The Downey Studios was a production studio in Downey, California. The studio featured 320,000 square metres of indoor and outdoor production space including a 4,600-square-metre building and a 23,000 square metres building, home of the largest indoor water tank in North America. A suburban residential street backlot built for Christmas with the Kranks, with 5 complete homes and 11 facades, was available at the studio; the studios were created out of the former Rockwell International plant where the Space Shuttle orbiters as well as some vehicles for the Apollo space program were assembled. The studios occupied only a portion of the former plant with the Downey Landing shopping complex, a Kaiser Permanente hospital, a park, Columbia Memorial Space Center museum taking up the remainder of the space. In October 2012, Downey Studios was being demolished to make way for the new "Downey Promenade" shopping center. Iron Man 2 Deep in the Valley Couples Retreat G. I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull Iron Man Pineapple Express Cloverfield Top Gear The No Sit List Zodiac Charlie Wilson's War Smash Lab Yo Gabba Gabba!, Season 1, 2007, Season 3, 2009 The Santa Clause 3: The Escape Clause The Prestige Déjà Vu Smokin' Aces Slaughter House The Island Van Helsing Lemony Snicket's A Series of Unfortunate Events Christmas with the Kranks In Enemy Hands The Italian Job Terminator 3: Rise of the Machines Daredevil Clockstoppers Catch Me If You Can Spider-Man Space Cowboys Life Can't Hardly Wait "Alejandro" - Lady Gaga "White & Nerdy" - "Weird Al" Yankovic “Otis” - Kanye West Downey Studios website IMDb Profile Columbia Memorial Space Center — near former site
LA County Library
LA County Library is one of the largest public library systems in the United States which serves residents living in 49 of the 88 incorporated cities of Los Angeles County, California. United States and those living in unincorporated areas resulting in a service area extending over 3,000 square miles. "County Free Library Act" established and authorized the Los Angeles County Free Library to become the Los Angeles County Public Library system of branches. The library system, headquartered in Downey, California, is overseen by the Library Commission of 20 appointed members who report on administration and service to the County Board of Supervisors who operate County Library as a special fund department. Skye Patrick was appointed County Librarian on February 1, 2016; the library provides many resources, including literacy services and programs for families and children. The library system offers consumer health information under CHIPS. City Terrace Library Claremont Library Clifton M. Brakensiek Library Compton Library Cudahy Library Culver City Julian Dixon Library Diamond Bar Library Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Library Duarte Library East Los Angeles Library East Rancho Dominguez Library El Camino Real Library El Monte Library Florence Library Gardena Mayme Dear Library George Nye Jr. Library Graham Library Hacienda Heights Library Hawaiian Gardens Library Hawthorne Library Hermosa Beach Library Hollydale Library Huntington Park Library La Cañada Flintridge Library La Crescenta Library La Mirada Library La Puente Library La Verne Library Lake Los Angeles Library Lancaster Library Lawndale Library Leland R. Weaver Library Lennox Library Littlerock Library Live Oak Library Lloyd Taber-Marina del Rey Library Lomita Library Los Nietos Library Lynwood Library Malibu Library Manhattan Beach Library Masao W. Satow Library Maywood César Chávez Library Montebello Library Norwalk Library Norwood Library Paramount Library Pico Rivera Library Quartz Hill Library Rivera Library Rosemead Library Rowland Heights Library San Dimas Library San Fernando Library San Gabriel Library Santa Clarita Valley Bookmobile Sorensen Library South El Monte Library South Whittier Library Stevenson Ranch Library Sunkist Library Temple City Library Topanga Library Urban Outreach Bookmobile View Park Library Walnut Library West Covina Library West Hollywood Library Westlake Village Library Willowbrook Library Wiseburn Library Woodcrest Library Woelfel, Roger H..
