Order of the Star of India
The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1861. The Order includes members of three classes: Knight Grand Commander Knight Commander Companion No appointments have been made since the 1948 New Year Honours, shortly after the Partition of India in 1947. With the death in 2009 of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Alwar, the order became dormant; the motto of the order was Heaven's light our guide. The "Star of India", the emblem of the order appeared on the flag of the Viceroy of India and other flags used to represent British India; the order is the fifth most senior British order of chivalry, following the Order of the Garter, Order of the Thistle, Order of St Patrick and Order of the Bath. It is the senior order of chivalry associated with the British Raj. Several years after the Indian Mutiny and the consolidation of Great Britain's power as the governing authority in India, it was decided by the British Crown to create a new order of knighthood to honour Indian Princes and Chiefs, as well as British officers and administrators who served in India.
On 25 June 1861, the following proclamation was issued by the Queen: The Queen, being desirous of affording to the Princes and People of the Indian Empire, a public and signal testimony of Her regard, by the Institution of an Order of knighthood, whereby Her resolution to take upon Herself the Government of the Territories in India may be commemorated, by which Her Majesty may be enabled to reward conspicuous merit and loyalty, has been graciously pleased, by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, to institute, erect and create, an Order of Knighthood, to be known by, have for hereafter, the name and designation, of "The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India" The first appointees were: HRH The Prince Consort HRH The Prince of Wales The Rt Hon Earl Canning, GCB, Governor-General of India and Grand Master of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India HH Maharaja Shri Sir Vaghji Thakor Morvi State for representing Kathiyawar on the day of Victoria's Jubilee Ceremony given by Queen Victoria for this honor HH Sir Vaghaji Thakor make them Sister.
HH Nawab Mir Tahniat Ali Khan Bahadur, Afzal ad-Dawlah, Asaf Jah V, the Nizam of Hyderabad HH Jayajirao Scindia, Maharaja of Gwalior HH Raja Bahadur Bindeshwari Prasad Singh Deo, Raja of Udaipur state in Chota Nagpur States. HH Maharaja Duleep Singh, former Maharaja of the Sikh Empire HH Ranbir Singh, Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir HH Tukojirao Holkar, Maharaja of Indore HH Narendra Singh, Maharaja of Patiala HH Khanderrao Gaekwad, Maharaja of Baroda HRH Maharaja Bir Shamsher Jang Bahadur Rana of Nepal HH Nawab Sikander Begum, Nawab Begum of Bhopal HH Yusef Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Rampur The Rt Hon Viscount Gough, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army The Rt Hon Lord Harris, Governor of Madras The Rt Hon Lord Clyde, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army Sir George Russell Clerk, Governor of Bombay Sir John Laird Mair Lawrence, Bt, GCB, Lieutenant-Governor of the Punjab Sir James Outram, Bt, GCB, Member of the Viceroy's Council Sir Hugh Henry Rose, GCB, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army HEH Nizam Sir Mir Osman Ali Khan Siddiqi Bayafandi Asaf Jah VII, 7th Nizam of HyderabadThe Order of the Indian Empire, founded in 1877, was intended to be a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India.
The last appointments to the orders relating to the British Empire in India were made in the 1948 New Year Honours, some months after the Partition of India in August 1947. The orders have never been formally abolished, Elizabeth II succeeded her father George VI as Sovereign of the Orders when she ascended the throne in 1952, she remains Sovereign of the Order to this day. However, there are no living members of the order. There were only three female members of the Order: Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal and her daughter, Hajjah Nawab Begum Dame Sultan Jahan, Mary of Teck; the last Grand Master of the Order, Admiral of the Fleet The Earl Mountbatten of Burma, was assassinated by the Provisional IRA on 27 August 1979. The last surviving Knight Grand Commander, HH Maharaja Sree Padmanabhadasa Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma GCSI, GCIE, Maharajah of Travancore; the last surviving Knight Commander, HH Maharaja Sir Tej Singh Prabhakar Bahadur KCSI, Maharaja of Alwar, died on 15 February 2009 in New Delhi.
