Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County the County of Los Angeles, in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of the U. S. state of California, is the most populous county in the United States, with more than 10 million inhabitants as of 2017. As such, it is the largest non–state level government entity in the United States, its population is larger than that of 41 individual U. S. states. It is the third-largest metropolitan economy in the world, with a Nominal GDP of over $700 billion—larger than the GDPs of Belgium and Taiwan, it has 88 incorporated cities and many unincorporated areas and, at 4,083 square miles, it is larger than the combined areas of Delaware and Rhode Island. The county is home to more than one-quarter of California residents and is one of the most ethnically diverse counties in the U. S, its county seat, Los Angeles, is California's most populous city and the nation's second largest city with about 4 million people. Los Angeles County is one of the original counties of California, created at the time of statehood in 1850.
The county included parts of what are now Kern, San Bernardino, Inyo, Tulare and Orange counties. In 1851 and 1852, Los Angeles County stretched from the coast to the border of Nevada; as the population increased, sections were split off to organize San Bernardino County in 1853, Kern County in 1866, Orange County in 1889. Prior to the 1870s, Los Angeles County was divided into townships, many of which were amalgamations of one or more old ranchos, they were: Azusa El Monte Azusa and El Monte Townships were merged for the 1870 census. City of Los Angeles Los Angeles Township Los Nietos San Jose San Gabriel Santa Ana. For the 1870 census, Annaheim district was enumerated separately. San Juan. San Pedro. Tejon When Kern County was formed, the portion of the township remaining in Los Angeles County became Soledad Township According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 4,751 square miles, of which 4,058 square miles is land and 693 square miles is water. Los Angeles County borders 70 miles of coast on the Pacific Ocean and encompasses mountain ranges, forests, lakes and desert.
The Los Angeles River, Rio Hondo, the San Gabriel River and the Santa Clara River flow in Los Angeles County, while the primary mountain ranges are the Santa Monica Mountains and the San Gabriel Mountains. The western extent of the Mojave Desert begins in the Antelope Valley, in the northeastern part of the county. Most of the population of Los Angeles County is located in the south and southwest, with major population centers in the Los Angeles Basin, San Fernando Valley and San Gabriel Valley. Other population centers are found in the Santa Clarita Valley, Pomona Valley, Crescenta Valley and Antelope Valley; the county is divided west-to-east by the San Gabriel Mountains, which are part of the Transverse Ranges of southern California, are contained within the Angeles National Forest. Most of the county's highest peaks are in the San Gabriel Mountains, including Mount San Antonio 10,068 feet ) at the Los Angeles-San Bernardino county lines, Mount Baden-Powell 9,399 feet, Mount Burnham 8,997 feet and Mount Wilson 5,710 feet.
Several lower mountains are in the northern and southwestern parts of the county, including the San Emigdio Mountains, the southernmost part of Tehachapi Mountains and the Sierra Pelona Mountains. Los Angeles County includes San Clemente Island and Santa Catalina Island, which are part of the Channel Islands archipelago off the Pacific Coast. East: Eastside, San Gabriel Valley, portions of the Pomona Valley West: Westside, Beach Cities South: South Bay, South Los Angeles, Palos Verdes Peninsula, Gateway Cities, Los Angeles Harbor Region North: San Fernando Valley, Crescenta Valley, portions of the Conejo Valley, portions of the Antelope Valley and Santa Clarita Valley Central: Downtown Los Angeles, Mid-Wilshire, Northeast Los Angeles Angeles National Forest Los Padres National Forest Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area Los Angeles County had a population of 9,818,605 in the 2010 United States Census; the racial makeup of Los Angeles County was 4,936,599 White, 1,346,865 Asian, 856,874 African American, 72,828 Native A
Point Vicente Light
Point Vicente Lighthouse is a lighthouse in California, United States, in Rancho Palos Verdes, north of Los Angeles Harbor, California. It is between Point Loma Lighthouse to Point Conception Lighthouse to the north; the lighthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. Point Vicente Lighthouse was built in 1926 on the Palos Verdes Peninsula; the light source was dimmed during World War II to avoid aiding the enemy. It was automated in 1971 by the United States Coast Guard. In 2015, the Coast Guard announced its intention to replace the original third order Fresnel lens with an LED light with a 14 nm range, replacing the current light and lens.. In February 2019 the lens was removed from the light room; the Point Vicente Lighthouse is just north of the entrances to the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbors. It was operated and maintained by the United States Lighthouse Service prior to that Service being merged with the U. S. Coast Guard, delegated all aid-to-navigation responsibilities in 1939.