Diamond Jubilee: Seventy-Five Years of Public Service. Glendale, CA: Arthur C. Clark Company. ISBN 0-87062-181-5 County of Los Angeles Library system
Oldest McDonald's restaurant
The oldest operating McDonald's restaurant is a Sit-in hamburger joint at 10207 Lakewood Boulevard at Florence Avenue in Downey, California. It was the third McDonald's restaurant and opened on August 18, 1953, it was the second restaurant franchised by Richard and Maurice McDonald, prior to the involvement of Ray Kroc in the company. The restaurant is now the oldest in the chain still in existence and is one of Downey's main tourist attractions. Along with its sign, it was deemed eligible for addition to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984, although it was not added because the owner objected; the McDonald brothers opened their first restaurant adjacent to the Monrovia Airport in 1937. It was a tiny octagonal building informally called The Airdrome; that octagonal building was moved to 1398 North E Street in San Bernardino, California, in 1940. It was a barbecue drive-in, but the brothers discovered that most of their profits came from hamburgers. In 1948, they closed their restaurant for three months, reopening it in December as a walk-up hamburger stand that sold hamburgers, potato chips, orange juice.
This simplified menu, food preparation using assembly line principles, allowed them to sell hamburgers for 15 cents, or about half as much as at a sit-down restaurant. The restaurant was successful, the brothers started to franchise the concept in 1953; the first franchisee was Occidental Petroleum executive Neil Fox, who opened a restaurant at 4050 North Central Avenue in Phoenix, Arizona, in May, for a flat fee of $1,000. His restaurant was the first to employ the McDonald brothers' Golden Arches standardized design, created by Southern California architect Stanley Clark Meston and his assistant Charles Fish. Fox's use of the "McDonald's" name evidently came as a surprise to the brothers, but all subsequent franchises used the "McDonald's" brand.. Fox's brothers-in-law and business partners, Roger Williams and Bud Landon, were the franchisees for the fourth McDonald's, used their expertise in siting gasoline stations in choosing the Downey location. Like the McDonald brothers' other franchisees, they were required to use Meston's design.
The purchase of the chain from the McDonald brothers by Ray Kroc did not affect the Downey restaurant, as it was franchised under an agreement with the McDonald brothers, not with Kroc's company McDonald's Systems, Inc. which became McDonald's Corporation. As a result, the restaurant was not subject to the modernization requirements that McDonald's Corporation placed on its franchisees, its menu came to differ from that of other McDonald's restaurants, lacked items such as the Big Mac that were developed in the corporation. In part due to these differences, as well as a corporate McDonald's opening in the mid 1970s less than a half mile away, the restaurant came to suffer poor sales, was acquired by McDonald's Corporation in 1990, when it was the only remaining McDonald's, independent of the chain. With low sales, damage from the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the lack of a drive-up window and indoor seating, the restaurant was closed, McDonald's planned to demolish it and incorporate some of its features in a modern "retro" restaurant nearby.
However, it was listed on the National Trust for Historic Preservation's 1994 list of the 11 Most Endangered Historic Places. With both the public and preservationists demanding the restaurant be saved, McDonald's spent two years restoring the restaurant and reopened it. Customers today can visit an adjoining gift shop and museum. Few early McDonald's restaurants remain because McDonald's Corporation required its franchisees to update their buildings; the original hexagonal McDonald's hamburger stand in San Bernardino was demolished in 1953 to be replaced by a building in the now familiar Golden Arches style. It was demolished in 1972, although part of the sign remains. Other early buildings still standing include the seventh McDonald's, at 1057 East Mission Boulevard in Pomona, now a doughnut shop; the 11th McDonald's at 1900 South Central Avenue in Los Angeles, was demolished in 2016. Kroc's 1955 McDonald's franchise in Des Plaines, the ninth in the chain, was demolished in 1984, but a replica was built on the original foundation and is now described as the McDonald's No. 1 Store Museum.
