Imperial County, California
Imperial County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 174,528; the county seat is El Centro. Established in 1907 from a division of San Diego County, it was last county to be formed in California. Imperial County includes California Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is part of the Southern California border region, the smallest but most economically diverse region in the state. It is located in the Imperial Valley, in the far southeast of California, bordering both Arizona and the Mexican state of Baja California. Although this region is a desert, with high temperatures and low average rainfall of three inches per year, the economy is based on agriculture due to irrigation, supplied wholly from the Colorado River via the All-American Canal; the Imperial Valley is divided between the United States and Mexico, Imperial County is influenced by Mexican culture. 80% of the county's population is Hispanic, with the vast majority being of Mexican origin.
The remainder of the population is predominantly non-Hispanic white as well as smaller African American, Native American and Asian minorities. In 2016, Imperial County had the highest percentage of unemployed people of any county in the United States, at 23.5%. Spanish explorer Melchor Díaz was one of the first Europeans to visit the area around Imperial Valley in 1540; the explorer Juan Bautista de Anza explored the area in 1776. Years after the Mexican–American War, the northern half of the valley was annexed by the U. S. while the southern half remained under Mexican rule. Small scale settlement in natural aquifer areas occurred in the early 19th century, but most permanent settlement was after 1900. In 1905, torrential rainfall in the American Southwest caused the Colorado River to flood, including canals, built to irrigate the Imperial Valley. Since the valley is below sea level, the waters never receded, but collected in the Salton Sink in what is now called the Salton Sea. Imperial County was formed in 1907 from the eastern portion of San Diego County.
The county took its name from Imperial Valley, itself named for the Imperial Land Company, a subsidiary of the California Development Company, which at the turn of the 20th century had claimed the southern portion of the Colorado Desert for agriculture. Much of the Imperial Land Company's land existed in Mexico; the objective of the company was commercial crop farming development. By 1910, the land company had managed to settle and develop thousands of farms on both sides of the border; the Mexican Revolution soon after disrupted the company's plans. Nearly 10,000 farmers and their families in Mexico were ethnically cleansed by the rival Mexican armies. Not until the 1920s was the other side of California in America sufficiently peaceful and prosperous for the company to earn a return for a large percentage of Mexicans, but some chose to stay and lay down roots in newly sprouted communities in the valley; the county experienced a period of migration of "Okies" from drought-trodden dust bowl farms by the need of migrant labor, prosperous job-seekers alike from across the U.
S. arrived in the 1930s and 1940s in World War II and after the completion of the All American Canal from its source, the Colorado River, from 1948 to 1951. By the 1950 census, over 50,000 residents lived in Imperial County alone, about 40 times that of 1910. Most of the population was year-round but would increase every winter by migrant laborers from Mexico; until the 1960s, the farms in Imperial County provided substantial economic returns to the company and the valley. El Centro has one of the highest unemployment rates in the U. S. and ranks one of California's poorest counties or have a lower than state and national average annual household income. Fort Yuma is located on the banks of the Colorado River in California. First established after the end of the Mexican–American War in 1848, it was located in the bottoms near the Colorado River, less than 1 mile below the mouth of the Gila River, it was to defend the newly settled community of Yuma, Arizona on the other side of the Colorado River and the nearby Mexican border.
In March 1851 the post was moved to a small elevation on the Colorado's west bank, opposite the present city of Yuma, Arizona, on the site of the former Mission Puerto de Purísima Concepción. This site had been occupied by Camp Calhoun, named for John C. Calhoun, established in 1849. Fort Yuma was established to protect the southern emigrant travel route to California and to attempt control of the Yuma Indians in the surrounding 100-mile area. NAF El Centro is the winter home of the U. S. Navy Flight Demonstration Squadron, The Blue Angels. NAF El Centro kicks off the Blue Angels' season with their first air show, traditionally held in March. Imperial, CA is home to the California Mid-Winter Fair and Fiesta, the local county fair, held in late February to early March, it is home to the Imperial Valley Speedway, a race track of 3⁄8 mile. The name Algodones Dunes refers to the entire geographic feature, while the administrative designation for that portion managed by the Bureau of Land Management is the "Imperial Sand Dunes Recreation Area".