The last surviving Companion of the Order, Vice-Admiral Sir Ronald Brockman CSI, died on 3 September 1999 in London. The British Sovereign was, still is, Sovereign of the Order; the next most senior member was the Grand Master, a position held ex officio by the Viceroy of India. When the order was established in 1861, there was only one class of Knights Companion, who bore the postnominals KSI. In 1866, however, it was expanded to three classes. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commander" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. All those surviving members, made Knights Companion of the Order were retroactively known as Knights Grand Commander. Former viceroys and other high officials, as well as those who served in the Department of the Secretary of State for India for at least thirty years were eligible for appointment. Rulers of Indian Princely States were eligible for appointment; some states were of such importance that their rulers were always appointed
Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi, it erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, though incidents of revolt occurred farther north and east. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to British power in that region, was contained only with the rebels' defeat in Gwalior on 20 June 1858. On 1 November 1858, the British granted amnesty to all rebels not involved in murder, though they did not declare the hostilities formally to have ended until 8 July 1859; the rebellion is known by many names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, the First War of Independence.
The Indian rebellion was fed by resentments born of diverse perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, as well as skepticism about the improvements brought about by British rule. Many Indians rose against the British. Violence, which sometimes betrayed exceptional cruelty, was inflicted on both sides, on British officers, civilians, including women and children, by the rebels, on the rebels, their supporters, including sometimes entire villages, by British reprisals. After the outbreak of the mutiny in Meerut, the rebels quickly reached Delhi, whose 81-year-old Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, they declared the Emperor of Hindustan. Soon, the rebels had captured large tracts of the North-Western Provinces and Awadh; the East India Company's response came as well. With help from reinforcements, Kanpur was retaken by mid-July 1857, Delhi by the end of September. However, it took the remainder of 1857 and the better part of 1858 for the rebellion to be suppressed in Jhansi and the Awadh countryside.
Other regions of Company controlled India—Bengal province, the Bombay Presidency, the Madras Presidency—remained calm. In the Punjab, the Sikh princes crucially helped the British by providing support; the large princely states, Mysore and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, did not join the rebellion, serving the British, in the Governor-General Lord Canning's words, as "breakwaters in a storm."In some regions, most notably in Awadh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. However, the rebel leaders proclaimed no articles of faith. So, the rebellion proved to be an important watershed in Indian- and British Empire history, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company, forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, the administration in India, through passage of the Government of India Act 1858. India was thereafter administered directly by the British government in the new British Raj. On 1 November 1858, Queen Victoria issued a proclamation to Indians, which while lacking the authority of a constitutional provision, promised rights similar to those of other British subjects.
In the following decades, when admission to these rights was not always forthcoming, Indians were to pointedly refer to the Queen's proclamation in growing avowals of a new nationalism. Although the British East India Company had established a presence in India as far back as 1612, earlier administered the factory areas established for trading purposes, its victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of its firm foothold in eastern India; the victory was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar, when the East India Company army defeated Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. After his defeat, the emperor granted the Company the right to the "collection of Revenue" in the provinces of Bengal, known as "Diwani" to the Company; the Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Madras. In 1806, the Vellore Mutiny was sparked by new uniform regulations that created resentment amongst both Hindu and Muslim sepoys. After the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories.
This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and local rulers or by direct military annexation. The subsidiary alliances created the princely states of the Muslim nawabs. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir were annexed after the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849; the border dispute between Nepal and British India, which sharpened after 1801, had caused the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 and brought the defeated Gurkhas under British influence. In 1854, Berar was annexed, the state of Oudh was added two years later. For practical purposes, the Company was the government of much of India; the Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. The sepoys were Indian soldiers who were recruited into the Company's army
Siege of Delhi
The Siege of Delhi was one of the decisive conflicts of the Indian rebellion of 1857. The rebellion against the authority of the East India Company was widespread through much of Northern India, but it was sparked by the mass uprising by the sepoys of the units of the Army which the company had itself raised in its Bengal Presidency. Seeking a symbol around which to rally, the first sepoys to rebel sought to reinstate the power of the Mughal Empire, which had ruled the entire Indian subcontinent during the previous centuries. Lacking overall direction, many who subsequently rebelled flocked to Delhi; this made the siege decisive for two reasons. Firstly, large numbers of rebels were committed to the defence of a single fixed point to the detriment of their prospects elsewhere, their defeat at Delhi was thus a major military setback. Secondly, the British recapture of Delhi and the refusal of the aged Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah II to continue the struggle, deprived the rebellion of much of its national character.