It is scheduled to be torn down, with the sign removed in January 2018. A single-arch McDonald's sign at 2801 S. Olive Street, Pine Bluff, dating from 1962, was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2006. A restaurant built in 1962 at 2434 Almaden Road in San Jose, California, is the only other remaining early McDonald's still in operation in the state, although a modern restaurant is now attached to it; this location is listed as one of the city's historic resources. An early McDonald's stands at 9100 SE Powell Boulevard in Portland, Oregon, on Southeast 91st Avenue and Powell Boulevard, it is available for party rentals. It is scheduled for demolition February 22, 2018, to be replaced by a new McDonald's with self-service kiosks; the site of the orig
LAC+USC Medical Center
Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center known as County/USC, or by the abbreviation LAC+USC, is a 600-bed public teaching hospital located at 2051 Marengo Street in the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. LAC+USC Medical Center is operated by the County of Los Angeles; the LAC+USC doctors are faculty of the Keck School of Medicine of USC. Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center is one of the largest public hospitals and medical training centers in the United States, the largest single provider of healthcare in Los Angeles County, it provides healthcare services for the region's medically underserved, is a Level I trauma center and treats over 28 percent of the region's trauma victims. It provides care for half of all sickle-cell anemia patients and those people living with AIDS in Southern California; the LAC+USC Medical Center provides a full spectrum of emergency and outpatient services to only Medi-Cal recipients. These include medical, emergency/trauma, obstetrical and pediatric services as well as psychiatric services for adults and children.
LAC+USC is one of the busiest public hospitals in the Western United States, with nearly 39,000 inpatients discharged, one million ambulatory care patient visits each year. The Emergency Department is one of the world's busiest, with more than 150,000 visits per year. LAC+USC operates one of only three burn centers in Los Angeles County and one of the few Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Southern California. LAC+USC is the home of the Los Angeles County College of Nursing and Allied Health, which has prepared registered nurses for professional practice since its founding in 1895. LAC+USC serves as the host facility for the U. S. Navy's Trauma Training Center, allowing uniformed medical professionals valuable exposure to trauma cases that prepare them to treat battlefield injury on the front lines with the United States Marine Corps, at sea with the Navy, or ashore at Fleet Hospitals and Shock Trauma Platoons. In 2013, American Cancer Society awarded LAC+USC with the Harold P. Freeman Award in recognition of the hospital's achievements to reduce cancer disparities among medically underserved populations.
The original hospital, located at 1200 State Street, opened in 1923. Its art-deco construction had 800 patient beds; the 1994 Northridge earthquake on January 17, 1994 renewed concerns about building safety codes, those for hospitals. The California Hospital Seismic Safety Law was signed into law on September 21, 1994; the new law took the 1200 State Street building out of compliance of earthquake and fire safety codes. To address the problem, a new modern facility was proposed and constructed nearby, at 2051 Marengo Street. Designed by a joint venture of HOK and LBL Associated Architects, the new $1 billion hospital consists of three linked buildings: a clinic tower, a diagnostic and treatment tower, an inpatient tower, in total supporting 600 patient beds; the new facility has a larger number of intensive care beds to handle patients in the aftermath of disasters. The new facility was ready by 2008, on November 8 of that year, the new hospital was opened. Transfer of all inpatients from Women's and Children's Hospital and the 1200 State Street building made the retirement of the original hospital complex official.
The old building at 1200 State Street still stands. The Wellness Center, on the first floor of the old building, was opened in 2014, it is open to the public and includes offices for nonprofit organizations, community outreach and classes for wellness activities, a dance studio, a small YMCA on State Street, extensive new landscaping. While this building no longer meets the California Hospital Seismic Safety Law, it does meet current seismic standards for non-hospital use; as of 2008, the original pediatrics & obstetrics ward is abandoned, sits covered in graffiti, visible from US-101. The Los Angeles County Hospital and the University of Southern California Medical School were first affiliated in 1885, five years after USC was founded, it was established as a 100-bed hospital with 47 patients. The present-day LAC+USC complex is adjacent to the University of Southern California Health Sciences Campus, which includes the USC Keck School of Medicine, USC School of Pharmacy, Keck Hospital of USC, the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Hospital.