The Algodones Sand Dunes are the largest mass of sand dunes in California. This dune system extends for more than 40 miles along the eastern edge of the Imperial Valley agricultural region in a band averaging 5 miles in width. A major east-west route of the Union Pacific railroad skirts the e
Alpine County, California
Alpine County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,175; the county seat is the Census Designated Place of Markleeville. There are no incorporated cities in the county. Alpine County is between Lake Tahoe and Yosemite National Park. Alpine County was created on March 16, 1864, during a silver boom in the wake of the nearby Comstock Lode discovery, it was named because of its resemblance to the Swiss Alps. The county was formed from parts of Amador, Calaveras, El Dorado and Tuolumne Counties. At its formation, there was a population of about 11,000 with its county seat at Silver Mountain City. By 1868, the local silver mines had proven unfruitful; the county seat moved to Markleeville in 1875. After the silver rush, Alpine County's economy consisted entirely of farming and logging. By the 1920s, the population had fallen to just 200 people. With the construction of the Bear Valley and Kirkwood ski resorts in the late 1960s, the population increased to the present level.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 743 square miles, of which 738 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. The federal government owns about 96 % of the highest percentage in California. El Dorado County – northwest Douglas County, Nevada – northeast Mono County – southeast Tuolumne County – south Calaveras County – southwest Amador County – west Eldorado National Forest Stanislaus National Forest Toiyabe National Forest The 2010 United States Census reported that Alpine County had a population of 1,175; the racial makeup of Alpine County was 881 White, 0 African American, 240 Native American, 7 Asian, 0 Pacific Islander, 19 from other races, 28 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 84 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,208 people, 483 households, 295 families residing in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 1,514 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 73.7% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 18.9% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, 5.1% from two or more races.
7.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.1% were of German, 12.1% Irish, 9.3% English, 6.5% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 95.0 % spoke 2.0 % Washo as their first language. There were 483 households out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.9% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.9% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.8% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 110.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $41,875, the median income for a family was $50,250.
Males had a median income of $36,544 versus $25,800 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,431. About 12.0% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over. Throughout the 20th century, Alpine County was a Republican stronghold in presidential and congressional elections. From 1892 until 2004, the only Democrat to carry Alpine County in a presidential election was Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 and 1936. In 1964, Alpine was one of only five counties in the state to back Barry Goldwater, it was among the five most Republican counties in the entire nation in 1892, 1908, 1920, 1928. Warren Harding and Herbert Hoover gained over ninety percent of the county’s vote. However, Alpine has become more of a Democratic-leaning county in recent elections, it has stayed in the Democratic column since. In November 2008, Alpine was one of just three counties in California's interior in which voters rejected Proposition 8, the ballot initiative to amend the California Constitution to reject the legal extension of the title of marriage to same-sex couples.
Alpine voters rejected Proposition 8 by 56.4 percent to 43.6 percent. The other interior counties in which Proposition 8 failed to receive a majority of votes were neighboring Mono County and Yolo County. According to the California Secretary of State, as of January 2016, there are 696 registered voters in Alpine County. Of those, 257 are registered Democratic, 210 are registered Republican, 46 are registered with other political parties, 183 declined to state a political party. Alpine County is in California's 4th congressional district, represented by Republican Tom McClintock. In the State Assembly, the county is in the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican Frank Bigelow. In the State Senate, the county is in the 1st Senate District, seat vacant. Due to its low population density, Alpine County votes by mail, one of two counties in California which do so. In the June 2014 primary elections, about 22% of registered voters went to the polls. In Alpine County, the number was 70%, the highest of any county in the state.
In the late 1970s, the Posse Comitatus organization attempted to
The Diablo Range is a mountain range in the California Coast Ranges subdivision of the Pacific Coast Ranges. It is located in the eastern San Francisco Bay area south to the Salinas Valley area of northern California, the United States; the Diablo Range extends from the Carquinez Strait in the north to Orchard Peak in the south, near the point where State Route 46 crosses over the Coast Ranges at Cholame, as described by the USGS. It is bordered on the northeast by the San Joaquin River, on the southeast by the San Joaquin Valley, on the southwest by the Salinas River, on the northwest by the Santa Clara Valley; the USGS designation is somewhat ambiguous north of the Santa Clara Valley, but on their maps, the range is shown as the ridgeline which runs between its namesake Mount Diablo southeastward past Mount Hamilton. Geologically, the range corresponds to the California Coast Ranges east of the Calaveras Fault in this northern section. For much of the length of the Diablo Range, it is paralleled by other sections of the California Coast Ranges to the west, the Santa Cruz Mountains across the southern San Francisco Bay and Santa Clara Valley, the Santa Lucia Range across the Salinas Valley.