The lighthouse was manned until 1971 when it was automated by a remote electronic aids-to-navigation monitoring system. The white cylindrical tower is 67 feet tall, the masonry structure is built on the edge of a 130-foot cliff; this places the center of the lantern 185 feet above the ocean. The Coast Guard Light List specifies its light characteristic as being a pair of two white flashes, repeating that pair every 20 seconds. An emergency light of reduced intensity operates; the most striking feature in the lighthouse was the classical third-order rotating Fresnel Lens located in the lantern. This particular lens was manufactured around 1910 in Paris, France, by Barbier and Turenne, the oldest lens making company in the world; this lens is made up of hand-ground prisms held in place by a cast brass frame. The prisms and frame represent an excellent example of the precision achieved by optical scientists and the lens making art in utilizing the known principles and properties of light; when it was active, the 1.1 million candlepower-beam had a nominal visible range of 24 nautical miles.
Now removed from the lantern room, the lens will in the future be displayed at the Point Vicente Interpretive Center. This lighthouse once incorporated a pleasant-sounding foghorn to audibly warn ships during times of low visibility which are common to the area; the foghorn was dismantled in the early 2000's. HeadGeorge W. L'Hommedieu Anton Trittinger Joseph May The Point Vicente Lighthouse is open for tours on the second Saturday of each month, 10am to 3pm PST; the lighthouse and grounds are federal property operated by the United States Coast Guard. In addition to the Lighthouse & USCG Museum, the property includes three houses, which are Coast Guard residences; the US Coast Guards Aids to Navigation Team Los Angeles/Long Beach is in charge of operation and maintenance of the Lighthouse and Fresnel Lens. Members from the US Coast Guard Auxiliary who are members of the CG ANT LA/LB are in charge of the tours and open houses at the lighthouse; these members are recognized as Lighthouse Keepers by the USCG Auxiliary and Technicians by the CG.
The US Naval Sea Cadets assist at the open houses at the entrance gate access, in the Lighthouse and USCG museum, perimeter sentry, keeping the public away from restricted areas. Some restricted areas include the lighthouse top floor, the lawn, the two streets leading to the USCG houses; the non-restricted areas include the lighthouse and street leading to lighthouse. Parking is available outside the entrance gate. Only vehicles authorized by the USCG are allowed on the property. There are no public restrooms on the property; the nearest public restrooms are at the city's interpretive center next door. Admission to the lighthouse is free; the lighthouse was the finish line for the 25th season popular American reality show The Amazing Race. List of lighthouses in the United States "Historic Light Station Information and Photography: California". United States Coast Guard Historian's Office. United States Coast Guard official Point Vicente Lighthouse website Lighthouse Cam
Gardena High School
Gardena High School, known as GHS, is a public high school in Harbor Gateway, Los Angeles, United States, adjacent to the City of Gardena. It is a part of the Los Angeles Unified School District. Gardena High School comprises seven Small Learning Communities: The Green House known as The Ninth Grade Academy, Construction, Computers and Robotics, Arts and Entertainment,Southern California International Business Academy,Global Leadership Academy, Sports and Public Service, the Foreign Language/International Studies Magnet center. Anime Club ARC Leadership Art Appreciation Club Book Club Chess Club DISC Drama Club Fellowship of Christian Athletes French Club Gardena Honor Society Game Club Gay/Straight Alliance High School Task Force Interact Club Junior Reserves Officer Training Corp. Key Club Mecha New Life Club Pacific Islander Club Poetry Club Roots & Shoots Salsa Club Justice Society Ukulele Club Vietnamese Club Women's Leadership Project Marching Band GHS opened in 1907. In Spring 1956, the junior high school classes stayed at the old Gardena High School while the high school classes moved into a new building designed by architects Henry L. Gogerty and D. Stewart Kerr.