Although the rebels still held large areas, there was little co-ordination between them and the British were able to overcome them separately. After several years of increasing tension among the sepoys of the British East India Company's Bengal Army, the sepoys at Meerut, 43 miles northeast of Delhi rebelled against their British officers; the flashpoint was the introduction of the Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle. The cartridges for this were believed to be greased with a mixture of cow and pig fat, to bite them open when loading the rifle would defile both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Eighty-five men of the 3rd Bengal Cavalry stationed at Meerut refused to accept their cartridges, they were hastily court martialled, on 9 May 1857 they were sentenced to long periods of imprisonment and were paraded in irons before the British and Bengal regiments in the garrison. On the evening of the following day, soldiers of the Bengal regiments rebelled, releasing the imprisoned troopers and killing their British officers and many British civilians in their cantonment.
The senior Company officers at Meerut were taken by surprise. Although they had ample warning of disaffection among the Bengal Army after earlier outbreaks of unrest at Berhampur and Ambala, they had assumed that at Meerut, where the proportion of European to Indian troops was higher than anywhere else in India, the Bengal units would not risk open revolt, they were fortunate. The Bengal regiments broke into rebellion on Sunday, when European troops customarily attended evening Church parade without arms. Due to the hot summer weather, the Church services on 10 May took place half an hour than on previous weeks, when the outbreak occurred, the British troops had not yet left their barracks and could be mustered and armed. Other than defending their own barracks and armouries, the Company's commanders at Meerut took little action, not notifying nearby garrisons or stations; when they had rallied the British troops in the cantonment and prepared to disperse the sepoys on 11 May, they found that Meerut was quiet and the sepoys had marched off to Delhi.
Delhi was the capital of the Mughal Empire, reduced to insignificance over the preceding century. The Emperor, Bahadur Shah II, eighty-two, had been informed by the East India Company that the title would die with him. At the time, Delhi was not a major centre of Company administration although Company officials controlled the city's finances and courts, they and their families lived in the "Civil Lines" to the north of the city. There were no units of the British Army or "European" units of the East India Company forces at Delhi. Three Bengal Native Infantry regiments were stationed in barracks 2 miles north-west of the city, they provided guards, working parties and other details to a "Main Guard" building just inside the walls near the Kashmiri Gate on the northern circuit of walls, the arsenal in the city and other buildings. By coincidence, when the regiments paraded early in the morning of 11 May, their officers read out to them the General Order announcing the execution of sepoy Mangal Pandey, who had attempted to start a rebellion near Barrackpur earlier in the year, the disbandment of his regiment.
This produced much muttering in the ranks. In the morning, the rebels from Meerut arrived quite unexpectedly, crossing the bridge of boats over the Jumna River; the leading sowars of the 3rd Light Cavalry halted under the windows of the Palace and called on the Emperor to lead them. Bahadur Shah called for them to go to another palace outside the city, where their case would be heard later. Company officials tried to close all the city gates but were too late to prevent the sowars gaining entry through the Rajghat Gate to the south. Once inside, the sowars were joined by mobs which began attacking Company officials and looting bazaars; some Company officers and civilians tried to take refuge in the Main Guard, but the sepoys there joined the revolt, they were slaughtered. Other officers arrived from the barracks, accompanied by two field guns and several companies of sepoys who had not yet joined the rebellion, recaptured the Main Guard, sending the bodies of the dead officers to the cantonments in a cart.