The range passes through Contra Costa, San Joaquin, Santa Clara, Merced, San Benito, Fresno and Kings Counties, ends in the northwesternmost extremity of Kern County. Though the average elevation is about 3,000 feet, a summit at over 2,300 feet is considered high because the range is rolling grasslands and plateaus, punctuated by sudden peaks; the plateaus are at about 2,000–3,000 feet. The hills rising out of valleys rise to about 1,000 feet at most, the hills rolling around inland plateaus go from 1,500–2,500 feet. Foothills, such as the which are found near the Santa Clara Valley, Livermore Valley and San Joaquin Valley, are lowest, from 400–1,000 feet. Canyons are 300–400 feet deep and valleys are deeper but gentler; the peaks have high topographic prominence because they are surrounded by hills, valleys, or lower plateaus. Streams draining the eastern slopes of the Diablo Range include Ingram Creek. Stream draining the western slopes include Coyote Creek; the Diablo Range's following peaks and ridges are between 2,517–5,241 feet and are distinct landmarks.
Mount Diablo, San Benito Mountain, Mount Hamilton Ridge, Mount Stakes. The Diablo Range is paralleled for much of its distance by U. S. Route 101 by I-5 to the east. Major routes of travel through the range include: North of the range BNSF Railway/Amtrak San Joaquin Willow Pass State Route 4 Antioch–SFO/Millbrae BART Altamont Pass Union Pacific Railroad/Altamont Corridor Express I-580 Sunol Valley State Route 84 I-680 Pacheco Pass State Route 152 Future California High-Speed Rail State Route 198 Cottonwood Pass Polonio Pass A sparsely used gravel road is the highest road in the range, with its highest point being on San Benito Mountain at over 5,000 feet; the Diablo Range is unpopulated outside of the San Francisco Bay Area. Major nearby communities include Antioch, Walnut Creek, San Ramon, Livermore, Milpitas, San Jose, Morgan Hill, Gilroy. and the Central Valley city of Tracy. South of Pacheco Pass, the only major nearby communities are Los Banos, Hollister; the small town of Coalinga may be notable for its location on State Route 198, one of the few routes through the mountains.
Most of the range consists of private ranchland. However, the range does contain several areas of parkland, including Mount Diablo State Park, Alum Rock Park, Grant Ranch Park, Henry W. Coe State Park, Laguna Mountain Recreation Area, the BLM's Clear Creek Management Area. In addition, some private land is held in conservation easements by the California Rangeland Trust. Since the range lies around 10 to 50 miles inland from the ocean, other coastal ranges like the Santa Lucia Range and the Santa Cruz Mountains block incoming moisture, the range gets little precipitation. In addition, the average elevation of 3,000 feet is not high enough to catch most of the incoming moisture at higher altitudes. Winters are mild with moderate rainfall, but summers are dry and hot. Areas above 2,500 feet get light to moderate snow in the winter at the highest point, the 5,241 ft San Benito Mountain in the remote southeastern section of the range. However, though sites at the lower end get annual snowfall, it is light and melts too fast to be noticed.
Once or twice a decade there is deep and long lasting snowfall. Mercury contamination near the southern end of the range is an ongoing problem, due to the New Idria quicksilver mines, which stopped production in the 1970s. Heavy mercury contamination has been documented in the San Carlos and Silver Creeks, which flow into Panoche Creek, thence into the San Joaquin River; this has resulted in mercury contamination all the way downstream to the San Francisco Bay. Silver and San Carlos creeks provide a wetland environment in an otherwise arid region and are important for the ecology of the region; as of 2011, New Idria has been scheduled for cleanup. The Diablo Range is part of the California interior chaparral and woodlands ecoregion, it is covered by chaparral and California oak woodland communities, with stands of closed-cone pine forests appearing above 4,000 feet. The native bunch grass savanna has be
Santa Clara County, California
Santa Clara County the County of Santa Clara, is California's 6th most populous county, with a population of 1,781,642, as of the 2010 census. The county seat and largest city is San Jose, the 10th most populous city in the United States and California's 3rd most populous city. Home to Silicon Valley, Santa Clara County is an economic center for high technology and has the third highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution; the county's concentration of wealth due to the tech industry, has made it the most affluent county on the West Coast of the United States and one of the most affluent places in America. Santa Clara County is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. Located at the southern end of the San Francisco Bay, the urbanized Santa Clara Valley within Santa Clara County is known as Silicon Valley. Santa Clara is the most populous county in the San Francisco Bay Area and in Northern California, is one of the most affluent counties in the United States.