Up until the opening of the new Gardena High School, high school students held morning shifts, while junior high school students held afternoon shifts. The junior high is now known as Peary Middle School. In the 1980s the school as rival gangs clashed with each other in the high school hallways, it was once known as a "Crip School" before Hispanic gangs formed in the late 80s. In 1977 a gang fight between the Shotgun Crips and the 135 Prius occurred in the school. At least 20 to 30 students were involved. No one was injured. On January 18, 2011, two students were wounded when a gun brought to the school by a student accidentally discharged when the backpack containing the firearm was dropped on the ground, with a single bullet wounding both victims. State prosecutors intend to try the 17-year-old; the school serves the City of Gardena, portions of Carson, portions of Los Angeles. As of the school year 2008-09, there were a total of 3,186 students attending the high school. 59.2% Hispanic 1.4% White 33.1% Black 0.6% Native American 4.7% Asian 1.1% Pacific Islander Steven C. Bradford:: California Assemblyman 2009-2014 Enos Cabell: MLB, 1972–1986, with the Baltimore Orioles, Houston Astros, San Francisco Giants, Detroit Tigers, the Los Angeles Dodgers.
Dock Ellis, MLB pitcher for Pittsburgh Pirates, New York Yankees, Oakland Athletics, Texas Rangers, New York Mets George Farmer: NFL wide receiver, 1982–1984, 1987, attended Southern University, played for the Los Angeles Rams and Miami Dolphins. Glen Fukushima - former Deputy Assistant US Trade Representative for Japan and China 1988-1990 Anthony Frederick - former Pepperdine standout. Dennis Gilbert: Sports agent, baseball executive and co-founder of the Professional Baseball Scouts Foundation. Gaston Green: NFL running back, 1988–1992, attended UCLA, played for the Los Angeles Rams and Denver Broncos, he was a Pro Bowl selection in 1991 as a Bronco. Don Horn: NFL quarterback, with the Green Bay Packers, first round pick All-American out of San Diego State University by the Green Bay Packers Keith Lee: NFL player Niecy Nash: comedian and actress Vincent Okamoto: Japanese American Vietnam War veteran prosecutor and judge Michael "Tyga" Nguyen-Stevenson: American rapper Wayne Collett: Olympics Silver Medallist in the 400 meters at the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich.
Butch Patrick: actor, portrayed Eddie Munster on The Munsters Kevin A. Ross: host, daytime syndicated court show America's Court with Judge Ross. Leo Terrell: Civil rights attorney and talk radio host on Talk Radio 790 KABC in Los Angeles Glen Walker: NFL punter D. L. Hughley: Actor/Comedian Official Gardena High School website Great Schools Inc.org: Gardena High School
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Lomita is a city in Los Angeles County, United States. The population was 20,256 at the 2010 census, up from 20,046 at the 2000 census; the word "lomita" is Spanish for "little knoll". Lomita was part of Rancho San Pedro, granted by the Spanish Empire to Juan Jose Dominguez by King Carlos III of Spain in 1784. Lomita established a sister city relationship with Takaishi, Japan in October 1981. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.9 square miles, all of, land. Lomita spanned 7 square miles. However, over time, much of this area was annexed by neighboring cities. A notable example is "Lomita Fields", now Zamperini Field. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Lomita has a semi-arid climate, abbreviated "BSk" on climate maps; the 2010 United States Census reported that Lomita had a population of 20,256. The population density was 10,601.3 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lomita was 11,987 White, 1,075 African American, 174 Native American, 2,923 Asian, 140 Pacific Islander, 2,680 from other races, 1,277 from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6,652 persons. The Census reported that 20,089 people lived in households, 57 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 110 were institutionalized. There were 8,068 households, out of which 2,479 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 3,409 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 1,160 had a female householder with no husband present, 481 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 491 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 55 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,420 households were made up of individuals and 822 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49. There were 5,050 families; the population was spread out with 4,378 people under the age of 18, 1,743 people aged 18 to 24, 5,699 people aged 25 to 44, 5,904 people aged 45 to 64, 2,532 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.8 males.