In the city meanwhile nine British officers from the Ordnance Corps, led by George Willoughby were conducting the D
Thomas Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook
Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook, was a British Liberal statesman. Gladstone appointed him Viceroy of India 1872–1876, his major accomplishments came as an energetic reformer, dedicated to upgrading the quality of government in the British Raj. He began large scale famine relief, reduced taxes, overcame bureaucratic obstacles in an effort to reduce both starvation and widespread social unrest, he served as First Lord of the Admiralty between 1880 and 1885. Northbrook was the eldest son of Francis Baring, 1st Baron Northbrook, by his first wife Jane, daughter of the Hon. Sir George Grey, 1st Baronet, he was educated at Twyford School and Christ Church, where he graduated with honours in 1846. Northbrook entered upon a political career, was successively private secretary to Henry Labouchere, Sir George Grey, Sir Charles Wood. In 1847 he served on the committee of the British Relief Association. In 1857, he was returned to the House of Commons for Penryn and Falmouth, which constituency he continued to represent until he became a peer on the death of his father in 1866.
He served under Lord Palmerston as Civil Lord of the Admiralty between 1857 and 1858, as Under-Secretary of State for War in 1861, as Under-Secretary of State for India between 1861 and 1864, under Palmerston and Lord Russell as Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department between 1864 and 1866 and under Russell as Secretary to the Admiralty in 1866. When William Ewart Gladstone acceded to power in 1868, Baring was again appointed Under-Secretary of State for War, this office he held until February 1872, when he was appointed Viceroy of India. In January 1876, however, he resigned, he had recommended the conclusion of arrangements with Sher Ali Khan which, as has since been admitted, would have prevented the Second Afghan War. In 1876 he was created Viscount Baring, of Lee in the County of Kent, Earl of Northbrook, in the County of Southampton. From 1880 to 1885 Northbrook held the post of First Lord of the Admiralty in Gladstone's second government. During his tenure of office the state of the navy aroused much public anxiety and led to a strong agitation in favor of an extended shipbuilding programme.
The agitation called forth Tennyson's poem The Fleet. In September 1884, Northbrook was sent to Egypt as special commissioner to inquire into its finances and condition; the inquiry was unnecessary, all the essential facts being well known, but the mission was a device of Gladstone's to avoid an immediate decision on a perplexing question. Northbrook, after six weeks of inquiry in Egypt, sent in two reports, one general, advising against the withdrawal of the British garrison, one financial, his financial proposals, if accepted, would have substituted the financial control of Britain for the international control proposed at the London Conference of June–August of the same year, but this was not carried out. When Gladstone formed his third ministry in 1886 Baring held aloof, being opposed to the Home Rule policy of the premier. Baring had served in the Hampshire Yeomanry, reaching the rank of major, was appointed the regiment's Honorary Colonel on 26 January 1889. In 1890 he was appointed Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire.
In the 1880s he was President of an offshoot of the National Indian Association, named the Northbrook Indian Society after its President. From 1890 to 1893 he was president of the Royal Asiatic Society. Lord Northbrook married Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Charles Sturt and sister of Lord Alington, in 1848, they had one daughter. She died in June 1867, aged 40. Lord Northbrook remained a widower until his death at Stratton Park, Hampshire, in November 1904, aged 78. There is a memorial to him at East Stratton, he was succeeded in the earldom by Francis. The Ghanta Ghar Multan, or Clock Tower of Multan, was named'Northbrook Tower', it is located in the center of Multan in Pakistan. Northbrook Hall Manor House Gardens This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Baring". Encyclopædia Britannica. 3. Cambridge University Press. P. 401. Mersey, Viscount Charles Clive Bigham; the viceroys and governors-general of India, 1757-1947 Gosto Behary Mullick. Lord Northbrook and his mission in India: a lecture.
Includes his speeches Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Thomas Baring "Archival material relating to Thomas Baring, 1st Earl of Northbrook". UK National Archives
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th
Pratap Singh of Jammu and Kashmir
Maharaja Sir Pratap Singh was the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, head of the Jamwal Rajput clan. Some elements in the British Empire made an attempt to implicate the Dogra Maharaja in a conspiracy case involving the Russian Empire. At the end a ruling council was forced on Jammu and Kashmir, which included a British agent and the Maharaja's brother Amar Singh, he was succeeded by his nephew, Hari Singh as the Maharaja in 1925. Before Pratap Singh's accession, the British Government was represented in Kashmir by an Officer-on-Special Duty who had only limited functions to perform; the Government of India had made many attempts at the time of Ranbir Singh to raise the status of the Officer to that of a full-fledged Political Resident. The Maharaja had, however resisted these, but now taking advantage of the fresh succession they were able to post a Political Resident in Jammu and Kashmir. Within the British Empire and Kashmir was a salute state. In 1921, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir was upgraded to a hereditary 21-gun salute.