Santa Clara County is named for Mission Santa Clara, established in 1777 and was in turn named for Saint Clare of Assisi. Santa Clara County was one of the original counties of California, formed in 1850 at the time of statehood; the original inhabitants included the Ohlone, residing on Calaveras Creek. Part of the county's territory was given to Alameda County in 1853. In 1882, Santa Clara County tried to levy taxes upon property of the Southern Pacific Railroad within county boundaries; the result was the U. S. Supreme Court case of Santa Clara County v. Southern Pacific Railroad, 118 U. S. 394, in which the Court extended Due Process rights to artificial legal entities. In the early 20th Century, the area was promoted as the "Valley of the Heart's Delight" due to its natural beauty, including a significant number of orchards; the first major technology company to be based in the area was Hewlett-Packard, founded in a garage in Palo Alto in 1939. IBM selected San Jose as its West Coast headquarters in 1943.
Varian Associates, Fairchild Semiconductor, other early innovators were located in the county by the late 1940s and 1950s. The U. S. Navy had a large presence in the area and began giving large contracts to Silicon Valley electronics companies; the term "Silicon Valley" was coined in 1971. The trend accelerated in the 1980s and 1990s, agriculture has since been nearly eliminated from the northern part of the county. Today, Santa Clara County is the headquarters for 6500 high technology companies, including many of the largest tech companies in the world, among them hardware manufacturers AMD, Cisco Systems and Intel and consumer electronics companies Apple Inc. and Hewlett-Packard, internet companies eBay and Yahoo!. Most of what is considered to be Silicon Valley is located within the county, although some adjoining tech regions in San Mateo and Santa Cruz counties are considered a part of Silicon Valley. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,304 square miles, of which 1,290 square miles is land and 14 square miles is water.
Counties which border with Santa Clara County are, Santa Cruz County, San Mateo County, San Joaquin, Stanislaus and San Benito. Santa Clara County shared borders with Contra Costa, Monterey, Turlock counties until 1853, 1874, 1854 respectively; the San Andreas Fault runs along the Santa Cruz Mountains in the west of the county. Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge In 1978, California Department of Fish and Game warden Henry Coletto urged the department to choose the Mount Hamilton area as one of California's relocation sites under a new statewide effort to restore tule elk. While other ranchers refused, tech pioneers Bill Hewlett and David Packard allowed Coletto and state biologists to translocate 32 tule elk from the Owens Valley in the eastern Sierra onto the 28,000-acre San Felipe Ranch, which the families jointly own, in the hills east of Morgan Hill. From the three original 1978–1981 translocations to the Mount Hamilton region of the Diablo Range, there are multiple herds in different locations including the Isabel Valley, San Antonio Valley, Livermore area, San Felipe Ranch, Metcalf Canyon, Coyote Ridge, Anderson Lake, surrounding areas.
As of 2012, an estimated 400 tule elk roam 1,875 square kilometres in northeastern Santa Clara County and southeastern Alameda County. As of 2017 there are four herds in the Coyote Ridge area visible from U. S. Highway 101, according to Craige Edgerton retired executive director of the Silicon Valley Land Conservancy and local naturalist Michael Hundt; the Nature Conservancy "Mount Hamilton Project" has acquired or put under conservation easement 100,000 acres of land towards its 500,000 acres goal for habitat conservation within a 1,200,000 acres area encompassing much of eastern Santa Clara County as well as portions of southern Alameda County, western Merced and Stanislaus Counties, northern San Benito County. Acquisitions to date include the 1,756-acre Rancho Cañada de Pala, straddling the Alameda Creek and Coyote Creek watersheds for California tiger salamander habitat.
Juan Bautista Alvarado
Juan Bautista Valentín Alvarado y Vallejo was a Californio and Governor of Las Californias from 1837 to 1842. In 1836, he led a coup that seized Monterey and declared himself governor, backed by other northern Californios, with help from Capt. Isaac Graham and his "Tennessee Rifles". Alvarado declared independence for California but, after negotiations with the territorial Diputación, was persuaded to rejoin Mexico peacefully in exchange for more local autonomy; as part of the agreement, in 1837 he was appointed governor of Las Californias, served until 1842. Alvarado was born in Alta California, to Jose Francisco Alvarado and María Josefa Vallejo, his grandfather Juan Bautista Alvarado accompanied Gaspar de Portolà as an enlisted man in the Spanish Army in 1769. His father died a few months after his birth and his mother remarried three years leaving Juan Bautista in the care of his grandparents on the Vallejo side, where he and Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo grew up together, they were both taught by an English merchant living in Monterey.