There were 8,412 housing units at an average density of 4,402.5 per square mile, of which 3,738 were owner-occupied, 4,330 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 0.7%. 9,183 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 10,906 people lived in rental housing units. According to the 2010 United States Census, Lomita had a median household income of $60,398, with 12.2% of the population living below the federal poverty line. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,046 people, 8,015 households, 5,033 families residing in the city; the population density was 10,572.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,295 housing units at an average density of 4,375.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 66.16% White, 4.18% African American, 0.70% Native American, 11.41% Asian, 0.52% Pacific Islander, 10.79% from other races, 6.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 26.20% of the population. There were 8,015 households out of which 32.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.0% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.2% were non-families.
30.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.13. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.5% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 34.2% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $51,360, the median income for a family was $53,003. Males had a median income of $41,582 versus $31,353 for females; the per capita income for the city was $27,748. About 9.3% of families and 11.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. Fire protection in Lomita is provided by the Los Angeles County Fire Department with ambulance transport by McCormack Ambulance; the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department operates the Lomita Station in Lomita.
The Los Angeles County Department of Health Services operates the Torrance Health Center in Harbor Gateway, Los Angeles, near Torrance and serving Lomita. In the California State Legislature, Lomita is in the 26th Senate District, represented by Democrat Ben Allen, in the 66th Assembly District, represented by Democrat Al Muratsuchi. In the United States House of Representatives, Lomita is in California's 43rd congressional district, represented by Democrat Maxine Waters; the United States Postal Service Lomita Post Office is located at 25131 Narbonne Avenue. Lomita Railroad Museum, opened in 1966 by Irene Lewis, is a small museum in Lomita devoted to the steam-engine period of railroading. Mrs. Lewis, along with her husband Martin, operated "Little Engines of Lomita", which sold kits for live steam-engine locomotives, her engines appeared in movies, including "The Greatest Show on Earth" and "Von Ryans Express". This operation inspired Mrs. Lewi
Palos Verdes Peninsula
The Palos Verdes Peninsula is a landform and a geographic sub-region of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, within southwestern Los Angeles County in the U. S. state of California. Located in the South Bay region, the peninsula contains a group of affluent cities in the Palos Verdes Hills, including Palos Verdes Estates, Rancho Palos Verdes, Rolling Hills and Rolling Hills Estates; the South Bay city of Torrance borders the peninsula on the north, the Pacific Ocean is on the west and south, the Port of Los Angeles is east. The population of the Palos Verdes Peninsula is 42,364; the hill cities on the peninsula are known for dramatic ocean and city views, distinguished schools, extensive horse trails, high value homes. The peninsula was the homeland of the Tongva-Gabrieliño Native Americans people for thousands of years. In other areas of the Los Angeles Basin archeological sites date back 8,000 years, their first contact with Europeans occurred in 1542 with João Cabrilho. Chowigna and Suangna were two Tongva settlements of many in the peninsula area, a departure point for their rancherías on the Channel Islands.
In 1846 José Dolores Sepúlveda and José Loreto received a Mexican land grant from Alta California Governor Pío Pico for a parcel from the huge original 1784 Spanish land grant of Rancho San Pedro to Manuel Dominguez. It was named Rancho de los Palos Verdes, or "ranch of the green sticks", used as a cattle ranch, it was a whaling station in the mid-19th century, albeit only for a brief period. By 1882 ownership of the land had passed from the Sepulveda family through various mortgage holders to Jotham Bixby of Rancho Los Cerritos, who leased the land to Japanese farmers. Frank Vanderlip, representing a group of wealthy east coast investors, purchased 25 square miles of land on the Palos Verdes Peninsula in 1913 for $1.5 million. In 1914, Vanderlip vacationed at Palos Verdes in order to recover from an illness, he was astounded by scenery he compared to "the Sorrentine Peninsula and the Amalfi Drive." He initiated development of Palos Verdes. He hired the Olmsted Brothers, the landscaping firm of John Charles Olmsted and Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. to plan and landscape a new subdivision.