In 2004, the hospital appointed its first female Chief of Staff, Cynthia Stotts, D. O. in the 158-year history of the hospital. She was the first osteopathic physician to serve in that position; the station of the same name on the El Monte Busway for the Metro Silver Line and Foothill Transit Silver Streak is located within walking distance from the hospital. Additionally, Metro lines 70, 71, 106, 251, 751, 605 serve the hospital. Marilyn Monroe was born in the charity ward on June 1, 1926; the hospital has a jail ward. In 1954, Stan Getz was processed in the jail ward as his wife gave birth to their third child one floor below, he had been arrested for attempting to rob a pharmacy to get a morphine fix. The 1962 film The Interns starring Cliff Robertson was filmed around the hospital; the hospital was featured in the 1953 version of The War Of The Worlds directed by Byron Haskins in scenes depicting the evacuation of Los Angeles from the oncoming Martians. The distinct Art Deco-style main building served as the exterior of the hospital in the 1998 movie City of Angels.
In Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles, the episode entitled "The Good Wound", exterior shots of the older LAC+US
Gait analysis is the systematic study of animal locomotion, more the study of human motion, using the eye and the brain of observers, augmented by instrumentation for measuring body movements, body mechanics, the activity of the muscles. Gait analysis is used to assess and treat individuals with conditions affecting their ability to walk, it is commonly used in sports biomechanics to help athletes run more efficiently and to identify posture-related or movement-related problems in people with injuries. The study encompasses quantification, as well as interpretation, i.e. drawing various conclusions about the animal from its gait pattern. The pioneers of scientific gait analysis were Aristotle in De Motu Animalium and much in 1680, Giovanni Alfonso Borelli called De Motu Animalium. In the 1890s, the German anatomist Christian Wilhelm Braune and Otto Fischer published a series of papers on the biomechanics of human gait under loaded and unloaded conditions. With the development of photography and cinematography, it became possible to capture image sequences that reveal details of human and animal locomotion that were not noticeable by watching the movement with the naked eye.
Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey were pioneers of these developments in the early 1900s. For example, serial photography first revealed the detailed sequence of the horse "gallop", misrepresented in paintings made prior to this discovery. Although much early research was done using film cameras, the widespread application of gait analysis to humans with pathological conditions such as cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, neuromuscular disorders, began in the 1970s with the availability of video camera systems that could produce detailed studies of individual patients within realistic cost and time constraints; the development of treatment regimes involving orthopaedic surgery, based on gait analysis results, advanced in the 1980s. Many leading orthopaedic hospitals worldwide now have gait labs that are used to design treatment plans and for follow-up monitoring. Development of modern computer based systems occurred independently during the late 1970s and early 1980s in several hospital based research labs, some through collaborations with the aerospace industry.
Commercial development soon followed with the emergence of commercial television and infrared camera systems in the mid-1980s. A typical gait analysis laboratory has several cameras placed around a walkway or a treadmill, which are linked to a computer; the patient has markers located at various points of reference of the body, or groups of markers applied to half of the body segments. The patient walks down the catwalk or the treadmill and the computer calculates the trajectory of each marker in three dimensions. A model is applied to calculate the movement of the underlying bones; this gives a complete breakdown of the movement of each joint. One common method is to use Helen Hayes Hospital marker set, in which a total of 15 markers are attached on the lower body; the 15 marker motions are analyzed analytically, it provides angular motion of each joint. To calculate the kinetics of gait patterns, most labs have floor-mounted load transducers known as force platforms, which measure the ground reaction forces and moments, including the magnitude and location.
The spatial distribution of forces can be measured with pedobarography equipment. Adding this to the known dynamics of each body segment enables the solution of equations based on the Newton–Euler equations of motion permitting computations of the net forces and the net moments of force about each joint at every stage of the gait cycle; the computational method for this is known as inverse dynamics. This use of kinetics, does not result in information for individual muscles but muscle groups, such as the extensor or flexors of the limb. To detect the activity and contribution of individual muscles to movement, it is necessary to investigate the electrical activity of muscles. Many labs use surface electrodes attached to the skin to detect the electrical activity or electromyogram of muscles. In this way it is possible to investigate the activation times of muscles and, to some degree, the magnitude of their activation—thereby assessing their contribution to gait. Deviations from normal kinematic, kinetic or EMG patterns are used to diagnose specific pathologies, predict the outcome of treatments, or determine the effectiveness of training programs The gait analysis is modulated or modified by many factors, changes in the normal gait pattern can be transient or permanent.