In 1827 the eighteen-year-old Alvarado was hired as secretary to the territorial legislature. In 1829 he was arrested along with Vallejo and another friend, José Castro, by soldiers involved in the military revolt led by Joaquín Solis. In 1831 he built a house in Monterey for his mistress, Juliana Francisca Ramona y Castillo, whom he called "Raymunda", to live in. Over the years, the pair had a total of at least two illegitimate daughters whom he recognized and several more he did not recognize, but he never married their mother. During this period Alvarado began drinking heavily. One of his daughters claimed that Raymunda had refused to marry Alvarado because of his excessive drinking. Alvarado supported secularization of the Spanish missions in California, he was appointed by José María de Echeandía to oversee the turn over of Mission San Miguel though Echeandía was no longer governor. The new governor Manuel Victoria rescinded the order and sought to have Alvarado and Castro arrested; the pair fled and were hidden by their old friend Vallejo, who had become adjutant at the Presidio of San Francisco.
However, Victoria was unpopular and Echeandía overthrew his rule and replaced him with Pío de Jesús Pico near the end of 1831. Secularization of the missions resumed in 1833. In 1834 Alvarado was elected to the legislature as a delegate and appointed customs inspector in Monterey. Governor José Figueroa granted Rancho El Sur, two square leagues of land, or about 9,000 acres, south of Monterey, to Alvarado on October 30, 1834. After Figueroa's death in September 1835, Nicolás Gutiérrez was appointed as interim governor in January 1836, he was replaced by Mariano Chico in April, but Chico was unpopular. His intelligence agents told him that yet another Californio revolt was brewing, so he fled back to Mexico, claiming he planned to gather troops against the independent Californios. Instead, Mexico reprimanded him for abandoning his post. Gutierrez, the military commandant, re-assumed the governorship, but like the Mexican governors before him, the Californios forced him, too, to flee; as senior members of the legislature and Castro, with political support from Vallejo and backing from a group of Tennesseans led by Capt.
Isaac Graham, forced Gutierrez out of the country. Alvarado's Californio coup wrote a constitution and adopted a new flag—a single red star on a white background, but neither were used after Alvarado made peace with Mexico. Alvarado, at age 27, was appointed governor, but the city council of Los Angeles protested. Alvarado and Graham went south and negotiated a compromise after three months, avoiding a civil war. However, the city council of San Diego voiced its disagreement with Alvarado's revolt; this time, the Mexican government was involved and there were rumors that the Mexican Army was ready to step in. Alvarado was able to negotiate another compromise to keep the peace. Mexico reneged on the agreement and appointed Carlos Antonio Carrillo, popular among the southerners, governor on December 6, 1837; this time, civil war broke out and after several battles, Carrillo was forced out. Mexico relented and recognized Alvarado as governor. Alvarado married Doña Martina Castro on August 24, 1839 in Santa Clara, but didn't attend his own wedding having his half-brother, Jose Antonio Estrada, stand in for him.
Though he claimed to be detained in Monterey on official business, it was rumored he was drunk and unable to function. After the wedding, Alvarado lived with his bride in Monterey, but continued on with mistress, who lived nearby; the process of secularization of the missions was in its final stages, it was at this time that Alvarado parceled out much of their land to prominent Californios via land grants. Though he took no land for himself, he did however, trade his Rancho El Sur to John B. R. Cooper in exchange for Rancho Bolsa del Potrero which he subsequently sold back to Cooper, he purchased Rancho El Alisal near Salinas in 1841 from his former tutor William Hartnell. In April 1840 a report of a planned revolt against Alvarado by a group of foreigners, led by former ally Isaac Graham, caused the governor to order their arrest and deportation to Mexico City for trial, they were however, acquitted of all charges in June 1841. In 1841, political leaders in the United States were declaring their doctrine of Manifest Destiny, Californios grew concerned over their intentions.