The Olmsted Brothers contracted Koebig & Koebig to perform engineering work, including surveying and road planning. However, the project stalled as World War I started, Vanderlip accepted a chairmanship to the War Savings Committee in Washington, D. C. in 1916. By 1921, Vanderlip had lost interest in overseeing development of Palos Verdes and enticed Edward Gardner Lewis to take over the project with an option to buy the property for $5 million. Lewis lacked the capital to purchase and develop Palos Verdes. Instead, he established a real estate trust, capitalizing the project through the sale of notes which were convertible to Palos Verdes property. Under the terms of the trust, Lewis sought to raise $30 million for infrastructure improvements borrowing from investors for both the land and the improvements, he succeeded in attracting $15 million in capital, but far short of the $35 million needed. The trust dissolved and ownership of Palos Verdes reverted to Vanderlip. Vanderlip established a new real estate trust to purchase 3200 acres from his land syndicate and establish the subdivision of Palos Verdes Estates.
The new trust assumed not just the land, but the improvements made by Lewis. They were not complete, but they were substantial: many sewers, water mains, roads, they opened Palos Verdes for public inspection in June 1923. Palos Verdes Estates was organized and landscaped by the Olmsted Brothers and in their planning, they dedicated a quarter of the land area to permanent open undeveloped space, giving the subdivision its unique rural characteristic and culture of scenic beauty. Somewhat around the 1980s, Rancho Palos Verdes acquired Eastview, a unincorporated neighborhood of L. A. County with a San Pedro ZIP Code. Areas of commerce include historic Mediterranean Revival style Malaga Cove Plaza, the Promenade on the Peninsula. Smaller shopping centers include Lunada Bay Plaza and Golden Cove Plaza; the largest peninsula commercial district is in Rolling Hills Estates, with many shopping centers including The Promenade on the Peninsula with a megaplex movie theater and an ice rink. The Palos Verdes area has coastline views and city light views.
The Palos Verdes Peninsula Transit Authority provides bus service within and to the Palos Verdes Peninsula. The Palos Verdes Peninsula is within 40 minutes of both Los Angeles International Airport and Long Beach Airport, which together provide access to most of the United States aboard all major carriers; the Palos Verdes Peninsula Unified School District has one of the highest rated API scores in California and has one of the highest average SAT scores and one of the highest percentage of students completing the Advanced Placement exams in the county. There are three high schools, Palos Verdes Peninsula High School, Palos Verdes High School, Rancho Del Mar High School. Marymount California University, a co-ed Roman Catholic four-year college is located in Rancho Palos Verdes. A private K–12 school, Chadwick School, is located there. Rolling Hills Country Day School, adjacent to the Botanic Garden, offers a private K-8 education. In summary, there are 11 elementary schools, 3 intermediate schools, 3 high schools located on the peninsula.
In the Eastview neighborhood of Rancho Palos Verdes, residents have the option to choose either PV schools or the surrounding LAUSD
South Bay, Los Angeles
The South Bay is a region of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, located in the southwest corner of Los Angeles County. The name stems from its geographic location stretching along the southern shore of Santa Monica Bay; the South Bay contains fifteen cities plus portions of the City of Los Angeles and unincorporated portions of the county. The area is bounded by the Pacific Ocean on the south and west and by the City of Los Angeles on the north and east; the South Bay includes: The Beach Cities El Segundo Manhattan Beach Hermosa Beach Redondo Beach Torrance The Palos Verdes Peninsula Palos Verdes Estates Rolling Hills Rolling Hills Estates Rancho Palos Verdes The southernmost neighborhoods of the City of Los Angeles Harbor City Harbor Gateway San Pedro Wilmington Inland cities of the South Bay Inglewood Hawthorne Gardena Lawndale Lomita Carson And unincorporated areas of L. A. County including: Lennox Del Aire And other small unincorporated "county strip" areas of Los Angeles County; the region is bordered on the north by LAX, on the northeast by the South Los Angeles region, on the east by the Gateway Cities, on the southeast by Long Beach.