The factors can be of various types: Extrinsic: such as terrain, clothing, cargo Intrinsic: sex, height, etc. Physical: such as weight, physique Psychological: personality type, emotions Physiological: anthropometric characteristics, i.e. measurements and proportions of body Pathological: for example trauma, neurological diseases, musculoskeletal anomalies, psychiatric disordersThe parameters taken into account for the gait analysis are as follows: Step length Stride length Cadence Speed Dynamic Base Progression Line Foot Angle Hip Angle Squat Performance Gait analysis involves measurement, where measurable parameters are introduced and analyzed, interpretation, where conclusions about the subject are drawn. The analysis is the measurement of the following: It consists of the calculation of speed, the length of the rhythm, so on; these me
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
Government of Los Angeles County
The Government of Los Angeles County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Los Angeles. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments, such as the Government of Los Angeles County; the County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services. In addition the County serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas, it is composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, several other elected offices including the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor, numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the chief executive officer. Some chartered cities such as Los Angeles and Inglewood provide municipal services such as police, libraries and recreation, zoning. Other cities arrange to have the County provide all of these services under contract.
In addition, several entities of the government of California have jurisdiction coterminous with Los Angeles County, such as the Los Angeles Superior Court Los Angeles County is the most populous county in the United States, the largest municipal government in the nation. If the County were a state, it would be the 9th most populous state in the United States, in between Georgia and North Carolina; the County has an annual budget of over $28.2 billion, equal to combined budgets of Indiana and Delaware. The county government employs over 100,000 people, making it larger than the government workforces of most US states. Under its foundational Charter, the five-member elected Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the county legislature; the board operates in a legislative and quasi-judicial capacity. As a legislative authority, it can pass ordinances for the unincorporated areas; as an executive body, it can tell the county departments what to do, how to do it. As a quasi-judicial body, the Board is the final venue of appeal in the local planning process, holds public hearings on various agenda items.
These were the board members as of 5 December 2016: Hilda Solis, district 1 Mark Ridley-Thomas, district 2 Sheila Kuehl, district 3 Janice Hahn, district 4 Kathryn Barger, district 5A local nickname sometimes used for the board is the "five little kings." In addition to the board of supervisors, there are several elected officers that form the Government of Los Angeles County that are required by the California Constitution and California law and authorized under the Charter. The Los Angeles County Sheriff provides general-service law enforcement to unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County, serving as the equivalent of the county police for unincorporated areas of the county as well as incorporated cities within the county that have contracted with the agency for law enforcement. Of the 88 cities in Los Angeles County, 40 are just such "contract cities," in an arrangement pioneered in 1954 by the city of Lakewood and known as the Lakewood Plan; the Los Angeles County District Attorney prosecutes all felony crimes that occur anywhere within Los Angeles County, any misdemeanor crimes that occur within the unincorporated areas of the county, for any city that has abdicated this responsibility to the county.
The City of Los Angeles, for example, has its own city attorney to handle most misdemeanor crimes and infractions the occurred within the City of Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Assessor is the assessor responsible for discovering all taxable property in Los Angeles County except for state-assessed property and inventorying and listing all the taxable property, valuing the property, enrolling the property on the local assessment roll; the Chief Executive Officer known the chief administrative officer, assists the board of supervisors in handling the mounting administrative details of the county and coordinating between departments. From 2007 to 2015, the CEO had direct supervision over 31 of the 37 departments while the other departments did not report to the CEO. Prior to 2007 and from 2015 and following, the CEO provides an strategic coordination and support role. Departments submit recommendations and action items directly to the Board offices without CEO input required, are fired and hired directly by the board, with the CEO providing administrative support in negotiating department head salaries and facilitating communications between departments when necessary.
Board offices felt that the CEO added bureaucracy and that the additional deputy and assistant CEOs added little value. Other tasks given to the CEO include preparation and control of the annual budget in consultation with departments, providing leadership and direction for Board-sponsored initiatives and priorities and advocacy of state and federal legislation; the CEO's office administers the risk management and insurance programs, facilitates departments addressing unincorporated area issues and international protocol issues, manages the County's employee relations program and compensation/classification systems, represents the board in labor negotiations, monitors cable television com