Vallejo conferred with Castro and
Indigenous peoples of California
The indigenous peoples of California are the indigenous inhabitants who have lived or live in the geographic area within the current boundaries of California before and after the arrival of Europeans. With over forty groups seeking to be federally recognized tribes, California has the second largest Native American population in the United States; the California cultural area does not conform to the state of California's boundaries. Many tribes on the eastern border with Nevada are classified as Great Basin tribes, some tribes on the Oregon border are classified as Plateau tribes. Tribes in Baja California who do not cross into California are classified as indigenous peoples of Mexico. Before European contact, native Californians spoke over 300 dialects of 100 distinct languages; the large number of languages has been related to the ecological diversity of California, to a sociopolitical organization into small tribelets with a shared "ideology that defined language boundaries as unalterable natural features inherent in the land"."The majority of California Indian languages belong either to localized language families with two or three members or are language isolates."
Of the remainder, most are Athapaskan languages. Larger groupings have been proposed; the Hokan superstock has been most difficult to demonstrate. There is evidence suggestive that speakers of the Chumashan languages and Yukian languages, languages of southern Baja California such as Waikuri, were in California prior to the arrival of Penutian languages from the north and Uto-Aztecan from the east predating the Hokan languages. Wiyot and Yurok are distantly related to Algonquian languages in a larger grouping called Algic; the several Athapaskan languages are recent arrivals, no more recent than about 2000 years ago. Evidence of human occupation of California dates from at least 19,000 years ago. Prior to European contact, California Indians had 500 distinct sub-tribes or groups, each consisting of 50 to 500 individual members; the size of California tribes today are small compared to tribes in other regions of the United States. Prior to contact with Europeans, the California region contained the highest Native American population density north of what is now Mexico.
Because of the temperate climate and easy access to food sources one-third of all Native Americans in the United States were living in the area of California. Early Native Californians were hunter-gatherers, with seed collection becoming widespread around 9,000 BC. Due to the local abundance of food, tribes tilled the soil. Two early southern California cultural traditions include the La Jolla Complex and the Pauma Complex, both dating from ca. 6050—1000 BC. From 3000 to 2000 BC, regional diversity developed, with the peoples making fine-tuned adaptations to local environments. Traits recognizable to historic tribes were developed by 500 BC; the indigenous people practiced various forms of sophisticated forest gardening in the forests, mixed woodlands, wetlands to ensure availability of food and medicine plants. They controlled fire on a regional scale to create a low-intensity fire ecology. By burning underbrush and grass, the natives revitalized patches of land and provided fresh shoots to attract food animals.
A form of fire-stick farming was used to clear areas of old growth to encourage new in a repeated cycle. Different tribes encountered non-native European explorers and settlers at different times; the southern and central coastal tribes encountered Spanish and British explorers in the mid-16th century. Tribes such as the Quechan or Yuman Indians in present-day southeast California and southwest Arizona first encountered Spanish explorers in the 1760s and 1770s. Tribes on the coast of northwest California, like the Miwok and Yokut, had contact with Russian explorers and seafarers in the late 18th century. In remote interior regions, some tribes did not meet non-natives until the mid-19th century; the Spanish began their long-term occupation in California in 1769 with the founding of Mission San Diego de Alcalá in San Diego. The Spanish built 20 additional missions in California, their introduction of European invasive plant species and non-native diseases resulted in unintended havoc and high fatalities for the Native Californian tribes.
The population of Native California was reduced by 90% during the 19th century—from more than 200,000 in the early 19th century to 15,000 at the end of the century due to disease. Epidemics swept through California Indian Country, such as the 1833 malaria epidemic. Early to mid 19th Century, coastal tribes of northwest California had multiple contacts with Russian explorers due to Russian colonization of the Americas. At that time period, Russian exploration of California and contacts with local population were associated with the activity of the Russian-American Company. A Russian explorer, Baron Ferdinand von Wrangell, visited California in 1818, 1833, 1835. Looking for a potential site for a new outpost of the company in California in place of Fort Ross, Wrangell’s expedition encountered the Indians north of San Francisco Bay and visited their village. In his notes Wrangell remarked that local women, used to physical labor, seemed to be of stronger constitution than men, whose main activity was hunting.
