Goldwyn was providing most of the output for distribution. He sued United several times for disputed compensation leading him to leave. MGM's 1939 hit Gone with the Wind was supposed to be a UA release except that Selznick wanted Clark Gable, under contract to MGM, to play Rhett Butler; that year, Fairbanks died. UA became embroiled in lawsuits with Selznick over his distribution of some films through RKO. Selznick considered UA's operation sloppy, left to start his own distribution arm. In the 1940s, United Artists was losing money because of poorly received pictures. Cinema attendance continued to decline; the company sold its Mexican releasing division to Crédito Cinematográfico Mexicano, a local company. In 1941, Chaplin, Orson Welles, Selznick, Alexander Korda, Wanger—many of whom were members of United Artists--formed the Society of Independent Motion Picture Producers. Members included Hunt Stromberg, William Cagney, Sol L
House of Wax (1953 film)
House of Wax is a 1953 American color 3-D slasher film, about a disfigured sculptor who repopulates his destroyed wax museum by murdering people and using their wax-coated corpses as displays. Directed by Andre DeToth and starring Vincent Price, it is a remake of Warner Bros.' Mystery of the Wax Museum. It premiered in New York on April 10, 1953 and began a general release on April 25, 1953. House of Wax was the first color 3-D feature from a major American studio and premiered just two days after the Columbia Pictures film Man in the Dark, the first major-studio black-and-white 3-D feature, it was the first 3-D film with stereophonic sound to be presented in a regular theater. In 1971, it was re-released to theaters in 3-D, with a full advertising campaign. Newly-struck prints of the film in Chris Condon's single-strip StereoVision 3-D format were used. Another major re-release occurred during the 3-D boom of the early 1980s. In 2005, Warner Bros. released a new film called House of Wax, but its plot is different from the two earlier films'.
It received negative reviews from critics. In 2014, the film was deemed "culturally or aesthetically significant" by the Library of Congress, was selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. Professor Henry Jarrod is a talented wax figure sculptor with a wax museum in early 1900s New York City, he specializes in historical figures, featuring sculptures of John Wilkes Booth, Joan of Arc, one of Marie Antoinette, which he considers his masterpiece. When his business partner Matthew Burke demands more sensational exhibits to increase profits, Jarrod refuses. Jarrod gives a private tour to renowned art critic Sidney Wallace. Wallace impressed with Jarrod's sculptures, agrees to buy Burke out, but will not be able to do so until after he returns from a Continental trip; that same night, Burke deliberately sets the museum on fire, intending to claim the insurance money. In the process, he fights off Jarrod, attempting to save his precious sculptures. Burke splashes leaves him to die in the fire.
Miraculously, Jarrod survives, but with severe injuries including crippled hands and uses a wheelchair. He builds a new House of Wax with help from deaf-mute sculptor Igor and another assistant named Leon Averill. Jarrod now concedes to popular taste and includes a "Chamber of Horrors" that showcases both historical crimes and recent events, the apparent suicide of his former business partner Burke. In reality, Burke was murdered by a cloaked, disfigured killer who staged the death as a suicide. Burke's fiancée, Cathy Gray, is murdered soon afterward, her body mysteriously disappears from the morgue. Cathy’s friend Sue Allen, who found Cathy's body and saw the murderer, visits the museum and is troubled by the strong resemblance of the wax Joan of Arc figure to her dead friend. Jarrod explains. Unsatisfied, Sue returns after hours and uncovers the horrifying truth behind the House of Wax: many of the figures are wax-coated corpses, including Cathy and Burke. Sue is confronted by Jarrod,who can walk well and only pretended to be crippled.
He proclaims her his new "model" for a sculpture of Marie Antoinette. Sue tries to fight him off, hitting his face, revealed to be a wax mask that shatters and exposes fire-scarred flesh beneath, he straps her to a table, preparing to coat her living body with wax. The police, having learned the whole truth from Averill, arrive in time to save her. Jarrod tries to escape, fighting with a police officer, dies when he is knocked into the vat of molten wax he had prepared for Sue. Vincent Price as Professor Henry Jarrod Frank Lovejoy as Lt. Tom Brennan Phyllis Kirk as Sue Allen Carolyn Jones as Cathy Gray Paul Picerni as Scott Andrews Roy Roberts as Matthew Burke Paul Cavanagh as Sidney Wallace Dabbs Greer as Sgt. Jim Shane Angela Clarke as Mrs. Andrews Charles Bronson as Igor Nedrick Young as Leon Averill House of Wax, filmed under the working title The Wax Works, was Warner Bros.' Answer to the surprise 3-D hit Bwana Devil, an independent production that premiered the previous November. Seeing promise in 3-D's future, Warner Bros. contracted Julian and Milton Gunzburg's Natural Vision 3-D system, the same one used for Bwana Devil, filmed a remake of their thriller Mystery of the Wax Museum, based on Charles S. Belden's three-act play, The Wax Works.
Among the significant changes: the earlier film was set in the year it was released whereas House of Wax was moved back to circa 1902. Among the foregrounded uses of 3-D in the film were scenes featuring a wax museum fire, can-can girls, a paddleball-wielding pitchman. In what may be the film's cleverest and most startling 3-D effect, the shadowy figure of one of the characters seems to spring up out of the theater audience and run into the screen. Director Andre DeToth was unable to experience stereo vision or 3-D effects. "It’s one of the great Holly