Pratap Singh was granted the increased ranks as a result of the meritorious services of the Dogra soldiers in the First World War. During the time of Pratap Singh, the first major step of improvement was taken in 1889 when the Jhelum Valley Cart Road, "the most wonderful mountain road in the world", from Kohala to Baramulla was completed, it was extended to Srinagar in 1897. In 1922, another great highway, the Banihal Cart Road, which connected Srinagar, the summer capital, with Jammu,the winter capital of the state was thrown open to the public. Besides these, many feeder roads in the state including those connecting Srinagar with Gilgit and Leh were constructed; the impact of these roads on the life of the people of Jammu and Kashmir may be judged from the fact that before Pratap Singh, there was not a single wheeled conveyance, including a hand-cart. By the time his reign came to a close, motor cars became the principal means of conveyance. Besides construction of roads, several efforts were made to link the Valley with the railway system but nothing substantial came out owing to the prohibitive costs.
A project to build a seventy nine-mile long mono-cable steel ropeway from Jammu to the village Doru and connecting it with Srinagar by a forty six-mile long light railway could not be taken up to But Jammu was linked to Sialkot in the Punjab in 1890. In 1887, the State Government carried out the first land settlement; as a result, the rights of the agriculturists were clearly' defined and the state's demand was fixed for ten years. "Begar" or forced labour in its more objectionable form was abolished. In 1898, Pratap allowed for the construction of the Shri Pratap Singh Museum in Srinagar. By 1912 every tehsil and district was settled either for the first time or in revision; the share of the state was fixed at 30 per cent of the gross produce and the revenue was to be collected in cash. The land settlement gave much needed security to the cultivators and became responsible for their increasing prosperity; the revenue of the state increased by more than 100 per cent. A model agricultural farm was set up at Srinagar for the spread of knowledge about the scientific methods of cultivation.
Establishment of the Department of Agriculture and the introduction of Cooperative Societies were the other measures taken up to further improve the lot of the cultivators. By 1929, the number of Cooperative Credit Societies in the state alone rose to about 1100 with a membership of 27,500. Jammu and Kashmir is rich in forests, but till the accession of Pratap Singh nothing had been done to exploit these on scientific lines. In 1891, the State established the Forest Department which soon began to give a good account of itself, its surplus revenue for the first year was about a quarter of million of rupees. The same rose to about two million for the year 1921–22 and to a record figure of about five million for the year 1929–30. Efforts were made to popularise education. In pursuance of the suggestions made in the report of 1916, many changes were made in the system of education. A number of new schools for both boys and girls were opened; the imparting of education in the primary schools was made free.
Several measures were taken for the education of Muslims especially. Grants were budgeted. For the training of unqualified teachers at the Training College and normal schools at Lahore. Normal schools were established at various places within the State. One degree college each at Jammu (Prince of Wales College, established in 1907, Srinagar and Amar Singh Technical Institute at the latter and Sri Pratap Technical School at the former 16 were maintained to meet the demands for higher education. By 1938, Sri Pratap College, with 1187 students on its rolls, achieved the distinction of being the second largest college affiliated to the Punjab University. Modern hospitals for both males and females were established at Srinagar and Jammu. In other towns and important villages, medical dispensaries under the charge of qualified doctors were opened; these establishments went a long way in improving the health of the people. Smallpox used to take a heavy toll of life in the valley. Vaccination on an extensive scale was introduced in 1894 to prevent it."'
Modern water works were established at Jammu and Srinagar. The Church Missionary Society set up in Kashmir in the time of Maharaja Ranbir Singh contributed much to the promotion of public health and education, it ran them on modern lines. A great spill channel was constructed in 1904 to divert the flood waters of the a number Jhe