Local provision consisted of fish and products made of seeds and grains: usually
Lake County, California
Lake County is a county located in the north central portion of the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 64,665; the county seat is Lakeport. The county takes its name from Clear Lake, the dominant geographic feature in the county and the largest natural lake wholly within California. Lake County forms CA Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is directly north of the San Francisco Bay Area. Lake County is part of California's Wine Country, which includes Napa and Mendocino counties, it includes over 35 wineries. Lake County was formed in 1861 from parts of Napa and Mendocino counties, but the area had European-American settlers from at least the 1840s. Lake County has long been known as a farming community; the 1911 California Blue Book lists the major crops as Bartlett beans. Other crops include grain, hay, peaches, apples and walnuts. Stockraising included goats, hogs and dairying; some vineyards were planted in the 1870s by European Americans but the first in the state were established in the 18th century by Spanish missionaries.
By the early 20th century, the area was earning a reputation for producing some of the world's greatest wines. However, in 1920, national Prohibition ended Lake County's wine production. With authorized cultivation limited to sacramental purposes, most of the vineyards were ripped out and replanted with walnut and pear orchards. A re-emergence of Lake County's wine industry began in the 1960s when a few growers rediscovered the area's grape-growing potential and began planting vineyards. Several Lake County American Viticultural Areas, such as High Valley AVA and Red Hills Lake County AVA, have been recognized as having distinct character; the area has increased vineyard acreage from fewer than 100 acres in 1965 to more than 9,455 acres of vineyard in 2015. Lake County's grape prices, at $1,634 per ton overall reached an all-time high in 2015. In 2014, Lake County surpassed Mendocino County in price paid per ton of grapes in the North Coast premium market; the number of wineries continues to grow, with over 35 wineries now located in Lake County.
Lake County has been ranked by the American Lung Association as having the cleanest air in the nation, including in 2013, 2014 and 2015. Lake County has been ranked twenty-four times as having the cleanest air in California; the American Lung Association's website gives Lake County air a "C" grade for high ozone days and an "A" grade for particle pollution. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,329 square miles, of which 1,256 square miles is land and 73 square miles is water. Two main watercourses drain the county: Cache Creek, the outlet of Clear Lake. Both of these flow to the Sacramento River; the main streams which flow into Clear Lake are Forbes Creek, Scotts Creek, Middle Creek and Kelsey Creek. At the extreme north of the county Lake Pillsbury and the Van Arsdale Reservoir dam the Eel River, providing water and power to Ukiah in Mendocino County. Clear Lake is believed to be the oldest warmwater lake in North America, due to a geological fluke; the lake sits on a huge block of stone which tilts in the northern direction at the same rate as the lake fills in with sediment, thus keeping the water at the same depth.
The geology of the county is chaotic, being based on Franciscan Assemblage hills. Numerous small faults are present in the south end of the lake as well as many old volcanoes, the largest being Cobb Mountain; the geologic history of the county shows events of great violence, such as the eruption of Mount Konocti and Mount St. Helena and the collapse of Cow Mountain, which created the hills around the county seat of Lakeport. Blue Lakes, Lake Pillsbury, Indian Valley Reservoir are the county's other major bodies of water. Lake County has habitats for a variety of species of concern including the uncommon herb, Legenere limosa, the rare Eryngium constancei, the tule elk. Waterfowl and other wildlife abound in the Clear Lake basin. Due to its surrounding hilly terrain, Lake is the only one of California's 58 counties never to have been served by a railroad line. Glenn County - northeast Colusa County - east Yolo County - southeast Napa County - southeast Sonoma County - southwest Mendocino County - west Mendocino National Forest Cow Mountain Recreation Area Cache Creek Wilderness and Cache Creek Wildlife AreaIn 2015 President Barack Obama created the Berryessa Snow Mountain National Monument, incorporating these and other areas.
Boggs Mountain Demonstration State Forest Anderson Marsh State Historic Park Loch Lomond Vernal Pool Ecological Reserve Boggs Lake Ecological Reserve Clear Lake State Park Rodman Slough Preserve In the late 19th century, the worldwide popularity of mineral water for the relief of myriad physical ailments resulted in the development of mineral resorts around Clear Lake. Greene Bartlett discovered Bartlett hot springs in 1870; the springs were developed by 1900 included a mineral water bottling plant. The resort burned down in 1934. Harbin Hot Springs was developed by settlers in the 1860s. Harbin burned to the ground in the Valley Fire of 2015. Highland Springs opened in 1891, was destroyed by fire in 1945. During its time, Highland had a spacious hotel. Saratoga Springs Resort was opened by J. J. Liebert in 1873 with several cabins, within two decades had room for 350 guests. Witter Springs Resort opened in 1873 with a hotel and gue