The Harbor, San Diego and Century Freeways provide the region with its principal transportation links. The Los Angeles MTA's Blue Line is a light rail line running between Downtown Los Angeles and Downtown Long Beach, it is the first of the MTA's modern rail lines since the 1961 demise of the Pacific Electric Railway's Red Car system. The Green Line, a freeway-median light rail line serves the South Bay, it runs between Redondo Beach and Norwalk in the median of the Century Freeway, providing indirect access to Los Angeles International Airport via a shuttle bus and future automated people mover. Several ports and harbors in the South Bay provide access to Santa Catalina Island, a popular resort. In addition, Los Angeles International Airport borders El Segundo to the north in the neighborhood of Westchester, Los Angeles; the South Bay is one of the most culturally and ethnically diverse areas in the United States, with a even distribution of the population across African, Asian/Pacific Islander, European and Latino ancestry.
However, the racial and economic makeup varies across the region. El Segundo, Hermosa Beach, Redondo Beach and Torrance have a mixture of middle-to-upper class residents, of which are White American and Asian American; the Palos Verdes Peninsula and Manhattan Beach are two of the wealthiest communities in the United States, with some of the most expensive real estate in the United States. The city of Carson has large populations of African Americans. Hawthorne, Inglewood and Lawndale are diverse communities with pluralities of blacks and White Americans. Gardena is home to one of America's oldest Japanese communities. In addition, San Pedro has a large community of Croatian immigrants; the Port of Los Angeles, sprawling across the shorelines of San Pedro and Wilmington, is the busiest in the United States. When combined with the Port of Long Beach, it is the fifth-busiest in the world. Traditionally, most of the populations of Wilmington and San Pedro have worked for the port in some capacity, it is the primary driver of the Southern California economy: industrial growth in the Inland Empire is entirely attributable to increased port traffic since the 1980s.
The massive increase in cargo volume has created significant air pollution in neighboring communities. The South Bay is the traditional home of Southern California's aerospace industry. While shrunken from its Cold War peak, it still represents a major economic force, employing thousands in high-skill, high-wage engineering positions and generating enormous amounts of tax revenue. Northrop Grumman has a major facility in El Segundo where the F/A-18 Hornet fuselage is manufactured, as well as the headquarters of the Space Technology division in Redondo Beach and a facility at the Hawthorne Municipal Airport. Alcoa Fastening Systems, a subsidiary of Alcoa Inc. which produces aerospace fasteners, has their corporate headquarters located in Torrance with manufacturing facilities in both Torrance and Carson. Boeing and Lockheed Martin maintain extensive production facilities throughout the South Bay, Raytheon's Space and Airborne Systems business unit is based in El Segundo; the Los Angeles Air Force Base, in El Segundo, is the locus of much of this aerospace research activity, as it is the primary development facility for military satellites and other space programs.
DirecTV, a former subsidiary of Hughes Aircraft, is headquartered in El Segundo for this reason. SpaceX headquartered in the South Bay, is located in Hawthorne. Petroleum refining is another important component of the South Bay's economy. Major South Bay refiners include Tesoro, Phillips 66, PBF Energy and Valero; these refiners supply the lion's share of petroleum products for Southern California, as well as for Nevada and Arizona. As the Los Angeles region's oil fields are exhausted, most of the crude oil that feeds the refineries is brought in from terminals at the port. Local politicians and activists have long denounced the refineries for the amount of air pollution they generate, but in recent years these protests have been muted as the Port of Los Angeles has become the region's dominant polluter; the controversial practice of residue flaring returned to the forefront during the Sep